Special Issue "Recent Advances in Fish Nutrition: Insights on the Nutritional Implications of Modern Formulations"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Artur Rombenso
Website
Guest Editor
Livestock and Aquaculture Program—Nutrition and Production system group, The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia
Interests: fish nutrition; aquaculture nutrition; feed manufacturing technology; aquaculture; mariculture
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Bruno Araújo

Guest Editor
Nucleo Integrado de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil
Interests: fish nutrition; fish physiology; aquaculture nutrition; molecular nutrition; fatty acid metabolism
Dr. Erchao Li
Website
Guest Editor
Hainan University, Haikou, China
Interests: shellfish nutrition; stress and nutrition; health and nutrition; functional feed; probiotics and prebiotics

Special Issue Information

Fish nutrition has been one of the most relevant research areas in aquaculture. The key baseline literature was published about 15–20 years ago, and is still used in research and commercial applications. However, the need to re-assess certain nutritional demands and requirements based on modern formulations is becoming more evident. This Special Issue will discuss up-to-date formulations used by the aquafeed industry to maximize production performance, satisfy the nutritional needs beyond the species requirements benefiting animal physiology and welfare, address sustainability standards, and improve the nutritional quality of the final product. Recently, a series of papers in this context have contributed to the advancement of high-quality industry compounded aquafeeds to continue supporting the expansion of aquaculture production.

The present Special Issue aims to present the latest advances in fish nutrition based on modern formulations which remarkedly differ from traditional formulations, focusing on, but not limited to:

  1. The re-assessment of macronutrient (protein, lipid, and carbohydrate) demands;
  2. The re-assessment of essential nutrients (amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and others);
  3. The use of feed additives;
  4. Novel ingredients including alternative ingredients, complementary ingredients, and blends of ingredients;
  5. Organic feeds;
  6. Nutritional quality of the final product.

Dr. Artur Rombenso
Dr. Bruno Araújo
Dr. Erchao Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fish nutrition
  • modern aquafeeds
  • macronutrients
  • essential nutrients
  • feed additives
  • novel ingredients
  • organic feeds
  • nutritional quality

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Apparent Digestibility of Macronutrients and Fatty Acids from Microalgae (Schizochytrium sp.) Fed to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): A Potential Candidate for Fish Oil Substitution
Animals 2021, 11(2), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020456 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Aquaculture feed formulation has recently turned its focus to reduce the reliance on marine-derived resources and utilise alternative feedstuffs, as an approach to improve the environmental sustainability of the aquaculture sector. The fish oil market is highly volatile, and availability of this commodity [...] Read more.
Aquaculture feed formulation has recently turned its focus to reduce the reliance on marine-derived resources and utilise alternative feedstuffs, as an approach to improve the environmental sustainability of the aquaculture sector. The fish oil market is highly volatile, and availability of this commodity is continuously decreasing for use in aquaculture. Currently, a growing number of commercial efforts producing microalgae are providing omega 3-rich oil for sustainable aquaculture feed. This study was focused to determine the nutrient digestibility of a marine microalga, Schizochytrium spp., which is rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), as a novel dietary lipid source that could be utilized effectively by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A whole-cell Schizochytrium spp. biomass was used in the digestibility experiment at two different temperatures, 8 °C and 15 °C. No significant differences were detected between the two temperatures for the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of the dry matter (94.3 ± 4.9%), total lipids (85.8 ± 0.0%), crude proteins (89.5 ± 1.8%), energy (83.1 ± 1.7%) and fatty acids (85.8 ± 7.5%). The ADCs of the nutrients, energy, DHA and other fatty acids showed that Schizochytrium spp. is a high-quality candidate for fish oil substitution and supplement of LC-PUFA in fish feed with vegetable oils. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Recovery from Hypersaline-Stress-Induced Immunity Damage and Intestinal-Microbiota Changes through Dietary β-glucan Supplementation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122243 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Long-term exposure to hyperosmotic environments can induce severe immune damage and increase risk in tilapia breeding. As an effective immunoregulator, β-glucan has attracted extensive attention in nutritional research and given rise to high expectations of improving health status and alleviating organismal damage in [...] Read more.
Long-term exposure to hyperosmotic environments can induce severe immune damage and increase risk in tilapia breeding. As an effective immunoregulator, β-glucan has attracted extensive attention in nutritional research and given rise to high expectations of improving health status and alleviating organismal damage in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in brackish water. In this study, an 8-week cultivation experiment was conducted on tilapia fed a basal diet or diets with β-glucan supplementation in freshwater (control) and brackish water. Growth performance, hematological aspects, immune cytokine expression, and the intestinal microbiota of tilapia were analyzed. The results indicated that supplementation with β-glucan significantly reduced the enlarged spleen of tilapia resulting from hypersaline stress. Tilapia fed β-glucan showed significantly-greater decreases in the red blood cell count, hematocrit, red cell distribution width, platelet count, and plateletcrit than those fed the basal diet. β-glucan significantly decreased the high expression of immune-related genes in the spleen induced by hyperosmotic stress. In the intestine, the high migration inhibitory factor-2 (MIF-2) and IL-1β gene expression induced by hypersaline stress was significantly reduced. β-glucan supplementation also significantly increased the abundance of beneficial microbiota such as Lactobacillus, Phycicoccus, and Rikenellaceae. Therefore, dietary β-glucan supplementation can significantly reduce spleen enlargement and improve immune function in tilapia in brackish water. β-glucan intake can also optimize the intestinal microbiota of tilapia in brackish water and improve fish health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alleviation of the Adverse Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate by Supplementation of Myo-Inositol to the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112190 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 420
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of dietary myo-inositol (MI) on alleviating the adverse effect of the high carbohydrate diet in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Six diets contained either low carbohydrate (LC 30%) or high carbohydrate (HC 45%) with three levels [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of dietary myo-inositol (MI) on alleviating the adverse effect of the high carbohydrate diet in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Six diets contained either low carbohydrate (LC 30%) or high carbohydrate (HC 45%) with three levels of MI supplementation (0, 400 and 1200 mg/kg diet) to each level of the carbohydrate diet. After an 8-week trial, the fish fed 400 mg/kg MI under HC levels had the highest weight gain and fatness, but the fish fed 1200 mg/kg MI had the lowest hepatosomatic index, visceral index and crude lipid in the HC group. The diet of 1200 mg/kg MI significantly decreased triglyceride content in the serum and liver compared with those fed the MI supplemented diets regardless of carbohydrate levels. Dietary MI decreased triglyceride accumulation in the liver irrespective of carbohydrate levels. The content of malondialdehyde decreased with increasing dietary MI at both carbohydrate levels. Fish fed 1200 mg/kg MI had the highest glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities. The HC diet increased the mRNA expression of key genes involved in lipid synthesis (DGAT, SREBP, FAS) in the fish fed the diet without MI supplementation. Dietary MI significantly under expressed fatty acid synthetase in fish fed the HC diets. Moreover, the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid catabolism (CPT, ATGL, PPAR-α) was significantly up-regulated with the increase of dietary MI levels despite dietary carbohydrate levels. The gene expressions of gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and MI biosynthesis were significantly down-regulated, while the expression of the pentose phosphate pathway was up-regulated with the increase of MI levels. This study indicates that HC diets can interrupt normal lipid metabolism and tend to form a fatty liver in fish. Dietary MI supplement can alleviate lipid accumulation in the liver by diverging some glucose metabolism into the pentose phosphate pathway and enhance the antioxidant capacity in O. niloticus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Regulatory Role of Apelin on the Appetite and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112163 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Apelin, a kind of active polypeptide, has many biological functions, such as promoting food intake, enhancing immunity, and regulating energy balance. In mammals, studies have indicated that apelin is involved in regulating food intake. However, there are relatively few studies about the regulatory [...] Read more.
Apelin, a kind of active polypeptide, has many biological functions, such as promoting food intake, enhancing immunity, and regulating energy balance. In mammals, studies have indicated that apelin is involved in regulating food intake. However, there are relatively few studies about the regulatory effect of apelin on fish feeding, and the specific mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate the regulatory effects of apelin on key genes of feeding and growth in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) through in vitro and in vivo experiments. In the present study, after incubation with different concentrations of Pyr-apelin-13 (0, 10, 100, and 1000 nM) in hypothalamic fragments, the expressions of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti related peptide (AgRP) mRNA were significantly up-regulated at 12 and 3 h, respectively, and the significant down-regulation of Cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) mRNA expression was observed at 1 and 3 h. In vivo, after Pyr-apelin-13 oral administration (0, 1, 10, and 100 pmol/g), the orexin mRNA level in the hypothalamus of common carp was significantly increased at 1, 6, and 12 h, while CART/(Proopiomelanocortin) POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of common carp were significantly down-regulated. Following incubation with different concentrations of Pyr-apelin-13 (0, 10, 100, and 1000 nM) in primary hepatocytes, GHR (Growth hormone receptor), IGF2 (Insulin-like growth factor 2), IGFBP2 (Insulin like growth factor binding protein 2), and IGFBP3 (Insulin like growth factor binding protein 3) mRNA levels were significantly increased at 3 h. In vivo, the levels of IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1), IGF2, IGFBP2 (Insulin like growth factor binding protein 2), and IGFBP3 mRNA were significantly increased after the oral administration of Pyr-apelin-13 in the hepatopancreas, in a time and dose-dependent manner. These results support the hypothesis that Pyr-apelin-13 might regulate the feeding and growth of common carp through mediating the expressions of appetite- and growth-related genes. Overall, apelin, which is an orexigenic peptide, improves food intake and is involved in the growth of common carp. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Andrographolide Levels on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Intestinal Immune Function and Microbioma of Rice Field Eel (Monopterus Albus)
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101744 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary andrographolide on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity in the liver, intestinal inflammatory response and microbiota of Monopterus albus. A total of 900 health fish (25.00 ± 0.15 g) were randomly [...] Read more.
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary andrographolide on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity in the liver, intestinal inflammatory response and microbiota of Monopterus albus. A total of 900 health fish (25.00 ± 0.15 g) were randomly divided into five groups: AD1 (the basal diet) as the control, and AD2, AD3, AD4 and AD5 groups, which were fed the basal diet supplemented with 75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg andrographolide, respectively. The results showed that compared with the control group, dietary andrographolide supplementation (1) significantly increased trypsin and lipase activities in the intestine, and increased the weight gain rate but not significantly; (2) significantly increased the levels of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the content of in the liver; significantly decreased the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA); remarkably upregulated the Nrf2, SOD1, GSTK and GSTO mRNA levels in the liver; downregulated the Keap1 mRNA level; (3) significantly increased the villi length and goblet cell numbers in the intestine, remarkably upregulated the Occludin mRNA level in the intestine, downregulated the Claudin-15 mRNA level; (4) remarkably upregulated the IL-10, TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in the intestine; downregulated the IL-12β and TLR-3 mRNA levels; (5) significantly decreased the richness and diversity of the intestinal microbioma, increased the percentages of Fusobacteria and Firmicutes and significantly decreased the percentages of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. In conclusion, these results showed that dietary low-dose andrographolide (75 and 150 mg/kg) promoted growth and antioxidant capacity, regulated the intestinal microbioma, enhanced intestinal physical and immune barrier function in rice field eel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seawater Culture Increases Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (N-3 LC-PUFA) Levels in Japanese Sea Bass (Lateolabrax japonicus), Probably by Upregulating Elovl5
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091681 - 17 Sep 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The fatty acid compositions of the fish muscle and liver are substantially affected by rearing environment. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been thoroughly described. In this study, we investigated the effects of different culture patterns, i.e., marine cage culture and [...] Read more.
The fatty acid compositions of the fish muscle and liver are substantially affected by rearing environment. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been thoroughly described. In this study, we investigated the effects of different culture patterns, i.e., marine cage culture and freshwater pond culture, on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in an aquaculturally important fish, the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Fish were obtained from two commercial farms in the Guangdong province, one of which raises Japanese sea bass in freshwater, while the other cultures sea bass in marine cages. Fish were fed the same commercial diet. We found that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) levels in the livers and muscles of the marine cage cultured fish were significantly higher than those in the livers and muscles of the freshwater pond cultured fish. Quantitative real-time PCRs indicated that fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) transcript abundance was significantly lower in the livers of the marine cage reared fish as compared to the freshwater pond reared fish, but that fatty acid elongase 5 (Elovl5) transcript abundance was significantly higher. Consistent with this, two of the 28 CpG loci in the FADS2 promoter region were heavily methylated in the marine cage cultured fish, but were only slightly methylated in freshwater pond cultured fish (n = 5 per group). Although the Elovl5 promoter was less methylated in the marine cage reared fish as compared to the freshwater pond reared fish, this difference was not significant. Thus, our results might indicate that Elovl5, not FADS2, plays an important role in the enhancing LC-PUFA synthesis in marine cage cultures. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Immune Responses of Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer to Dietary Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091629 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 453
Abstract
To understand the impacts of dietary Glycyrrhiza uralensis on the immune responses of Lates calcarifer, the expression of immune-related genes including crp, c-3, c-4, mtor, mlst-8, eif4e, hsp-70, hsp-90, il-8il-8, il-10, tgfβ1 [...] Read more.
To understand the impacts of dietary Glycyrrhiza uralensis on the immune responses of Lates calcarifer, the expression of immune-related genes including crp, c-3, c-4, mtor, mlst-8, eif4e, hsp-70, hsp-90, il-8il-8, il-10, tgfβ1, tnf, ifn-γ1, and mxf in L. calcarifer juveniles was evaluated in this study. Fish were fed experimental diets with G. uralensis levels of 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% for 56 days. The results showed that dietary G. uralensis could improve the growth and survival of L. calcarifer and regulate the immune-related genes’ expression in L. calcarifer. Dietary G. uralensis significantly upregulated the expression level of crp, mtor, hsp-90, c-3, and c-4 genes in the liver of L. calcarifer, while hsp-70 gene expression was nearly downregulated. It did not upregulate the expression of elf4e and mlst-8 in the 1% and 3% inclusion groups, but it was the exact opposite in the 5% inclusion group. G. uralensis significantly affected the expression of il-8, il-10, tnf, ifn-γ1, mxf, and tgfβ1 in the head kidney of L. calcarifer. G. uralensis upregulated the expression of tnf and tgfβ1 consistently, but ifn-γ1 was at a low expression level. The expression of il-8 and il-10 was upregulated in the 1% group, while it was downregulated in the 5% group. The results from the present study indicate that dietary G. uralensis appeared to improve the immune function of L. calcarifer, and the optimum inclusion level should be between 1–3%. Full article
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