Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics in Animal Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 32264

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Guest Editor
Department of Public and One Health, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Interests: zoonoses; antimicrobial resistance; molecular epidemiology; biofilm production; emerging pathogens
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance has been characterized as one of the most significant, but silent, pandemics at present, both at the human and veterinary level. In animals, multidrug (MDR) or pandrug resistance (PDR) is an increasing problem, despite the strict restrictions on antibiotic administration that have been imposed globally. Companion animals are frequently subjected to repeated ineffective treatments, consequently contributing to the development of resistance. Additionally, in food-producing animals the widespread misuse of antibiotics has been observed, occasionally including last-line antibiotics—e.g., carbapenems. As both food-producing and companion animals are significant factors in bacterial ecology, they can serve as pools and vehicles of antibiotic resistance, which will inevitably end up affecting people.

This Special Issue aims to provide the opportunity to publish original research articles, presenting the burden of antibiotic resistance in companion and food-producing animals and discussing current and future trends in antibiotic resistance and eradication approaches. This SI also intends to expand our understanding of the molecular and spatial epidemiology of resistant pathogens, as well as of gene transfer among humans, animals, and the environment under the “One Health” approach. Retrospective studies in antibiotic resistance, as well as meta-analyses, will also be highly appreciated. Manuscripts dealing with novel aspects of regulatory matters will also be welcome.

Dr. Dimitris C. Chatzopoulos
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antibiotic resistance
  • swine
  • poultry
  • livestock
  • food production
  • gene transfer
  • One Health
  • zoonoses

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1120 KiB  
Article
The Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Pyogenic Pathogens Isolated from Porcine Lymph Nodes
by Aleksandra Kaczmarkowska, Ewelina Kwiecień, Anna Didkowska, Ilona Stefańska, Magdalena Rzewuska and Krzysztof Anusz
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12061026 - 7 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pork remains the most consumed meat in the world. Consequently, it is very important to ensure that it is of the highest microbiological quality. Many of the pathogens that cause lymph node [...] Read more.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pork remains the most consumed meat in the world. Consequently, it is very important to ensure that it is of the highest microbiological quality. Many of the pathogens that cause lymph node lesions in pigs are zoonotic agents, and the most commonly isolated bacteria are Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Rhodococcus equi (synonymous with Prescottella equi). The prevention and treatment of zoonotic infections caused by these bacteria are mainly based on antimicrobials. However, an overuse of antimicrobials contributes to the emergence and high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant strains, which are becoming a serious challenge in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of the Streptococcus spp. (n = 48), S. aureus (n = 5) and R. equi (n = 17) strains isolated from swine lymph nodes with and without lesions. All isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus and R. equi were subjected to PFGE analysis, which showed the genetic relatedness of the tested bacteria in the studied pig populations. Additionally, selected tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes in the streptococcal strains were also studied. The results obtained in the present study provide valuable data on the prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of the studied bacteria. Numerous isolated bacterial Streptococcus spp. strains presented resistance to doxycycline, and almost half of them carried tetracycline resistance genes. In addition, R. equi and S. aureus bacteria presented a high level of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and to cefotaxime, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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30 pages, 2444 KiB  
Article
Effect of Group Housing of Preweaned Dairy Calves: Health and Fecal Commensal Antimicrobial Resistance Outcomes
by Martin J. Breen, Deniece R. Williams, Essam M. Abdelfattah, Betsy M. Karle, Barbara A. Byrne, Terry W. Lehenbauer and Sharif S. Aly
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12061019 - 6 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of group housing (three calves per group) on bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to fecal commensal Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci/streptococci (ES). Our study comprised two arms, one experimental [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of group housing (three calves per group) on bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to fecal commensal Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci/streptococci (ES). Our study comprised two arms, one experimental and one observational. In the experimental arm, preweaned calves on a California dairy were randomized to either individual (IND; n = 21) or group (GRP; n = 21) housing, using a modified California-style wooden hutch. The study period lasted from birth to 56 days of age, during which calves were health scored daily. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated for disease. Antimicrobial resistance outcomes were assessed using a prospective cohort design; feces were collected from each calf three times per week and EC and ES were evaluated for AMR using the broth microdilution method against a panel of 19 antimicrobial drugs (AMD). Analysis of treatment records was used to select calves that had been exposed (EXP) to an AMD-treated calf. In GRP, exposure occurred when a calf was a hutchmate with an AMD-treated calf. In IND, exposure occurred when a calf was a neighbor with an AMD-treated calf (TRT). Age-matched unexposed calves (UNEXP) were then selected for comparison. Proportions of AMR in fecal commensals among EXP, UNEXP, and TRT calves were compared between GRP and IND. Accelerated failure time survival regression models were specified to compare differences in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fecal commensals between EXP and UNEXP calves within each of GRP and IND calves separately. Group calves had a BRD hazard 1.94 times greater that of IND calves (p = 0.03), using BRD treatment records as the outcome. For AMR in EC isolates, higher resistance to enrofloxacin was detected in enrofloxacin-EXP GRP isolates compared with enrofloxacin-EXP IND isolates, and UNEXP GRP calves had lower resistance to ceftiofur compared with enrofloxacin-EXP and enrofloxacin-TRT calves. A significant housing-by-time interaction was detected for EC ceftiofur MIC in EXP GRP calves at 4–14 days post exposure to enrofloxacin (MIC EXP-UNEXP: µg/mL (95% CI): 10.62 (1.17, 20.07)), compared with UNEXP calves. The findings of this study show an increase in BRD hazard for group-housed calves and an increase in ceftiofur resistance in group-housed calves exposed to an enrofloxacin-treated calf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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13 pages, 1386 KiB  
Article
Co-Occurrence of mcr-1 and Carbapenem Resistance in Avian Pathogenic E. coli Serogroup O78 ST95 from Colibacillosis-Infected Broiler Chickens
by Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Mohsin Khurshid, Bilal Aslam and Zulqarnain Baloch
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050812 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. This study aimed to molecularly detect carbapenem-resistant co-harboring mcr-1 avian pathogenic E. coli in broiler chickens infected with colibacillosis. A total of 750 samples were collected from colibacillosis-infected [...] Read more.
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. This study aimed to molecularly detect carbapenem-resistant co-harboring mcr-1 avian pathogenic E. coli in broiler chickens infected with colibacillosis. A total of 750 samples were collected from colibacillosis-infected broilers, and conventional microbiological techniques were used to isolate and identify APEC. MALDI-TOF and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) were used for further identification. Phenotypic carbapenem resistance profiling was followed by molecular detection of carbapenem resistance genes (CRGs) and other resistance genes through PCR using specific primers. Isolates were also subjected to PCR for O typing, followed by allele-specific PCR to detect sequence type (ST) 95. Results showed that 154 (37%) isolates were confirmed as APEC, with 13 (8.4%) isolates found to be carbapenem-resistant (CR)-APEC. Among CR-APEC isolates, 5 (38%) were observed to co-harbor mcr-1. All CR-APEC showed the presence of five markers (ompT, hylF, iutA, iroN, and iss) APEC VAGs, and 89% of CR-APEC isolates displayed O78 type. Furthermore, 7 (54%) CR-APEC isolates were observed with ST95, all displaying O78 type. These results suggest that the improper use of antibiotics in poultry production systems is contributing to the emergence of pathogens such as CR-APEC co-harboring the mcr-1 gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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21 pages, 3182 KiB  
Article
High Occurrence of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains in Bovine Fecal Samples from Healthy Cows Serves as Rich Reservoir for AMR Transmission
by Amna Jalil, Shabana Gul, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Muhammad Faisal Siddiqui and Fazal Adnan
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010037 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
Objectives: Antibiotics are valuable therapeutics. However, the unwarranted and excessive use of these antimicrobials in food animals and the consequent contamination of the environment have been associated with the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among [...] Read more.
Objectives: Antibiotics are valuable therapeutics. However, the unwarranted and excessive use of these antimicrobials in food animals and the consequent contamination of the environment have been associated with the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolates is recommended, not only for bovine health but also for public health. This study aims to assess the antimicrobial resistance profile, virulence potential, and genetic characterization of fecal E. coli isolates from healthy cows. Methodology: The in vitro, phenotypic antibiotic resistance of isolates was measured via the Kirby–Bauer disc-diffusion method against twenty-seven antibiotics. The β-lactamase enzymatic activities of the strains were also investigated. For the assessment of virulence potential, fecal E. coli isolates were subjected to several in vitro pathogenicity assays, including biofilm formation ability, blood hemolysis, complement resistance, and growth in human urine. Phylogroup determination and virulence-associated genes were detected via multiplex PCR. Results: In vitro antibiotic resistance profiling showed that 186/200 (93%) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), with the highest resistance against penicillin, tetracycline, fluoroquinolone, and macrolide classes of antibiotics. Of particular concern was the phenotypic resistance to colistin in 52/200 isolates (26%), though 16% of the total isolates harbored mcr1, the genetic determinant of colistin. Despite the scarce use of fluoroquinolone, cephalosporin, and carbapenem in the agricultural sector, resistance to these classes was evident due to the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in 41% of E. coli isolates. The β-lactamase genotyping of E. coli isolates showed that 47% of isolates harbored either blaCTX or blaTEM. Approximately 32% of isolates were resistant to serum complement, and their growth in human urine was evident in 18% of isolates, indicating a possible infection of these isolates in high nitrogenous condition. Phylogrouping showed that the most prevalent phylogenetic group among fecal E. coli isolates was phylogroup B1 (57%), followed by phylogroups A (33%), D (6%), and B2 (4%). The most prevalent virulence-associated genes in fecal E. coli were fimH, iss and tatT. Results showed that ten isolates (5%) harbored the stx1 gene, the genetic marker of enterohemorrhagic E. coli. This study provides insights into the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiling of the fecal E. coli isolates from healthy cows. These results emphasize the need for imposing regulations on the proper use of antibiotics and growth promoters in food-producing animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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26 pages, 1099 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated from Dogs and Cats
by Sophie Aurich, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff and Christa Ewers
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121730 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3330
Abstract
Bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common diagnosis in companion animal practice and is one of the leading reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions. We analysed 1862 samples from the urinary tract of dogs and cats, submitted to a veterinary microbiological diagnostic laboratory in [...] Read more.
Bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common diagnosis in companion animal practice and is one of the leading reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions. We analysed 1862 samples from the urinary tract of dogs and cats, submitted to a veterinary microbiological diagnostic laboratory in 2019 and 2020 in Germany. Susceptibility of 962 uropathogenic isolates to 15 antimicrobials, suggested as first- and second-line treatment options for UTI, was determined according to CLSI recommendations. Bacterial growth of uropathogens was detected in 43.9% of dog and in 38.5% of cat samples. Escherichia (E.) coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen (48.4%), followed by Enterococcus spp. (11.9%) and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS; 11.5%). Females were more likely to exhibit a positive microbiological culture. Regarding first-line antibiotics, 93.4% of the most commonly isolated uropathogenic species were susceptible to the first-line antibiotics amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) and 87.6% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), while 76.1% showed decreased susceptibility to ampicillin (AMP). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was detected in 11.9% of E. coli, 50.4% of enterococci, and 42.7% of CoPS; 90.6% of these isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin (NIT). Our data indicate that empiric treatment of UTI with AMC or SXT could be recommended and is preferable to treatment with AMX. NIT should be considered for the treatment of MDR uropathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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11 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Study of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Associated with Feline and Canine Urinary Tract Infection in Hong Kong SAR, China—A Case Study on Implication of First-Line Antibiotics Use
by Olivia S. K. Chan, Myriam Baranger-Ete, Wendy W. T. Lam, Peng Wu, Michelle Yeung, Elaine Lee, Helen Bond, Owen Swan and Hein Min Tun
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091140 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical diagnosis for which empirical antibiotics are used in veterinary medicine. For veterinarians, the description of canine and feline antibiograms can help with making prudent use decisions and guideline formulation. For public health officers and epidemiologists, [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical diagnosis for which empirical antibiotics are used in veterinary medicine. For veterinarians, the description of canine and feline antibiograms can help with making prudent use decisions and guideline formulation. For public health officers and epidemiologists, a urinary antibiogram overview helps track and trend antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There is currently a knowledge gap in AMR prevalence associated with urinary tract infection in feline and canine patients and the resistance percentage of these microbes against some of the over-the-counter antibiotics available to local pet owners. This study has two aims. First, it aims to investigate the frequency of the bacteria and bacterial-resistance pattern in urine samples obtained from feline and canine patients. Second, it aims to determine the resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli), the most frequently isolated bacteria, to first-line antibiotics. Results: We identified the five most-frequently isolated bacterial species and determined these isolates’ antibiotic sensitivity and resistance. The most-frequently isolated bacteria in feline and canine patients was Escherichia coli (E. coli). E. coli was identified, on average, in 37.2% of canine and 46.5% of feline urine samples. Among feline urinary samples, Enterococcus (14.7%) and Staphylococcus (14.5%) spp. were isolated more frequently, followed by Pseudomonas (4.8%) and Klebsiella (5.2%) spp. (). In canine samples, Proteus (17.9%) and Staphylococcus (13.2%) spp. were isolated more frequently, followed by Enterococcus (10.0%) and Klebsiella (8.59%) spp. Among these isolates, 40 to 70% of Staphylococcus spp. bacterial isolates from feline and canine patients were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin. During the three-year study period, among canine patients, 10 to 20% of Staphylococcus spp. bacterial isolates were resistance to fluoroquinolones, other quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins. Among feline patients, 10% of Staphylococcus spp., 15 to 20% of E. coli, 50 to 60% of Klebsiella spp., and 90% of Pseudomonas spp. were resistant to cefovecin, a commonly used antibiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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17 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
Survey on Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria in Pigs at Slaughter and Comparison with Human Clinical Isolates in Italy
by Silvia Bonardi, Clotilde Silvia Cabassi, Gerardo Manfreda, Antonio Parisi, Enrico Fiaccadori, Alice Sabatino, Sandro Cavirani, Cristina Bacci, Martina Rega, Costanza Spadini, Mattia Iannarelli, Cecilia Crippa, Ferdinando Ruocco and Frédérique Pasquali
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060777 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
This study is focused on resistance to carbapenems and third-generation cephalosporins in Gram-negative microorganisms isolated from swine, whose transmission to humans via pork consumption cannot be excluded. In addition, the common carriage of carbapenem-resistant (CR) bacteria between humans and pigs was evaluated. Sampling [...] Read more.
This study is focused on resistance to carbapenems and third-generation cephalosporins in Gram-negative microorganisms isolated from swine, whose transmission to humans via pork consumption cannot be excluded. In addition, the common carriage of carbapenem-resistant (CR) bacteria between humans and pigs was evaluated. Sampling involved 300 faecal samples collected from slaughtered pigs and 300 urine samples collected from 187 hospitalised patients in Parma Province (Italy). In swine, MIC testing confirmed resistance to meropenem for isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime for Escherichia coli, Ewingella americana, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Citrobacter freundii. For Acinetobacter lwoffii, Aeromonas hydrofila, Burkolderia cepacia, Corynebacterium indologenes, Flavobacterium odoratum, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, no EUCAST MIC breakpoints were available. However, ESBL genes (blaCTXM-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaTEM-1, and blaSHV) and AmpC genes (blaCIT, blaACC, and blaEBC) were found in 38 and 16 isolates, respectively. P. aeruginosa was the only CR species shared by pigs (4/300 pigs; 1.3%) and patients (2/187; 1.1%). P. aeruginosa ST938 carrying blaPAO and blaOXA396 was detected in one pig as well as an 83-year-old patient. Although no direct epidemiological link was demonstrable, SNP calling and cgMLST showed a genetic relationship of the isolates (86 SNPs and 661 allele difference), thus suggesting possible circulation of CR bacteria between swine and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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21 pages, 2928 KiB  
Article
Use of Antibiotics against Bacterial Infections on Dairy Sheep and Goat Farms: Patterns of Usage and Associations with Health Management and Human Resources
by Daphne T. Lianou and George C. Fthenakis
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060753 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2984
Abstract
The objectives of the study were (a) to describe the patterns of antibiotic usage against four major clinical problems and (b) to evaluate factors that were associated with their use on small ruminant farms. Sheep and goat farmers mostly administered the antibiotics to [...] Read more.
The objectives of the study were (a) to describe the patterns of antibiotic usage against four major clinical problems and (b) to evaluate factors that were associated with their use on small ruminant farms. Sheep and goat farmers mostly administered the antibiotics to animals at the dose prescribed (80.4%) and observed the necessary withdrawal period (98.7%), but fewer farmers (22.3%) weighed the animals to calculate their bodyweight before antibiotic administration. For the treatment of clinical mastitis, oxytetracycline, penicillin and streptomycin were the antibiotics used more frequently; 2.03 different antibiotics were used per sheep flock and 2.06 per goat herd, most frequently administered in injectable forms (88.8% of farms). In cases of abortion, oxytetracycline was administered more frequently; 1.12 different antibiotics were used per sheep flock and 1.03 per goat herd. In 94 farms (21.2%), routine administration of antibiotics was performed to newborns; oxytetracycline and ampicillin were administered more often. For the treatment of pneumonia in newborns, oxytetracycline, penicillin and tulathromycin were used more frequently; 1.33 antibiotics were used per sheep flock and 1.29 per goat herd. For the treatment of diarrhoea in lambs and kids, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin and penicillin were the antibiotics used more frequently; 1.34 antibiotics were used per sheep flock and 1.59 per goat herd. Results of multivariable analyses indicated 16 variables associated with the various outcomes for usage of antibiotics for the treatment of the above clinical problems. Of these, 11 variables were associated with the farmers: education of farmers was significant for three outcomes; the age, the experience, the professional involvement and farming family tradition of farmers and the daily period spent at the farm were each significant for one outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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8 pages, 7803 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of blaNDM-1-Positive Providencia spp. in a Pig Farm of China
by Wenxin Chen, Zhihong Liu, Hongguang Lin, Jie Yang, Ting Liu, Jiaomei Zheng, Xueming Long, Zhiliang Sun, Jiyun Li and Xiaojun Chen
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060713 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Antibiotics have been extensively used to ensure the productivity of animals on intensive livestock farms. Accordingly, antimicrobial-resistant organisms, which can be transmitted to humans via the food chain, pose a threat to public health. The Enterobacterium antimicrobial resistance gene, blaNDM-1, is [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have been extensively used to ensure the productivity of animals on intensive livestock farms. Accordingly, antimicrobial-resistant organisms, which can be transmitted to humans via the food chain, pose a threat to public health. The Enterobacterium antimicrobial resistance gene, blaNDM-1, is a transmissible gene that has attracted widespread attention. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae carrying blaNDM-1 on an intensive pig farm. A total of 190 samples were collected from a pig farm in Hunan Province, China. Resistant isolates were selected using MacConkey agar with meropenem and PCR to screen for blaNDM-1-positive isolates. Positive strains were tested for conjugation, antimicrobial susceptibility, and whole-genome sequencing. Four blaNDM-1-positive Providencia strains were obtained, and multidrug resistance was observed in these strains. The structure carrying blaNDM-1 did not conjugate to E. coli J53 after three repeated conjugation assays. This suggests that, in intensive farming, attention should be focused on animal health and welfare to reduce the frequency of antibiotic usage. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the breeding industry should be included in systematic monitoring programs, including animal, human, and environmental monitoring programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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11 pages, 1122 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from Cows with Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds from Southeastern Brazil
by Gustavo Freu, Tiago Tomazi, Antonio F. S. Filho, Marcos B. Heinemann and Marcos V. dos Santos
Antibiotics 2022, 11(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040424 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen frequently associated with bovine mastitis in Brazil. Molecular characterization of Staph. aureus isolated from affected mammary quarters of cows with clinical mastitis (CM) can provide data on epidemiological behavior of this pathogen and antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) assessment [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen frequently associated with bovine mastitis in Brazil. Molecular characterization of Staph. aureus isolated from affected mammary quarters of cows with clinical mastitis (CM) can provide data on epidemiological behavior of this pathogen and antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) assessment at the genotypic level. This study genotypically characterized Staph. aureus isolates recovered from cows with CM and determined the association of genotypes and AMS. A total of 84 Staph. aureus strains identified from affected mammary quarters of cows with CM in 13 dairy herds from Southeastern Brazil were submitted for susceptibility testing to 10 antimicrobials using the technique of minimal inhibitory concentration. The same isolates were also genotyped using the spa-typing methodology. Results showed a high genotypic similarity between the Staph. aureus isolates within and between herds, which were categorized as resistant to most antimicrobials, especially to β-lactam antibiotics. In addition, differences in AMS were observed among genotypic clusters, which may affect the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat CM in different dairy herds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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12 pages, 1317 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of MCR-1 Producing Enterobacterales Isolated in Poultry Farms in the United Arab Emirates
by Ágnes Sonnevend, Walid Q. Alali, Sara A. Mahmoud, Akela Ghazawi, Greeshma Bharathan, Szilvia Melegh, Tahir A. Rizvi and Tibor Pál
Antibiotics 2022, 11(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11030305 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Data on the prevalence of MCR-producing Enterobacterales of animal origin are scarce from the Arabian Peninsula. We investigated the presence and variety of such strains from fecal specimens of poultry collected in four farms in the United Arab Emirates. Colonies from ten composite [...] Read more.
Data on the prevalence of MCR-producing Enterobacterales of animal origin are scarce from the Arabian Peninsula. We investigated the presence and variety of such strains from fecal specimens of poultry collected in four farms in the United Arab Emirates. Colonies from ten composite samples per farm grown on colistin-supplemented plates were PCR-screened for alleles of the mcr gene. Thirty-nine isolates selected based on species, colony morphology, and plasmid profile were subjected to whole genome sequencing. The panel of their resistance and virulence genes, MLST and cgMLST were established. Transferability and incompatibility types of the MCR-plasmids were determined. mcr-1.1 positive strains were identified in 36 of the 40 samples. Thirty-four multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli of 16 different sequence types, two Escherichia albertii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae and one Salmonella minnesota were identified. Beyond various aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and co-trimoxazole resistance genes, seven of them also carried ESBL genes and one blaCMY-2. Six IncHI2, 26 IncI2 and 4 IncX4 MCR-plasmids were mobilized, in case of the IncHI2 plasmids co-transferring ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance. The diversity of mcr-1 positive strains suggest a complex local epidemiology calling for a coordinated surveillance including animals, retail meat and clinical cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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Review

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24 pages, 413 KiB  
Review
Antibiotic Resistance in the Finfish Aquaculture Industry: A Review
by Gianluigi Ferri, Carlotta Lauteri and Alberto Vergara
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111574 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4445
Abstract
Significant challenges to worldwide sustainable food production continue to arise from environmental change and consistent population growth. In order to meet increasing demand, fish production industries are encouraged to maintain high growth densities and to rely on antibiotic intervention throughout all stages of [...] Read more.
Significant challenges to worldwide sustainable food production continue to arise from environmental change and consistent population growth. In order to meet increasing demand, fish production industries are encouraged to maintain high growth densities and to rely on antibiotic intervention throughout all stages of development. The inappropriate administering of antibiotics over time introduces selective pressure, allowing the survival of resistant bacterial strains through adaptive pathways involving transferable nucleotide sequences (i.e., plasmids). This is one of the essential mechanisms of antibiotic resistance development in food production systems. This review article focuses on the main international regulations and governing the administering of antibiotics in finfish husbandry and summarizes recent data regarding the distribution of bacterial resistance in the finfish aquaculture food production chain. The second part of this review examines promising alternative approaches to finfish production, sustainable farming techniques, and vaccination that circumvents excessive antibiotic use, including new animal welfare measures. Then, we reflect on recent adaptations to increasingly interdisciplinary perspectives in the field and their greater alignment with the One Health initiative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

8 pages, 1758 KiB  
Brief Report
Genetic Organization of Acquired Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Detection of Resistance-Mediating Mutations in a Gallibacterium anatis Isolate from a Calf Suffering from a Respiratory Tract Infection
by Anne-Kathrin Schink, Dennis Hanke, Torsten Semmler, Nicole Roschanski and Stefan Schwarz
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020294 - 1 Feb 2023
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Abstract
Gallibacterium (G.) anatis isolates associated with respiratory diseases in calves and harboring acquired antimicrobial resistance genes have been described in Belgium. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic organization of acquired resistance genes in the G. anatis isolate IMT49310 from [...] Read more.
Gallibacterium (G.) anatis isolates associated with respiratory diseases in calves and harboring acquired antimicrobial resistance genes have been described in Belgium. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic organization of acquired resistance genes in the G. anatis isolate IMT49310 from a German calf suffering from a respiratory tract infection. The isolate was submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and a closed genome was obtained by a hybrid assembly of Illumina MiSeq short-reads and MinION long-reads. Isolate IMT49310 showed elevated MIC values for macrolides, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The acquired resistance genes catA1, floR, aadA1, aadB, aphA1, strA, tet(M), tet(B), erm(B), and sul2 were identified within three resistance gene regions in the genome, some of which were associated with IS elements, such as ISVsa5-like or IS15DII. Furthermore, nucleotide exchanges within the QRDRs of gyrA and parC, resulting in amino acid exchanges S83F and D87A in GyrA and S80I in ParC, were identified. Even if the role in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in cattle needs to be further investigated, the identification of a G. anatis isolate with reduced susceptibility to regularly used antimicrobial agents in cases of fatal bovine respiratory tract infections is worrisome, and such isolates might also act as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Companion and Food-Producing Animals)
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