Special Issue "Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Laura Gasco

Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Turin, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aquaculture; rabbit and poultry sciences; insects; fish and poultry nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

World population is expected to grow by over a third, reaching over 9 billion people in 2050. This will have as main consequence that the world will have to produce 70% more food. Livestock production (in particular that of poultry and swine) will have to grow rapidly if per capita intake is to be maintained. Therefore, a major concern is to guarantee the global capacity to provide enough animal feed (in particular protein ingredients), trying to avoid as much as possible competition with human food demand. For this purpose, insects have been proposed as a high quality, efficient and sustainable alternative protein source for poultry, fish or swine. Results are promising but as industry interest is growing further information is needed to fully assess the potential of these innovative raw materials.

Original manuscripts that address any aspects of insects as alternative protein source for animal feed are invited for this Special Issue. In particular, aspects such as optimal inclusion levels, insect meal digestibility, impact on product quality, animal health benefits, immune response, consumer perception and acceptance of insects in animal feeds are welcome.

Dr. Laura Gasco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • insect meals
  • alternative protein source
  • animal feed
  • insect meal digestibility
  • meat quality
  • carcass characteristics
  • consumer perception

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Does the Optimal Dietary Methionine to Cysteine Ratio in Diets for Growing Chickens Respond to High Inclusion Rates of Insect Meal from Hermetia illucens?
Animals 2018, 8(11), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8110187
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
The dietary methionine:cysteine (Met:Cys) ratio (MCR) is an important factor influencing the optimal growth of chickens. Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the assessment of the optimal dietary MCR in diets with the complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by a partly
[...] Read more.
The dietary methionine:cysteine (Met:Cys) ratio (MCR) is an important factor influencing the optimal growth of chickens. Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the assessment of the optimal dietary MCR in diets with the complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by a partly defatted larvae meal of Hermetia illucens (HM). A growth study with 240 male meat-type chickens (Ross 308) was conducted, also assessing the body nutrient deposition both at the end of the starter (day 21) and the grower (day 35) period. Birds were fed experimental diets based on wheat, maize, and insect meal (23%/21% HM in starter/grower diets). Sulfur amino acids were created as the limiting AA in diets with graded MCR (40:60; 45:55; 50:50; 55:45; 60:40). The control diet contained SBM instead of HM with a MCR of 50:50. The current results based on growth parameters, dietary protein quality, and Met efficiency data gave support to the previous assumption of an ideal MCR of 50:50, which was also valid in diets with a high proportion of insect meal. The lowest MCR of 40:60 led to significantly impaired feed intake and growth of the birds, while the response to the highest MCR (60:40) was moderate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
Open AccessArticle N Balance Studies Emphasize the Superior Protein Quality of Pig Diets at High Inclusion Level of Algae Meal (Spirulina platensis) or Insect Meal (Hermetia illucens) when Adequate Amino Acid Supplementation Is Ensured
Animals 2018, 8(10), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8100172
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Two age-dependent nitrogen (N) balance studies (average body mass 25 and 60 kg) utilized 16 male castrated piglets and 16 barrows to measure N utilization parameters of diets with complete substitution of SBM by alternative protein sources (SM, HM), but different AA fortifications.
[...] Read more.
Two age-dependent nitrogen (N) balance studies (average body mass 25 and 60 kg) utilized 16 male castrated piglets and 16 barrows to measure N utilization parameters of diets with complete substitution of SBM by alternative protein sources (SM, HM), but different AA fortifications. Lysine supplementation up to 80% of the recommended lysine (Lys) supply in diets HM (A) and SM (A) yielded similar protein quality data (63.6 ± 2.1 and 63.7 ± 3.4). Surprisingly, only in piglet diet HM (AA) did the extended AA supplementation (Lys, methionine (Met), threonine (Thr)) enhance protein quality (72.8 ± 6.7) significantly (p = 0.004). Similar trends were observed in growing pigs. However, when the level of histidine (His) in diet SM (AA) was increased, feed protein quality (71.8 ± 1.3) was significantly (p < 0.001) improved indicating the importance of adequate His supply in diets with a complete substitution of SBM by the algae meal (SM) under study. AA efficiency data extend the possibilities to explain the observed responses on protein quality. When an adequate AA balancing in the diet is guaranteed, from nutritional point of view both of the alternative proteins may replace SBM in pig diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Species-specific discrimination of insect protein for aquafeeds by direct comparison of tandem mass spectra
Authors: Irene Biancarosa, Ikram Belghit, Erik-Jan Lock
Abstract: Insect protein has the potential to become a sustainable feed ingredient for the rapidly growing aquaculture industry. In the European Union (EU), insect derived protein is placed under the same legislation as processed animal proteins (PAP). To date, only a limited number of insect species is allowed to be used as PAP. It is therefore of interest to develop methods for regulatory use, which unambiguously identify the species origin of insect based ingredients. In the current study, we performed total protein quantification of insect samples using the traditional nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of 6.25 and the sum of anhydrous amino acids, quantitative amino acid profiling and high-throughput tandem mass spectrometry to describe and differentiate 18 different commercial-grade insect meal samples derived from Hermetia illucens (8), Tenebrio molitor (5), Alphitobius diaperinus and Acheta domesticus (2). In addition, we investigated and compared different protein extraction, solubilisation and digestion protocols. All work was performed independently in two different laboratories. We found that irrespective of sample preparation shotgun proteomics in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to differentiate insect meal samples according to their taxonomic classification. In addition, to the creation of an insect specific PAP spectral library database, species specific insect peptides were detected, which in future can be used to develop more sensitive targeted methods of PAP detection and identification.

Title: The effect of strain and rearing medium on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and carotenoid content in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae
Authors: Camilla Chieco, Lucia Morrone, Giampaolo Bertazza, Silvia Cappellozza, Alessio Saviane, Francesco Gai, Nicola Di Virgilio and Federica Rossi
Abstract: The overexploitation of fishmeal and soy for feedstuff industry has emphasized the chance of employing insects as unconventional and more environmental friendly protein sources. The present study evaluated the feasibility of optimizing and control the quality of silkworm pupae for feedstuff industry through the choice of appropriate strains and rearing medium. Feeding substrate composition strongly influences fat and protein content of silkworm pupae. The two tested strains (White Cocoon Polyhybrid and Golden Yellow Cocoon Nistari), had higher fat and lower protein contents when fed with silkworm natural food (fresh leaves of Morus alba L.) with respect to the commercial diet. Analysis showed that also the n3/n6 ratio was affected almost exclusively by the feed substrate factor: silkworm pupae grown on fresh leaves had 3 times higher n-3 content than n-6 respect to those fed with artificial diet. On the contrary, the pigment content in pupae is specifically determined by the strain; Golden Yellow Cocoon Nistari strain always showed a higher level of carotenoids with respect to the White Cocoon Polyhybrid strain regardless of the rearing substrate. Our results established that silkworm pupae composition well reflects the quality of the food ingested by the juvenile instars, thus offering the possibility to obtain tailored final products destined to different employments in the feedstuff industry.
Keyword: Insects; silkworm; rearing technology, alternative feed, protein source, fatty acid profile

 

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