Special Issue "Global Antimicrobial Resistance: What Are the Current Emerging Threats?"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Laura J. Rojas
Website
Guest Editor
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine - Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, United States
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; carbapenemases; bacterial genomics; molecular epidemiology; multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria; Klebsiella pneumoniae

Special Issue Information

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex public health challenge impacting all regions of the world. In addition to being a natural evolutionary phenomenon, AMR is increasingly being accelerated by selective pressure exerted as a result of the use and misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Fighting this threat is a priority that requires a global approach across multiple sectors beyond healthcare, including the food supply chain (e.g., antibiotics are known to be used for growth promotion) and the environment (e.g., interconnection through medical and agricultural waste that ultimately permeates water and soil). 

The scientific community has made significant advances in increasing their knowledge about the most urgent threats, primarily in clinical settings (e.g., ESKAPE organisms, high-risk clones, etc.); however new mechanisms and new emerging bacterial threats are constantly being discovered within these as well as other settings. 

With this global approach in mind, this Special Issue seeks submissions highlighting the new threats that we need to be on the lookout for: novel antibiotic resistance mechanisms, emerging pathogens, novel ‘high-risk clones’, or increasing rates of resistance in organisms previously considered less of a concern, especially from regions of the world where epidemiological data are scarce.

Dr. Laura J. Rojas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms
  • emerging pathogens
  • molecular epidemiology
  • low- and middle-income countries

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Effect of Tigecycline on Leptospira spp.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080467 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Tigecycline is a relatively new antimicrobial, belonging to glycylcyclines with antimicrobial activity against a large spectrum of bacteria. Very few data are available on its effect on Leptospira spp., which consist in a bacteriostatic mechanism. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Tigecycline is a relatively new antimicrobial, belonging to glycylcyclines with antimicrobial activity against a large spectrum of bacteria. Very few data are available on its effect on Leptospira spp., which consist in a bacteriostatic mechanism. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of tigecycline on reference Leptospira strains belonging to 16 serovars. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined through the microdilutions method, and tetracycline was used as the control. Results showed that tigecycline had higher MIC and MBC values than tetracycline. Obtained MIC values were between 4 and 32 µg/mL, while MBC values between 16 and >128 µg/mL. Patoc (MIC: 4 µg/mL; MBC: 16 µg/mL) resulted in the most susceptible serovar, while the most resistant were Bataviae (MIC: 32 µg/mL; MBC: 64 µg/mL), Bratislava (MIC: 8 µg/mL; MBC 128 µg/mL), and Tarassovi (MIC: 8 µg/mL; MBC: >128 µg/mL). This is the first investigation focused on the effect of tigecycline against Leptospira spp. reference strains. Since tigecycline is used as a treatment for bacteremia and urinary tract disease, and these symptoms could be linked to Leptospira infection, the possibility of using this antibiotic as a treatment for leptospirosis should be evaluated. Further studies are needed to explore the possibility to use tigecycline for in vivo application against Leptospira. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms of Corynebacterium urealyticum Clinical Isolates
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070404 - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
Corynebacterium urealyticum is a non-diphtherial urease-producing clinically relevant corynebacterial, most frequently involved in urinary tract infections. Most of the C. urealyticum clinical isolates are frequently resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 40 C. urealyticum isolated in our institution during the [...] Read more.
Corynebacterium urealyticum is a non-diphtherial urease-producing clinically relevant corynebacterial, most frequently involved in urinary tract infections. Most of the C. urealyticum clinical isolates are frequently resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 40 C. urealyticum isolated in our institution during the period 2005–2017 to eight compounds representative of the main clinically relevant classes of antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Epsilometer test. Resistance genes were searched by PCR. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin whereas linezolid and rifampicin also showed good activity (MICs90 = 1 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Almost all isolates (39/40, 97.5%) were multidrug resistant. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (100%), followed by erythromycin (95%) and levofloxacin (95%). Ampicillin resistance was associated with the presence of the blaA gene, encoding a class A β-lactamase. The two rifampicin-resistant strains showed point mutations driving amino acid replacements in conserved residues of RNA polymerase subunit β (RpoB). Tetracycline resistance was due to an efflux-mediated mechanism. Thirty-nine PFGE patterns were identified among the 40 C. urealyticum, indicating that they were not clonally related, but producing sporadic infections. These findings raise the need of maintaining surveillance strategies among this multidrug resistant pathogen. Full article
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