Special Issue "Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Laura Gasco
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Interests: aquaculture; rabbit and poultry breeding; alternative protein sources; insects as feed; fish, rabbit and poultry nutrition; animal product quality
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

World population is expected to grow by over a third, reaching over 9 billion people in 2050. This will have as main consequence that the world will have to produce 70% more food. Livestock production (in particular that of poultry and swine) will have to grow rapidly if per capita intake is to be maintained. Therefore, a major concern is to guarantee the global capacity to provide enough animal feed (in particular protein ingredients), trying to avoid as much as possible competition with human food demand. For this purpose, insects have been proposed as a high quality, efficient and sustainable alternative protein source for poultry, fish or swine. Results are promising but as industry interest is growing further information is needed to fully assess the potential of these innovative raw materials.

Original manuscripts that address any aspects of insects as alternative protein source for animal feed are invited for this Special Issue. In particular, aspects such as optimal inclusion levels, insect meal digestibility, impact on product quality, animal health benefits, immune response, consumer perception and acceptance of insects in animal feeds are welcome.

Dr. Laura Gasco
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • insect meals
  • alternative protein source
  • animal feed
  • insect meal digestibility
  • meat quality
  • carcass characteristics
  • consumer perception

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Reproductive Characteristics of Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) Maintained in Captivityand Receiving Madagascar Cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) Meal
Animals 2019, 9(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060312 - 31 May 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Madagascar cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) meal in the feed of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) in captivity and its influence on the reproductive characteristics of these birds. Twelve pairs of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Madagascar cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) meal in the feed of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) in captivity and its influence on the reproductive characteristics of these birds. Twelve pairs of birds were used during two subsequent reproductive cycles of 130 days each, with time divided into four phases: laying, incubation, rearing of chicks until 30 days of age, and return to the new laying phase. The pairs were divided into two groups: a control group, which received a commercial diet for psittacines + a mixture of seeds, and a test group, which received the same diet as the control group except for the addition of a Madagascar cockroach meal in a ratio of 14 g of commercial food to 1 g of cockroach meal (6.6%). After hatching, chicks remained with their parents until 30 days of age. Subsequently, the chicks were transferred to another room and monitored until the 90th day of life. The inclusion of cockroach meal did not influence (p > 0.05) the intake of commercial food and mixture of seeds during the reproductive phases evaluated, except for feed intake, which was increased relative to control values (p = 0.02) in the return-to-laying phase. Yolk cholesterol content, egg width and egg shape index were increased with the inclusion of the cockroach meal, whereas the number of days to return to the new laying phase was reduced compared to the control (p = 0.02). The number of eggs laid decreased (p < 0.05) with the inclusion of the cockroach meal; however, the percentage of hatching was higher in the test group than in the control group (p < 0.05). No significant effect (p > 0.05) of dietary treatment was observed on the number of viable chicks at 1, 30 and 90 days of age or on the contents of most fatty acids present in the yolk. The findings of this study indicate that a Madagascar cockroach meal can be used as an alternative feedstuff in the diets for cockatiels and can lead to minor improvements in reproductive characteristics when replacing 6.6% of the commercial pelleted diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Dietary Inclusion of Partially Defatted Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Meal on the Blood Chemistry and Tissue (Spleen, Liver, Thymus, and Bursa of Fabricius) Histology of Muscovy Ducks (Cairina moschata domestica)
Animals 2019, 9(6), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060307 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The present study has evaluated the effects of dietary partially-defatted black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.) larva meal on the blood parameters, antioxidant status, and histological features of the organs of broiler ducks. A total of 192 female 3-days of age Muscovy [...] Read more.
The present study has evaluated the effects of dietary partially-defatted black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.) larva meal on the blood parameters, antioxidant status, and histological features of the organs of broiler ducks. A total of 192 female 3-days of age Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata domestica) were divided into four dietary treatments (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9% BSF meal inclusion; 6 pens/treatment, 8 birds/pen). A total of 12 ducks/treatment (2 birds/pen) were slaughtered at 51 days of age and blood samples were collected to evaluate the haematological traits, serum protein, lipid and minerals, liver and renal function serum enzymes, plasma oxidative enzymes, and metabolites. Liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius samples were submitted to histopathological investigations. Between the serum and plasma traits, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, malondialdehyde, and nitrotyrosine showed a linear decrease for increasing amounts of dietary BSF meal (p <0.01); in contrast, the serum iron concentration showed a linear increase (p <0.01). Moreover, the histopathological findings were not significantly affected by the dietary BSF larva meal inclusion. The results showed that the inclusion of up to 9% BSF larva meal represents a promising feed ingredient for Muscovy duck nutrition, and improved blood traits were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Rearing of Hermetia Illucens on Different Organic By-Products: Influence on Growth, Waste Reduction, and Environmental Impact
Animals 2019, 9(6), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060289 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of three by-products as growing substrates for Hermetia illucens (Black Soldier Fly (BSF)) larvae: okara, maize distiller, brewer’s grains, and a control hen diet. The study focused on larval growth and bioconversion performance, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of three by-products as growing substrates for Hermetia illucens (Black Soldier Fly (BSF)) larvae: okara, maize distiller, brewer’s grains, and a control hen diet. The study focused on larval growth and bioconversion performance, production of methane by larvae and environmental burden of larvae production, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on a lab scale. Chemical composition of substrates differed: okara had the highest crude protein and ether extract contents, while brewer’s grains showed the highest fiber content. Larvae fed on a hen diet and maize distiller exhibited the highest final weights (2.29 and 1.97 g, respectively). Larvae grown on okara showed the highest indexes for waste reduction and efficiency of conversion of the ingested feed. The BSF larvae did not produce any detectable traces of CH4. LCA evaluation showed that larvae production on a hen diet resulted in the most impact for most of environmental categories, for the inclusion of soybean meal in the diet (for climate change, 5.79 kg CO2 eq/kg dry larvae). Feed production activities resulted in the main contributions to environmental impact. In order to compare the larvae production obtained on all substrates, an environmental impact was attributed to okara and brewer’s grain through a substitution method, and, by this approach, the best sustainable product resulted from the larvae grown on the maize distiller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Life-History Traits of the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Reared on Three Manure Types
Animals 2019, 9(5), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050281 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Structural changes and growth of animal production systems have resulted in greater volumes of manure. Current manure storage methods pose a potential environmental threat. Lessening these issues is a key concern for the animal production industry. The primary aim of this research was [...] Read more.
Structural changes and growth of animal production systems have resulted in greater volumes of manure. Current manure storage methods pose a potential environmental threat. Lessening these issues is a key concern for the animal production industry. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate black soldier fly (BSF) performance when fed poultry, swine, or dairy manure at different rates (18 or 27 g/2 d until 40% prepupation). The results indicated that larvae fed with the control diet (Gainesville diet) were the heaviest (+31–70%); however, for other life-history traits, those fed the higher feed rate of poultry manure produced comparable results to the control. Larvae fed more resource, regardless of manure type, weighed more as larvae (+3–9%), pupae (+22–48%), and adults (+18–42%), developed faster (up to 3–4 d), had a higher percentage reach the prepupal stage (+2–16%), lived longer as adults (+1 d), and converted more resource to biomass (up to 1% more) than those fed at the lower rate. Yet, no difference was detected in dry matter (DM) reduction across feed rate for a given manure type. Based on these results, all three manure types can be digested by black soldier fly larvae, thus demonstrating their potential for waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
A First Attempt to Produce Proteins from Insects by Means of a Circular Economy
Animals 2019, 9(5), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050278 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The worldwide growing consumption of proteins to feed humans and animals has drawn a considerable amount of attention to insect rearing. Insects reared on organic wastes and used as feed for monogastric animals can reduce the environmental impact and increase the sustainability of [...] Read more.
The worldwide growing consumption of proteins to feed humans and animals has drawn a considerable amount of attention to insect rearing. Insects reared on organic wastes and used as feed for monogastric animals can reduce the environmental impact and increase the sustainability of meat/fish production. In this study, we designed an environmentally closed loop for food supply in which fruit and vegetable waste from markets became rearing substrate for Hermetia illucens (BSF— black soldier fly). A vegetable and fruit-based substrate was compared to a standard diet for Diptera in terms of larval growth, waste reduction index, and overall substrate degradation. Morphological analysis of insect organs was carried out to obtain indications about insect health. Processing steps such as drying and oil extraction from BSF were investigated. Nutritional and microbiological analyses confirmed the good quality of insects and meal. The meal was then used to produce fish feed and its suitability to this purpose was assessed using trout. Earthworms were grown on leftovers of BSF rearing in comparison to a standard substrate. Chemical analyses of vermicompost were performed. The present research demonstrates that insects can be used to reduce organic waste, increasing at the same time the sustainability of aquaculture and creating interesting by-products through the linked bio-system establishment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Replacing Fish Meal with Defatted Insect Meal (Yellow Mealworm Tenebrio molitor) Improves the Growth and Immunity of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Animals 2019, 9(5), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050258 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recently, ecological and economic issues have affected fish meal (FM) supply, the main source of protein for shrimp. This triggered a search for alternative dietary protein sources for shrimp production. We studied the consequences of replacing FM with a defatted insect meal, ŸnMeal [...] Read more.
Recently, ecological and economic issues have affected fish meal (FM) supply, the main source of protein for shrimp. This triggered a search for alternative dietary protein sources for shrimp production. We studied the consequences of replacing FM with a defatted insect meal, ŸnMealTM (YM), comprised of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). Growth and immune parameters of juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannanmei) were compared after an eight-week feeding trial. Shrimp were kept in aquaria with densities of 60 and 40 shrimp/m2 and fed one of five diets in which a proportion of FM was replaced by YM. All diets were isoproteic, isoenergetic, and balanced in lysine and methionine. After the feeding trial, shrimp were challenged with pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Growth and feed conversion parameters improved when YM was included in shrimp diets; with the highest weight gain and best food conversion ratio (FCR) achieved when 50% of FM was replaced by YM versus the control diet that contained no YM (initial weight: 1.60 g/shrimp; growth: 5.27 vs. 3.94 g/shrimp; FCR 1.20 vs. 1.59). In challenged shrimp, mortality rates were significantly less among groups that received YM, with a 76.9% lower mortality rate in the 50% FM replacement group versus the control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Graded Dietary Inclusion Level of Full-Fat Hermetia illucens Prepupae Meal in Practical Diets for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Animals 2019, 9(5), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050251 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion levels of full-fat Hermetia illucens prepupae meal (H) on growth and gastrointestinal integrity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A 98-day study was conducted using triplicate groups of trout (initial body weight, 137 ± [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion levels of full-fat Hermetia illucens prepupae meal (H) on growth and gastrointestinal integrity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A 98-day study was conducted using triplicate groups of trout (initial body weight, 137 ± 10.5 g) kept in 1-m3 tanks in a flow-through well water system. Three dietary treatments were prepared: one based on fishmeal and purified protein-rich vegetable ingredients (H0), and two experimental diets including graded levels of H meal (25% and 50%, referred to as H25 and H50, respectively). At the end of the feeding trial, no differences were observed in growth performance and plasma metabolite levels, with the biometric data confirmed by the liver expression of the genes involved in somatic growth regulation (igf1 and mstn1a). In the H50 group, a three-fold up regulation of liver hsp70 was observed. An activation of the stress/immune response (il-10, tnf-α, and tlr-5) was observed in medium intestine in the H25 and H50 groups (p < 0.05) together with a villi length reduction detected through histological analyses. Liver histology and Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI) spectroscopy highlighted an increase in lipid deposition. These findings suggest that caution should be taken into account when 50% replacement of conventional ingredients with H is selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Species-Specific Discrimination of Insect Meals for Aquafeeds by Direct Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra
Animals 2019, 9(5), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050222 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Insect protein has the potential to become a sustainable feed ingredient for the rapidly growing aquaculture industry. In the European Union, insect derived protein is placed under the same legislation as processed animal proteins (PAP). It is therefore of interest to develop methods [...] Read more.
Insect protein has the potential to become a sustainable feed ingredient for the rapidly growing aquaculture industry. In the European Union, insect derived protein is placed under the same legislation as processed animal proteins (PAP). It is therefore of interest to develop methods for regulatory use, which unambiguously identify the species origin of insect-based ingredients. We performed (i) total protein quantification of insect samples using the traditional nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of 6.25 and the sum of anhydrous amino acids, (ii) quantitative amino acid profiling and (iii) high-throughput tandem mass spectrometry to describe and differentiate 18 different commercial-grade insect meal samples derived from Hermetia illucens (8), Tenebrio molitor (5), Alphitobius diaperinus (3) and Acheta domesticus (2). In addition, we investigated and compared different protein extraction and digestion protocols for proteomic analysis. We found that irrespective of sample preparation, shotgun proteomics in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to differentiate insect meal according to their taxonomic classification. The insect specific spectral libraries created in the present work can in future be used to develop more sensitive targeted methods of insect PAP identification and quantification in commercial feed mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Gut Microbiota and Mucin Composition in Female Broiler Chickens Fed Diets including Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, L.)
Animals 2019, 9(5), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050213 - 03 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
A total of 160 female broiler chickens were divided into four dietary treatments (control feed [C] and 5, 10 and 15% TM meal inclusion, respectively, with five replicate pens/treatment and eight birds/pen) to investigate the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) meal utilization on [...] Read more.
A total of 160 female broiler chickens were divided into four dietary treatments (control feed [C] and 5, 10 and 15% TM meal inclusion, respectively, with five replicate pens/treatment and eight birds/pen) to investigate the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) meal utilization on poultry gut microbiota and mucin composition. The cecal microbiota assessment displayed a shift in the beta diversity in chickens fed TM-based diets. The TM10 and TM15 birds showed a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum and lower Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratios (False Discovery Rate [FDR] < 0.05), respectively, than the TM5 group. The relative abundance of Clostridium, Alistipes and Sutterella genera significantly increased in TM chickens (FDR < 0.05), while birds fed TM-based diets displayed a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Ruminococcus genus in comparison with the C group (FDR < 0.05). Gut mucin composition evaluation revealed higher mucin staining intensity in the intestinal villi of TM5 birds than the other TM groups, as well as mucin reduction in the intestinal villi of TM10 birds when compared to the C group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary TM meal utilization (especially the 10–15% inclusion levels) may negatively influence either the cecal microbiota or the intestinal mucin dynamics of broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Insects in Feed on Poultry Growth Performances
Animals 2019, 9(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050201 - 28 Apr 2019
Abstract
We investigated and summarized results from studies evaluating the effects of feeding poultry with insects on their growth performances. After a systematic review of studies published since 2000, two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each one based on predefined inclusion criteria. We [...] Read more.
We investigated and summarized results from studies evaluating the effects of feeding poultry with insects on their growth performances. After a systematic review of studies published since 2000, two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each one based on predefined inclusion criteria. We extracted information on the study design, insects, avian species, and growth performances, i.e., average daily gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Next, we estimated pooled differences between performances of poultry fed a diet with vs. without insects through random-effects meta-analysis models. Additionally, these models evaluated the effects of potential sources of heterogeneity across studies. Of the 75 studies reviewed, 41 met the inclusion criteria and included 174 trials. With respect to diets without insects, pooled differences in growth performances were statistically not different from the null, but heterogeneity was marked across studies. Average daily gain decreased with increasing inclusion rates of insects, going below the null for rates of 10% and more. Grasshoppers were negatively associated with the average daily gain and positively associated with feed intake. The country of publication was another source of heterogeneity across publications. Overall, our results show insects should substitute only partially conventional protein sources and not be grasshoppers to guarantee the appropriate growth of birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth and Safety Assessment of Feed Streams for Black Soldier Fly Larvae: A Case Study with Aquaculture Sludge
Animals 2019, 9(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040189 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The production of food is an intensive source of environmental impact. In aquaculture, one source of impact is solid waste, which contains high concentrations of minerals, other nutrients, and metals. The larvae of Hermetia illucens are capable of consuming this material, but applying [...] Read more.
The production of food is an intensive source of environmental impact. In aquaculture, one source of impact is solid waste, which contains high concentrations of minerals, other nutrients, and metals. The larvae of Hermetia illucens are capable of consuming this material, but applying technology that is based on these larvae for managing waste streams, like those from aquaculture, requires careful examination of safety risks. A study is performed examining the growth performance of larvae that were fed on solid aquaculture waste. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of safety risks from inorganics, with detailed the results on microelements that have previously received little attention in the literature, is performed to serve as a guideline for how to assess the safety of waste streams such as these. Findings confirm existing results in the literature that Cd is bioaccumulative, but also that other elements, including Hg, Mn, and especially K, are bioaccumulative. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research where the accumulation of Ag is also tested. The results of these tests are explained within the context of regulations in various countries where Hermetia illucens is cultivated, serving as a reference for practitioners to rigorously screen out high risk feed streams that they may consider using as feed sources. It is intended that these references and the demonstrated accumulation of a range of elements motivate comprehensive industry safety practices when evaluating new feed sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Graded Incorporation of Defatted Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diet Improves Growth Performance and Nutrient Retention
Animals 2019, 9(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040187 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Insects are emerging as a sustainable alternative to fishmeal and fish oil in aquafeeds. This study assessed the effect of graded incorporation levels of defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) protein meal on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth performance, [...] Read more.
Insects are emerging as a sustainable alternative to fishmeal and fish oil in aquafeeds. This study assessed the effect of graded incorporation levels of defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) protein meal on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth performance, body composition, and apparent nutrient digestibility. The trial comprised five dietary treatments: control diet with 25% fishmeal, and four experimental diets with yellow mealworm protein meal at 5%, 7.5%, 15%, or 25%, which corresponded to a fishmeal replacement of 20%, 30%, 60%, or 100%, respectively. After 90 days, the graded incorporation of insect protein meal led to a significant stepwise increase in final body weight, and a significant improvement of specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio compared to the control treatment. Regardless of the incorporation level, the insect protein meal had no effects on fish whole-body composition and apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, fat, phosphorus, and energy. Protein, phosphorus, and energy retention significantly increased in fish fed the diets with an insect protein meal. In conclusion, the yellow mealworm protein meal could effectively replace 100% of fishmeal in the diet of juvenile rainbow trout with positive effects on its overall zootechnical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Killing Methods on Lipid Oxidation, Colour and Microbial Load of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae
Animals 2019, 9(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040182 - 21 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae represent a promising alternative ingredient for animal feed. Post-production processing can, however, affect their quality. This project aimed to optimize larval killing by comparing the effects on the nutritional and microbiological quality of 10 methods, i.e., blanching (B [...] Read more.
Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae represent a promising alternative ingredient for animal feed. Post-production processing can, however, affect their quality. This project aimed to optimize larval killing by comparing the effects on the nutritional and microbiological quality of 10 methods, i.e., blanching (B = 40 s), desiccation (D = 60 °C, 30 min), freezing (F20 = −20 °C, 1 h; F40 = −40 °C, 1 h; N = liquid nitrogen, 40 s), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP = 3 min, 600 MPa), grinding (G = 2 min) and asphyxiation (CO2 = 120 h; N2 = 144 h; vacuum conditioning, V = 120 h). Some methods affected the pH (B, asphyxiation), total moisture (B, asphyxiation and D) and ash contents (B, p < 0.001). The lipid content (asphyxiation) and their oxidation levels (B, asphyxiation and D) were also affected (p < 0.001). Killing methods altered the larvae colour during freeze-drying and in the final product. Blanching appears to be the most appropriate strategy since it minimizes lipid oxidation (primary = 4.6 ± 0.7 mg cumen hydroperoxide (CHP) equivalents/kg; secondary = 1.0 ± 0.1 mg malondialdehyde/kg), reduces microbial contamination and initiates dehydration (water content = 78.1 ± 1.0%). We propose herein, an optimized protocol to kill BSF that meet the Canadian regulatory requirements of the insect production and processing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Digestibility of Insect Meals for Nile Tilapia Fingerlings
Animals 2019, 9(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040181 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Insects are a valuable source of nutrients for fish, but little is known about their nutritional value for Nile tilapia fingerlings. To evaluate the nutritional value and energy apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of five insects for Nile Tilapia male fingerlings, 900 fish were [...] Read more.
Insects are a valuable source of nutrients for fish, but little is known about their nutritional value for Nile tilapia fingerlings. To evaluate the nutritional value and energy apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of five insects for Nile Tilapia male fingerlings, 900 fish were distributed in 18 fiberglass conic tanks, in a completely randomized design, with six dietary treatments (control, Nauphoeta cinerea meal (NCM) (Blattodea), Zophobas morio larvae meal (ZMM) (Coleptera), Gromphadorhina portentosa meal (GPM) (Blattodea), Gryllus assimilis meal (GAM) (Orthoptera) and Tenebrio molitor larvae meal (TMM) (Coleptera)) and three replicates (tanks), each containing 50 fish. The control diet had no insect meal included and the other five treatments comprised 80% commercial diet and 20% test ingredient with 0.1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. TMM presented a higher ADC for dry matter, protein, corrected protein and chitin than to other treatments (p < 0.01). GPM presented the highest ADC for lipids (p < 0.01). In general, the TMM presented better ADC of nutrients and energy and all the insect meals evaluated are potential feed for Nile tilapia fingerlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Diet Formulation on the Yield, Proximate Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile of the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens L.) Prepupae Intended for Animal Feed
Animals 2019, 9(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040178 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.) is a very promising insect species due to the ability to convert low-value substrates in highly nutrient feed. This work aimed to study the effect of three nominally isoenergetic diets containing plant ingredients such as [...] Read more.
The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.) is a very promising insect species due to the ability to convert low-value substrates in highly nutrient feed. This work aimed to study the effect of three nominally isoenergetic diets containing plant ingredients such as barley, alfalfa, and wheat byproducts, formulated to be higher in nonfiber carbohydrates (TMD1), fibers (TMD2), and protein (TMD3) in comparison to an extensively genetic modified cereal (cornmeal)-based diet (C), on the growth, yield, and nutritive traits of BSF prepupae (BSFPs). Three growing trials with four biological replicates were carried out. Proximate and fatty acid analyses were performed on the diets and BSFPs. Feed conversion ratios (FCR), dry matter and nutrient yields, and apparent concentration factors (aBCF) for fatty acids (FAs) were calculated. Diet formulation had a substantial effect on the survival, development rate, and larval yield, but the FCR was unaffected. The BSFPs fed TMD3 did not result in a higher crude protein content in comparison to the C or TMD2 diets. Despite the leveled fat content of the diets, BSFPs reared on TMD1 were highest in fat, saturated FA, and fat yield. An apparent bioconcentration factor (aBCF) value lower than unity that was found for the unsaturated FA suggests that the BSFPs inefficiently absorb them from the diet or possibly turn them into saturated FA. However, the unsaturated FA accumulation in BSFPs depended on the levels that were found in the diet, which suggested some possibilities for the FA profile modulation. Overall, the TMD2 performed well despite the low-value of its main ingredients and high fiber content and can be considered to be a feasible option for the mass rearing of BSFPs that are intended for animal feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Insect Meals as Protein Sources for Meat-Type Ducks Based on In Vitro Digestibility
Animals 2019, 9(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040155 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There has been a dramatic increase in duck meat consumption. As a result, ducks are an interesting alternative type of livestock. Animal-based proteins such as fishmeal and animal by-products are valuable nutrients with high digestibility, but they are associated with cost fluctuations, pathogen [...] Read more.
There has been a dramatic increase in duck meat consumption. As a result, ducks are an interesting alternative type of livestock. Animal-based proteins such as fishmeal and animal by-products are valuable nutrients with high digestibility, but they are associated with cost fluctuations, pathogen contamination, and environmental impacts. Therefore, plant-based proteins are used, but they have the disadvantages of inappropriate amino acid profiles, anti-nutritional factors, and mycotoxin contamination. Insect meal contains favorable nutrients and low production costs and is environmentally friendly; however, there is a large number of insect species. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to screen insects for their potential use as a protein source in the duck diet. Insect meal with a high proportion of low-digestible components was shown to have low digestibility. Yellow mealworm larvae, giant mealworm larvae, lesser wax moth larvae, house fly larvae, mulberry silkworm pupae, and American cockroach nymph have the potential to be alternative protein sources for ducks. Insect meal has been widely studied and is used in animal nutrition to replace common protein sources that have several disadvantages and to promote sustainability in animal production. Two-step in vitro digestibility using crude enzyme extracts from digestive tracts of meat-type ducks (Cherry Valley) was performed on general protein sources and insect meals to compare the in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OMd) and crude protein (CPd). Variation in chemical components between different types of insect meal was found. A positive correlation was found between OMd and the ether extract composition in insect meal, whereas a negative correlation was shown between crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Contrasting relationships were found between CPd and crude fiber and acid detergent fiber in insect meal. In conclusion, the yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), giant mealworm larvae (Zophobas morio), lesser wax moth larvae (Achroia grisella), house fly larvae (Musca domestica), mulberry silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori), and American cockroach nymph (Periplaneta americana) are potential protein sources for ducks based on OMd and CPd digestibility after screening with an in vitro digestibility technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Growing Trial of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles Fed on Chironomid Meal as a Partial Substitution for Fish Meal
Animals 2019, 9(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040144 - 03 Apr 2019
Abstract
Insect meal derived from chironomid larvae and collected from aquatic environments was included in the feed of gilthead sea bream juveniles (75 ± 1.1 g) in a growth trial of 90 days. Three feeds, which were namely one control (L1) and two experimental [...] Read more.
Insect meal derived from chironomid larvae and collected from aquatic environments was included in the feed of gilthead sea bream juveniles (75 ± 1.1 g) in a growth trial of 90 days. Three feeds, which were namely one control (L1) and two experimental diets (L2, L3), were analyzed and formulated as isonitrogenous (45%) and isolipidic (13%). In L1, the protein source was mainly soybean meal (32%), followed by fish meal (20%), wheat meal (20%), gluten corn (17%), and hemoglobin (11%). In L2, the proportion of soybean meal was increased (33.5%), followed by gluten corn (21%), wheat meal (14%), and hemoglobin (11%), whereas the fish meal source was reduced (15%) due to the inclusion of chironomids (5%). In L3, the proportion of fish meal was further reduced (8%) and that of chironomid meal was increased to 10% of the protein source. The L2 and L3 groups showed similar growth performances with respect to the L1 group. The feed conversion rate was favorable in all the groups, ranging from 1.18 (L1) to 1.22 (L3). Survival rates varied from 93.62% (L3) to 94.31% (L1). Feed palatability showed similar results for all diets. Although the inclusion of chironomid meal was used in small quantities, our results suggest a significant advantage in replacing 50% of the fish meal with the chironomid meal for growing gilthead sea bream fishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Dietary Insect Meal from Hermetia illucens Prepupae on Autochthonous Gut Microbiota of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Animals 2019, 9(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040143 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of dietary insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae on autochthonous gut microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three diets, with increasing levels of insect meal inclusion (10%, 20%, and 30%) and a control diet without insect [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of dietary insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae on autochthonous gut microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three diets, with increasing levels of insect meal inclusion (10%, 20%, and 30%) and a control diet without insect meal were tested in a 12-week feeding trial. To analyze the resident intestinal microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME pipeline were used. The number of reads taxonomically classified according to the Greengenes database was 1,514,155. Seventy-four Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at 97% identity were identified. The core of adhered intestinal microbiota, i.e., OTUs present in at least 80% of mucosal samples and shared regardless of the diet, was constituted by three OTUs assigned to Propiobacterinae, Shewanella, and Mycoplasma genera, respectively. Fish fed the insect-based diets showed higher bacterial diversity with a reduction in Proteobacteria in comparison to fish fed the fishmeal diet. Insect-meal inclusion in the diet increased the gut abundance of Mycoplasma, which was attributed the ability to produce lactic and acetic acid as final products of its fermentation. We believe that the observed variations on the autochthonous intestinal microbiota composition of trout are principally due to the prebiotic properties of fermentable chitin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Meat Quality and Sensory Traits of Finisher Broiler Chickens Fed with Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens L.) Larvae Fat as Alternative Fat Source
Animals 2019, 9(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040140 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
At present, there is limited knowledge about the possible utilization of the fat fraction derived from Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae processing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean oil with HI larvae fat in broiler finisher diet, [...] Read more.
At present, there is limited knowledge about the possible utilization of the fat fraction derived from Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae processing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean oil with HI larvae fat in broiler finisher diet, on the quality and sensory traits of their meat. At 21 days of age, 120 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (5 replicates and 8 birds/pen): a basal control diet (C), and two groups in which either 50% or 100% of the soybean oil was replaced with HI larvae fat (the HI50 and HI100 group, respectively). At day 48, 15 birds (3 birds/pen) per group were slaughtered, and breasts and legs were excised and used for meat quality evaluations. Breast and leg physical meat quality, nutritional composition and sensory profile remained substantially unaffected by the dietary treatments. In contrast, the dietary incorporation of HI larvae fat modified the fatty acid (FA) profile of both the breast and leg meat cuts: the proportion of saturated fatty acids increased (p < 0.0001) to the detriment of the polyunsaturated (PUFA) fraction (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the meat n-6/n-3 ratio increased in the HI50 and HI100 groups compared to the C group. HI larvae fat dietary inclusion decreased the monounsaturated fatty acids in the breast (p = 0.0012) but not in the leg meat. Further research should focus on the improvement of the FA profile of the larvae through substrate modulation, or by combining HI larvae with a PUFA-rich feedstuff in feed formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of the Use of Insect Meal from Spodoptera littoralis and Bactrocera zonata for Feeding Japanese Quail Chicks
Animals 2019, 9(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040136 - 31 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A transformation of current livestock production towards a more sustainable operation is crucial to face nutritional and environmental challenges. There is an urgent demand for more sustainable high-quality feed sources to reduce environmental costs. Insects pose a potential alternative since they can be [...] Read more.
A transformation of current livestock production towards a more sustainable operation is crucial to face nutritional and environmental challenges. There is an urgent demand for more sustainable high-quality feed sources to reduce environmental costs. Insects pose a potential alternative since they can be reared sustainably on food and feed residues. Know-how in mass rearing already exists for insect species used in biological pest control, such as the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis and the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata. The impact of a replacement of 50% of soybean meal by S. littoralis and B. zonata meal, respectively, on seven-days-old Japanese quail chicks was investigated in feeding trials. Concomitantly, the chemical compositions of the two insect meals and soybean meal were determined and compared. It was observed that the insect meals had higher protein and fat contents, lower carbohydrate contents and contained more saturated fatty acids than soybean meal. They also had higher methionine, and S. littoralis had a higher lysine content. Feeding trials resulted in improved growth, feed performance parameters, carcass characteristics, and biochemical indices for both insect meals. Consequently, both insect meals represent a promising alternative to soy in the feed of Japanese quail chicks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Insect Oil as An Alternative to Palm Oil and Poultry Fat in Broiler Chicken Nutrition
Animals 2019, 9(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030116 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) oil as a total replacement for palm oil and poultry fat in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, pancreatic enzyme activity, selected blood parameters and the lipid fatty acid [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) oil as a total replacement for palm oil and poultry fat in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, pancreatic enzyme activity, selected blood parameters and the lipid fatty acid compositions of liver and breast muscle tissues. A total of 72 seven-day-old female Ross 308 broiler chickens were used. The birds were randomly distributed into three groups with 12 replicates each, using two birds per replicate for 30 days in metabolic cages. The basal diet was supplemented with 5% palm oil, poultry fat or TM oil. There was no effect (p > 0.05) caused by the dietary oil replacement on the birds’ performance and apparent nutrient digestibility. Liver size (p = 0.033), the concentration of hepatic triglycerides (p = 0.049) and total cholesterol (p = 0.048) were reduced by TM oil supplementation. Furthermore, TM oil supplementation increased n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (p = 0.006; p < 0.001, respectively) in breast muscle tissue. In conclusion, the use of TM oil in broiler chickens’ diets did not show any adverse effects on performance, nutrient digestibility and blood biochemical parameters. Moreover, TM oil supplementation improved the fatty acid profiles of liver and breast muscle tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens) as Dietary Source for Laying Quails: Live Performance, and Egg Physico-Chemical Quality, Sensory Profile and Storage Stability
Animals 2019, 9(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030115 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Insects are promising candidates as alternative sustainable sources of protein for poultry species. The present research studied the effect of a dietary inclusion of a defatted black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal as an alternative protein source in the diets of laying quails, [...] Read more.
Insects are promising candidates as alternative sustainable sources of protein for poultry species. The present research studied the effect of a dietary inclusion of a defatted black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal as an alternative protein source in the diets of laying quails, on productive performance, egg physicochemical quality, fatty acid profile, sensory traits and storage stability. A total of 225 laying quails were divided into 3 dietary groups (5 replicates/each). A conventional soybean meal-based diet was formulated (Control group), and two other diets were formulated including either 10% (BSF10) or 15% (BSF15) defatted BSF larvae meal. Laying quails showed satisfactory productive performance throughout the trial. BSF10 and BSF15 eggs had the highest shape index (p < 0.01), shell weight and percentage (p < 0.001) and the most intense yolk color (p < 0.001). Defatted BSF larvae meal increased the eggs’ saturated fatty acid content (p < 0.001) to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fraction (p < 0.001). Overall the eggs’ sensory profile was not affected by the dietary treatment, but BSF15 eggs had a higher feed off-flavor vs Control group (p < 0.05). At day 28 of storage, oxidative stability was higher in BSF10 vs. Control eggs (p < 0.01). Defatted BSF larvae meal can be considered a possible alternative ingredient to soybean meal in laying quail diets, up to the 15% inclusion level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Strain and Rearing Medium on the Chemical Composition, Fatty Acid Profile and Carotenoid Content in Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Pupae
Animals 2019, 9(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030103 - 20 Mar 2019
Abstract
The overexploitation of fishmeal and soy for the feedstuff industry has provided an opportunity to employ insects as an unconventional and more environmental friendly protein source. The evaluation of the nutritive properties of different insect species has consequently become a priority. The present [...] Read more.
The overexploitation of fishmeal and soy for the feedstuff industry has provided an opportunity to employ insects as an unconventional and more environmental friendly protein source. The evaluation of the nutritive properties of different insect species has consequently become a priority. The present study compares the pupal nutritive composition of two silkworm strains (White Cocoon Polyhybrid and Golden Yellow Cocoon Nistari) fed on two different rearing media (fresh mulberry leaves and a commercial artificial diet). Our results provide evidence that the composition of the feeding substrate strongly influences the fat and protein content of silkworm pupae. The two tested strains had higher fat and lower protein contents when fed with silkworm natural food (mulberry leaves) with respect to the commercial artificial diet. The analysis also showed that the n3/n6 ratio was affected almost exclusively by the feed substrate factor. On the contrary, the carotenoid content in pupae was specifically determined by the strain. The study identifies the interesting opportunity offered by silkworm pupae, which are usually a waste product of the silk-reeling process, to be used as alternative animal protein sources in a fully-closed circular production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae and Pre-Pupae Raised on Household Organic Waste, as Potential Ingredients for Poultry Feed
Animals 2019, 9(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030098 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae and pre-pupae could be satisfactorily raised on household organic waste and used as poultry feed, offering a potential sustainable way to recycle untapped resources of waste. The present study was conducted to determine if whole (non-defatted) BSF larvae [...] Read more.
Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae and pre-pupae could be satisfactorily raised on household organic waste and used as poultry feed, offering a potential sustainable way to recycle untapped resources of waste. The present study was conducted to determine if whole (non-defatted) BSF larvae and pre-pupae raised on experimental household waste could substitute soybean meal and oil as ingredients for laying hen diets. While no significant differences in feed intake and the egg-laying rate of hens were observed throughout the experiment, egg weight and eggshell thickness were greater in the pre-pupae-fed group than in the other groups. Moreover, although diversity of the cecal microbiota was significantly higher in the pre-pupae-fed than in the control group, no significant differences in bacterial genera known to cause food poisoning were observed when comparing the treatment groups. Nonetheless, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly lower in the treatment than in the control group. Fat content in BSF was possibly related with the changes in the cecal microbiota. Hence, since BSF fat was deficient in essential fatty acids, special attention should be paid to the fat content and its fatty acid composition in the case of regular inclusion of BSF larvae and pre-pupae oil as an ingredient in poultry diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Intestinal Morphometry, Enzymatic and Microbial Activity in Laying Hens Fed Different Levels of a Hermetia illucens Larvae Meal and Toxic Elements Content of the Insect Meal and Diets
Animals 2019, 9(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030086 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of feeding a Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal on the different intestinal traits of hens, and to determine the toxic elements’ concentration in the insect meal and diets, 162 hens were randomly allotted to three groups. The control received [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of feeding a Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal on the different intestinal traits of hens, and to determine the toxic elements’ concentration in the insect meal and diets, 162 hens were randomly allotted to three groups. The control received a corn-soybean meal-based diet (SBM); the HI25 and HI50 groups received two diets in which the 25% and 50% of the dietary protein were replaced by the HI protein, respectively. The duodenal and jejunal villi height and villi/crypt were higher (p < 0.01) in the SBM than in the HI groups. The ileal villi height was higher (p < 0.05) in the SBM and HI25 groups than the HI50. The HI50 group exhibited a lower duodenal maltase activity. The intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity linearly decreased in the duodenum and jejunum as the dietary insect meal inclusion increased. The HI50 group had a higher acetate and butyrate level than the SBM. The levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) in the diets and insect meal were lower than the maximum values established by the EU Commission. The 25% soybean protein replacement with Hermetia illucens larvae meal in the diet of laying hens was more suitable and closer to the optimal level than 50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Temperature on Selected Life-History Traits of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Reared on Two Common Urban Organic Waste Streams in Kenya
Animals 2019, 9(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030079 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, urban populations are projected to increase by 115% in the coming 15 years. In addition, economic growth and dietary shifts towards animal source foods have put high pressure and demand on agricultural production. The high ecological footprint of meat and [...] Read more.
In sub-Saharan Africa, urban populations are projected to increase by 115% in the coming 15 years. In addition, economic growth and dietary shifts towards animal source foods have put high pressure and demand on agricultural production. The high ecological footprint of meat and dairy production, as well as high feed costs, prevent the livestock sector from meeting the increasing demand in a sustainable manner. Insects such as the black soldier fly (BSF) have been identified as potential alternatives to the conventionally used protein sources in livestock feed due to their rich nutrient content and the fact that they can be reared on organic side streams. Substrates derived from organic byproducts are suitable for industrial large-scale production of insect meal. Although efficient in waste management and in feed production, BSF larvae are very sensitive to the external environment such as temperature and rearing medium. Therefore, we studied the effect of temperature and substrate type, i.e., brewers’ spent grain (SG) and cow dung (CD), on the development and survival of BSF larvae. Both organic substrates were readily available in Nairobi, Kenya, the location of the experiments. In our experiment, 100 3–5-day-old BSF larvae were placed into containers that contained either SG or CD and further treated at temperatures of 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C. The duration of larval development was recorded, and the prepupae were removed, weighed, and placed individually in separate, labeled, 35-mL plastic cups filled with moist sawdust. After emergence, 10 2-day-old adults (5 males and 5 females) from every replica per substrate were transferred into a cage (40 × 40 × 40 cm) and allowed to mate for 24 h at their respective temperatures. The laid egg batches were collected and counted, and the adult flies’ longevity was recorded. The data were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model procedure. BSF larvae reared on SG developed faster than those reared on CD; the former also favored higher temperatures for their larval development and emergence into adults. The optimum range was 25–30 °C. With increasing temperatures, the longevity of adult BSF decreased, while the fecundity of females increased. Thus, it is possible to take advantage of the readily available SG waste streams in the urban environments of Kenya to produce BSF larvae-derived livestock feed within a short duration of time and at relatively high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Open AccessArticle
Does the Optimal Dietary Methionine to Cysteine Ratio in Diets for Growing Chickens Respond to High Inclusion Rates of Insect Meal from Hermetia illucens?
Animals 2018, 8(11), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8110187 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The dietary methionine:cysteine (Met:Cys) ratio (MCR) is an important factor influencing the optimal growth of chickens. Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the assessment of the optimal dietary MCR in diets with the complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by a partly [...] Read more.
The dietary methionine:cysteine (Met:Cys) ratio (MCR) is an important factor influencing the optimal growth of chickens. Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the assessment of the optimal dietary MCR in diets with the complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by a partly defatted larvae meal of Hermetia illucens (HM). A growth study with 240 male meat-type chickens (Ross 308) was conducted, also assessing the body nutrient deposition both at the end of the starter (day 21) and the grower (day 35) period. Birds were fed experimental diets based on wheat, maize, and insect meal (23%/21% HM in starter/grower diets). Sulfur amino acids were created as the limiting AA in diets with graded MCR (40:60; 45:55; 50:50; 55:45; 60:40). The control diet contained SBM instead of HM with a MCR of 50:50. The current results based on growth parameters, dietary protein quality, and Met efficiency data gave support to the previous assumption of an ideal MCR of 50:50, which was also valid in diets with a high proportion of insect meal. The lowest MCR of 40:60 led to significantly impaired feed intake and growth of the birds, while the response to the highest MCR (60:40) was moderate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle
N Balance Studies Emphasize the Superior Protein Quality of Pig Diets at High Inclusion Level of Algae Meal (Spirulina platensis) or Insect Meal (Hermetia illucens) when Adequate Amino Acid Supplementation Is Ensured
Animals 2018, 8(10), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8100172 - 03 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Two age-dependent nitrogen (N) balance studies (average body mass 25 and 60 kg) utilized 16 male castrated piglets and 16 barrows to measure N utilization parameters of diets with complete substitution of SBM by alternative protein sources (SM, HM), but different AA fortifications. [...] Read more.
Two age-dependent nitrogen (N) balance studies (average body mass 25 and 60 kg) utilized 16 male castrated piglets and 16 barrows to measure N utilization parameters of diets with complete substitution of SBM by alternative protein sources (SM, HM), but different AA fortifications. Lysine supplementation up to 80% of the recommended lysine (Lys) supply in diets HM (A) and SM (A) yielded similar protein quality data (63.6 ± 2.1 and 63.7 ± 3.4). Surprisingly, only in piglet diet HM (AA) did the extended AA supplementation (Lys, methionine (Met), threonine (Thr)) enhance protein quality (72.8 ± 6.7) significantly (p = 0.004). Similar trends were observed in growing pigs. However, when the level of histidine (His) in diet SM (AA) was increased, feed protein quality (71.8 ± 1.3) was significantly (p < 0.001) improved indicating the importance of adequate His supply in diets with a complete substitution of SBM by the algae meal (SM) under study. AA efficiency data extend the possibilities to explain the observed responses on protein quality. When an adequate AA balancing in the diet is guaranteed, from nutritional point of view both of the alternative proteins may replace SBM in pig diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Animals Fed Insect-Based Diets: State-of-the-Art on Digestibility, Performance and Product Quality
Animals 2019, 9(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040170 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
In 2018, the industrial compound feed production throughout the world was 1.103 metric billion tons, which was an increase of 3% compared to 2017. In order to meet the needs of the increasing population, a further increment in compound feed production is necessary. [...] Read more.
In 2018, the industrial compound feed production throughout the world was 1.103 metric billion tons, which was an increase of 3% compared to 2017. In order to meet the needs of the increasing population, a further increment in compound feed production is necessary. Conventional protein sources are no longer suitable to completely satisfy the increment of feed production in a sustainable way. Insects are one of the most promising options, due to their valuable nutritional features. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of research on the use of insect meals and oils in aquatic, avian and other animal species diets, focusing mainly on the effects on digestibility, performance and product quality. In general, insect-derived product digestibility is affected by the insect species, the inclusion levels and by the process. Sometimes, the presence of chitin can lead to a decrease in nutrient digestibility. The same considerations are true for animal performance. As far as product quality is concerned, a dramatic effect of insect products has been recorded for the fatty acid profile, with a decrease in valuable n3 fatty acids. Sensory analyses have reported no or slight differences. Insect-derived products seem to be a good alternative to conventional feed sources and can make an important contribution to the sustainable development of the livestock industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessReview
The Potential Role of Insects as Feed: A Multi-Perspective Review
Animals 2019, 9(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040119 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
Recently, insects have received increased attention as an important source of sustainable raw materials for animal feed, especially in fish, poultry, and swine. In particular, the most promising species are represented by the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI), the yellow [...] Read more.
Recently, insects have received increased attention as an important source of sustainable raw materials for animal feed, especially in fish, poultry, and swine. In particular, the most promising species are represented by the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI), the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, TM), and the common house fly (Musca domestica, MD). Although rapid development is expected, insects remain underutilized in the animal feed industry mainly due to technical, financial, and regulatory barriers. In addition, few works have analyzed consumer and stakeholder points of view towards the use of insects as animal feed. In this article, we summarize the main findings of this body of research and provide a discussion of consumer studies regarding the consumption of animals fed with insects. Our review suggests that consumer acceptance will not be a barrier towards the development of this novel protein industry. Furthermore, we conclude that it will be of interest to understand whether the use of this more sustainable feed source might increase consumer willingness to pay for animal products fed with insects and whether the overall acceptability, from a sensory point of view, will be perceived better than conventional products. Finally, the main challenges of the feed farming industry are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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