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Open AccessArticle

The Regulatory Role of Apelin on the Appetite and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112163
Received: 3 November 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
Food intake and growth are two interrelated physiological processes. Fish obtain energy from the outside to meet their own growth and development through food intake. Apelin, as a new endocrine factor, plays a wide range of biological roles. Among them, apelin’s role in regulating appetite and growth has attracted the attention of researchers. Based on our investigations, in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that Pyr-apelin-13 could induce significant changes in mRNA levels of appetite-related and growth-related genes, suggesting that Pyr-apelin-13 may regulate the appetite and growth of common carp by regulating the expression of these key genes.
Apelin, a kind of active polypeptide, has many biological functions, such as promoting food intake, enhancing immunity, and regulating energy balance. In mammals, studies have indicated that apelin is involved in regulating food intake. However, there are relatively few studies about the regulatory effect of apelin on fish feeding, and the specific mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate the regulatory effects of apelin on key genes of feeding and growth in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) through in vitro and in vivo experiments. In the present study, after incubation with different concentrations of Pyr-apelin-13 (0, 10, 100, and 1000 nM) in hypothalamic fragments, the expressions of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti related peptide (AgRP) mRNA were significantly up-regulated at 12 and 3 h, respectively, and the significant down-regulation of Cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) mRNA expression was observed at 1 and 3 h. In vivo, after Pyr-apelin-13 oral administration (0, 1, 10, and 100 pmol/g), the orexin mRNA level in the hypothalamus of common carp was significantly increased at 1, 6, and 12 h, while CART/(Proopiomelanocortin) POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of common carp were significantly down-regulated. Following incubation with different concentrations of Pyr-apelin-13 (0, 10, 100, and 1000 nM) in primary hepatocytes, GHR (Growth hormone receptor), IGF2 (Insulin-like growth factor 2), IGFBP2 (Insulin like growth factor binding protein 2), and IGFBP3 (Insulin like growth factor binding protein 3) mRNA levels were significantly increased at 3 h. In vivo, the levels of IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1), IGF2, IGFBP2 (Insulin like growth factor binding protein 2), and IGFBP3 mRNA were significantly increased after the oral administration of Pyr-apelin-13 in the hepatopancreas, in a time and dose-dependent manner. These results support the hypothesis that Pyr-apelin-13 might regulate the feeding and growth of common carp through mediating the expressions of appetite- and growth-related genes. Overall, apelin, which is an orexigenic peptide, improves food intake and is involved in the growth of common carp. View Full-Text
Keywords: apelin; appetite; growth; Cyprinus carpio L. apelin; appetite; growth; Cyprinus carpio L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, X.; Qin, C.; Yang, G.; Deng, D.; Yang, L.; Feng, J.; Mi, J.; Nie, G. The Regulatory Role of Apelin on the Appetite and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.). Animals 2020, 10, 2163. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112163

AMA Style

Yan X, Qin C, Yang G, Deng D, Yang L, Feng J, Mi J, Nie G. The Regulatory Role of Apelin on the Appetite and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.). Animals. 2020; 10(11):2163. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yan, Xiao; Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Guokun; Deng, Dapeng; Yang, Liping; Feng, Junchang; Mi, Jiali; Nie, Guoxing. 2020. "The Regulatory Role of Apelin on the Appetite and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)" Animals 10, no. 11: 2163. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112163

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