Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 40238

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Queensland Bioscience Precinct, CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Brisbane 4067, Australia
Interests: aquaculture nutrition; finfish; crustaceans; aquafeed; digestive physiology

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Guest Editor
CSIRO Agriculture and Food
Interests: aquaculture systems; biofloc; aquaponics, nutrition, water quality, reproduction, larval rearing

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Guest Editor
Livestock and Aquaculture Program—Nutrition and Production system group, The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Woorim, QLD 4507, Australia
Interests: fish nutrition; aquaculture nutrition; feed manufacturing technology; aquaculture; mariculture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
Interests: biofloc; feed additives; nutrition; microbiology; integrated aquaculture multi-trophic systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research in Penaeid shrimp culture has been ongoing for the last five decades and supports one of the fastest growing global primary industries, with total aquaculture volumes in 2018 of 6 million metric tons and a value of USD38.5 billions. The industry is dominated by the whileleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, which account for 83% and 13% of global production volume, respectively. Today, shrimp production utilizes a range of production strategies, from extensive to super-intensive systems, to improve productivity, feed conversion efficiency, biosecurity, and reduce impacts on the environment. New innovative production technologies and high-quality, sustainably sourced feeds are increasingly relied upon to grow this sector and deliver a premium cultured seafood product globally.

We invite review and original research papers related to recent advances in shrimp culture, feeds and feeding, including technological advances and nutritional aspects relevant to their culture and marketing over the entire production process, from breeding, larval rearing, to grow-out and entry into the food supply chain.   

Dr. Cedric J. Simon 
Dr. Mauricio G.C. Emerenciano 
Dr. Artur Rombenso
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • crustacean aquaculture
  • prawn
  • nutrition
  • requirement
  • metabolism
  • ingredients
  • nutrients
  • hatchery
  • reproduction
  • new technologies
  • culture systems
  • automatic feeder
  • management
  • water quality

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4659 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Mannanase-Producing Bacteria for Potential Synbiotic Application in Shrimp Farming
by Witida Sathitkowitchai, Ponsit Sathapondecha, Pacharaporn Angthong, Yanee Srimarut, Yuwares Malila, Wuttichai Nakkongkam, Sage Chaiyapechara, Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri, Suttipun Keawsompong and Wanilada Rungrassamee
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192583 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Prebiotics such as mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) are a promising approach to improve performance and disease resistance in shrimp. To improve prebiotic utilization, we investigated the potential probiotics and their feasibility of synbiotic use in vitro. Two bacterial isolates, Man26 and Man122, were isolated from [...] Read more.
Prebiotics such as mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) are a promising approach to improve performance and disease resistance in shrimp. To improve prebiotic utilization, we investigated the potential probiotics and their feasibility of synbiotic use in vitro. Two bacterial isolates, Man26 and Man122, were isolated from shrimp intestines and screened for mannanase, the enzyme for mannan digestion. The crude mannanase from both isolates showed optimal activities at pH 8 with optimum temperatures at 60 °C and 50 °C, respectively. The enzymes remained stable at pH 8–10 for 3 h (>70% relative activity). The thermostability range of Man26 was 20–40 °C for 20 min (>50%), while that of Man122 was 20–60 °C for 30 min (>50%). The Vmax of Man122 against locust bean gum substrate was 41.15 ± 12.33 U·mg−1, six times higher than that of Man26. The Km of Man26 and Man122 were 18.92 ± 4.36 mg·mL−1 and 34.53 ± 14.46 mg·mL−1, respectively. With the addition of crude enzymes, reducing sugars of copra meal, palm kernel cake, and soybean meal were significantly increased (p < 0.05), as well as protein release. The results suggest that Man26 and Man122 could potentially be used in animal feeds and synbiotically with copra meal to improve absorption and utilization of feedstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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18 pages, 2947 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Moist Heat Resistance of Ascorbic Acid through Encapsulation in Egg Yolk–Chitosan Composite: Application for Production of Highly Nutritious Shrimp Feed Pellets
by Jidapa Jaroensaensuai, Saowakon Wongsasulak, Tipaporn Yoovidhya, Sakamon Devahastin and Wanilada Rungrassamee
Animals 2022, 12(18), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182384 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
Egg yolk (EY) is an excellent supplement for aquatic animals and has good technofunctionality. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent bioactive substance and is essentially added to shrimp feed; however, it is drastically lost in both feed processing and in rearing environments. In [...] Read more.
Egg yolk (EY) is an excellent supplement for aquatic animals and has good technofunctionality. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent bioactive substance and is essentially added to shrimp feed; however, it is drastically lost in both feed processing and in rearing environments. In this study, AA was microencapsulated in an EY–chitosan (CS) composite. The encapsulated vitamin was then mixed into a shrimp feed mixture to form pelleted feed via twin-screw extrusion. The effects of the EY/AA ratio and the amount of CS on moist heat resistance, production yield, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and morphology of microcapsules were investigated. The molecular interaction of the microcapsule components was analyzed by FTIR. The size and size distribution of the microcapsules were determined using a laser diffraction analyzer. The microstructure was evaluated by SEM. The physical properties of the microcapsule-fortified pelleted feed were determined. The AA retention at each step of feed processing and during exposure to seawater was evaluated. The results showed that the microcapsules had a spherical shape with an average diameter of ~6.0 μm. Decreasing the EY/AA ratio significantly improved the production yield, EE, and morphology of the microcapsules. EY proved to be the key component for moist heat resistance, while CS majorly improved the production yield, EE, and morphology of the microcapsules. The microcapsules showed no adverse impact on feed properties. The loss of AA in food processing and seawater was remarkably improved. The final content of the encapsulated AA remaining in shrimp feed was 16-fold higher than that of the unencapsulated AA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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16 pages, 1759 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Nucleotide Supplementation on Performance, Profitability, and Disease Resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Indonesia under Intensive Outdoor Pond Conditions
by Romi Novriadi, Oriol Roigé and Sergi Segarra
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162036 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in Indonesia. A total of 22,500 shrimp receiving diets in which fish meal (FM) had been partially replaced with vegetable protein sources were classified into five [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in Indonesia. A total of 22,500 shrimp receiving diets in which fish meal (FM) had been partially replaced with vegetable protein sources were classified into five study groups (4500 shrimp/group) and received different diets for 110 days: 10FM (control group; 10% FM), 6FM (6% FM—low FM and no nucleotide supplementation), 10FMN (10% FM; 0.1% nucleotides), 8FMN (8% FM; 0.1% nucleotides) and 6FMN (6% FM; 0.1% nucleotides). Growth performance, body composition, total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme activity, and hepatopancreas histopathology were assessed. Organoleptic evaluation and profitability assessments were also performed. In addition, shrimp resistance to a Vibrio harveyi challenge was studied in shrimps after having received the diets for 30 days. Results showed that reducing FM had a negative impact on growth performance and hepatopancreas morphology. Adding nucleotides resulted in better performance and profitability, a healthier histomorphological appearance of the hepatopancreas, and significantly higher survival rates upon challenge with V. harveyi, while it did not negatively affect organoleptic parameters. In conclusion, nucleotide supplementation could be useful for optimizing performance, profitability, and disease resistance in shrimp cultured under intensive outdoor pond conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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15 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Effects of Microalgae Addition and Fish Feed Supplementation in the Integrated Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp and Nile Tilapia Using Biofloc Technology
by Vitor F. Silva, Patriula K. M. Pereira, Mateus A. Martins, Marco A. d. Lorenzo, Herculano Cella, Rafael G. Lopes, Roberto B. Derner, Paola Magallón-Servín and Felipe d. N. Vieira
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121527 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate a Pacific white shrimp and Nile tilapia integrated system using biofloc technology with or without the addition of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and with or without fish feed supplementation in a two-factor 62-day experiment. The shrimp (2.16 ± [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate a Pacific white shrimp and Nile tilapia integrated system using biofloc technology with or without the addition of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and with or without fish feed supplementation in a two-factor 62-day experiment. The shrimp (2.16 ± 0.01 g) were reared under a density of 400 shrimp m−3 and the fish (1.53 ± 0.12 g) were reared under a density of 522 fish m−3. The microalgae was added to the culture water two times a week. Growth performance, sludge production, and water microbiology were evaluated. Fish feed and the microalgae addition improved fish final biomass in 58% and 14%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fish survival was significantly higher when microalgae was added (93.9 ± 1.8%) compared with the treatments without microalgae addition (86.2 ± 7.6%) (p < 0.05). The yield of the overall system was higher in the treatments with fish feed supplementation (4.2 ± 0.2 kg m−3) compared with no addition (3.9 ± 0.2 kg m−3) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that fish feed supplementation at the rate of 1% of the biomass and microalgae inoculation can improve fish growth performance and system yield, without affecting sludge production and water microbiology. This work is an expansion of a conference paper with the same title. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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20 pages, 2944 KiB  
Article
Moringa oleifera Leaves’ Extract Enhances Nonspecific Immune Responses, Resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus, and Growth in Whiteleg Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei)
by Zaenal Abidin, Huai-Ting Huang, Zhen-Hao Liao, Bo-Ying Chen, Yu-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ju Lin and Fan-Hua Nan
Animals 2022, 12(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12010042 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4580
Abstract
Moringa is widely known as a plant with high medicinal properties. Therefore, moringa has a high potential for use as an immunostimulant in shrimp. This study investigated the effect of a moringa water extract on the immune response, resistance against V. alginolyticus, [...] Read more.
Moringa is widely known as a plant with high medicinal properties. Therefore, moringa has a high potential for use as an immunostimulant in shrimp. This study investigated the effect of a moringa water extract on the immune response, resistance against V. alginolyticus, and growth performance of whiteleg shrimp. To perform the in vitro assay, hemocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the moringa extract. Furthermore, the moringa extract was incorporated at 0 (control), 1.25 g (ME1.25), 2.5 g (ME2.5), and 5.0 g (ME5.0) per kg of diet for the in vivo assay. During the rearing period, immune responses, namely the total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, phagocytosis activity, superoxide anion production, and immune-related gene expression were examined on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Growth performance was measured 60 days after the feeding period. Furthermore, the shrimp were challenged with V. alginolyticus after being fed for different feeding durations. The results of the in vitro assay revealed that 100–250 ppm of the moringa extract enhanced the PO activity, phagocytic rate (PR), and superoxide anion production. The findings of the in vivo assay demonstrated that the THC, PO activity, PR, and immune-related gene expression, including alpha-2-macroglobulin, prophenoloxidase II, penaeidin2, penaeidin3, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, crustin, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, and clotting protein, were higher in the group of ME.25 and ME5.0 than in the control and ME1.25 at several time points. Growth performance was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the ME2.5 group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the dietary ME2.5 resulted in a higher survival rate compared to that of the control group after challenging with V. alginolyticus, especially at ME2.5 administered for 4 and 7 days. This study indicated that the incorporation of the moringa extract at 2.5 g per kg of diet enhanced the immune response, the growth performance of the whiteleg shrimp, and the resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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21 pages, 1554 KiB  
Article
Dietary Probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M Improves the Growth, Feed Performance and Antioxidant Status of Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris: A Growth-Ration-Size Approach
by Mathieu Castex, Eric Leclercq, Pierrette Lemaire and Liêt Chim
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123451 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Probiotics are increasingly documented to confer health and performance benefits across farmed animals. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a constant daily intake of the single-strain probiotic Pedicococcus acidilactici MA18/5M (4 × 108 CFU.day−1.kg−1 [...] Read more.
Probiotics are increasingly documented to confer health and performance benefits across farmed animals. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a constant daily intake of the single-strain probiotic Pedicococcus acidilactici MA18/5M (4 × 108 CFU.day−1.kg−1 shrimp) fed over fixed, restricted ration sizes (1% to 6% biomass.day−1) on the nutritional performance and metabolism of adult penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (initial body-weight, BWi = 10.9 ± 1.8 g). The probiotic significantly increased the relative daily growth rate (RGR) across all ration size s tested (Mean-RGR of 0.45 ± 0.08 and 0.61 ± 0.07% BWi.day−1 for the control and probiotic groups, respectively) and decreased the maintenance ration (Rm) and the optimal ration (Ropt) by 18.6% and 11.3%, respectively. Accordingly, the probiotic group exhibited a significantly higher gross (K1) and net (K2) feed conversion efficiency with average improvement of 35% and 30%, respectively. Enhanced nutritional performances in shrimps that were fed the probiotic P. acidilactici was associated with, in particular, significantly higher α-amylase specific activity (+24.8 ± 5.5% across ration sizes) and a concentration of free-glucose and glycogen in the digestive gland at fixed ration sizes of 3% and below. This suggests that the probiotic effect might reside in a better use of dietary carbohydrates. Interestingly, P. acidilactici intake was also associated with a statistically enhanced total antioxidant status of the digestive gland and haemolymph (+24.4 ± 7.8% and +21.9 ± 8.5%, respectively; p < 0.05). As supported by knowledge in other species, enhanced carbohydrate utilization as a result of P. acidilactici intake may fuel the pentose-phosphate pathway, generating NADPH or directly enhancing OH-radicals scavenging by free glucose, in turn resulting in a decreased level of cellular oxidative stress. In conclusion, the growth-ration method documented a clear contribution of P. acidilactici MA18/5M on growth and feed efficiency of on-growing L. stylirostris that were fed fixed restricted rations under ideal laboratory conditions. The effect of the probiotic on α-amylase activity and carbohydrate metabolism and its link to the shrimp’s antioxidant status raises interesting prospects to optimize dietary formulations and helping to sustain the biological and economic efficiency of the penaeid shrimp-farming industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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17 pages, 1729 KiB  
Article
Feeding Behaviour and Bioavailability of Essential Amino Acids in Shrimp Penaeus monodon Fed Fresh and Leached Fishmeal and Fishmeal-Free Diets
by Cedric J. Simon, Ha Truong, Natalie Habilay and Barney Hines
Animals 2021, 11(3), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030847 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3218
Abstract
The complete replacement of fishmeal with terrestrial meals did not have a negative impact on the attractiveness, palatability, and apparent digestibility of the formulation. Shrimp were found on average to eat more and have similar appetite revival on the terrestrial meal-based formulation (TM) [...] Read more.
The complete replacement of fishmeal with terrestrial meals did not have a negative impact on the attractiveness, palatability, and apparent digestibility of the formulation. Shrimp were found on average to eat more and have similar appetite revival on the terrestrial meal-based formulation (TM) diet compared to the traditional fishmeal-based formulation (FM) diet. However, methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) leached out rapidly from the TM diet, and as a result, this initially overfortified diet showed lower levels of those AA in comparison to FM after 60 min immersion. Both dietary Lys and Met were sub-optimal in TM within 120 min of immersion, whereas in comparison, the FM diet supplied consistent levels of EAA for up to 240 min immersion. Nonetheless, shrimp fed fresh TM had significantly higher peak haemolymph concentrations at 30 and 60 min for total AA, Met, and Lys than FM-fed shrimp. The over-supply of CAA far compensated leaching losses, and CAA were well absorbed and used by the shrimp within 120 min, with no obvious signs of asynchronous absorption of CAA to protein-bound AA. However, shrimp fed the TM diet that had leached out for 60 min, had haemolymph concentrations of Met and Lys that were only 41% and 44% of the ones on fresh feed respectively, while there was a negligible effect of leaching on FM. This study provides further insight into the feeding behaviour and bioavailability of dietary amino acids for P. monodon juveniles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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16 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Nannochloropsis spp. as Feed Additive for the Pacific White Shrimp: Effect on Midgut Microbiology, Thermal Shock Resistance and Immunology
by Ariane Martins Guimarães, Cristhiane Guertler, Gabriella do Vale Pereira, Jaqueline da Rosa Coelho, Priscila Costa Rezende, Renata Oselame Nóbrega and Felipe do Nascimento Vieira
Animals 2021, 11(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010150 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
This work aimed to evaluate Nannochloropsis spp. as feed additive in the diet of Pacific white shrimp for their effect on midgut microbiology, thermal shock resistance and immunological parameters. Initially, the digestibility of the microalgae meal was assessed, and the apparent digestibility coefficient [...] Read more.
This work aimed to evaluate Nannochloropsis spp. as feed additive in the diet of Pacific white shrimp for their effect on midgut microbiology, thermal shock resistance and immunological parameters. Initially, the digestibility of the microalgae meal was assessed, and the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) was determined. The ADC was, in general, high in lipids (78.88%) and eicosapentaenoic fatty acid (73.86%). Then, Nannochloropsis spp. were included in diets at four levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2% inclusion). The shrimp were reared in 500 L clear water tanks containing 20 shrimp per tank with an initial weight of 6.05 ± 0.06 g and fed four times a day. Shrimp fed with supplemented diets containing Nannochloropsis spp. (0.5 and 2%) presented higher resistance to thermal shock when compared to the non-supplemented group (control). Shrimp fed with 1 and 2% of algae inclusion had a higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when compared to other treatments. No statistical difference was observed in the immunological parameters and microbiology of the intestinal tract. Thus, the inclusion of Nannochloropsis spp. in shrimp diets at 0.5 and 2% levels increases resistance to thermal shock and ROS production in shrimp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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16 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Growth, Metabolite, Antioxidative Capacity, Transcriptome, and the Metabolome Response to Dietary Choline Chloride in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
by Maoxian Huang, Hongxing Lin, Chang Xu, Qiuran Yu, Xiaodan Wang, Jian G. Qin, Liqiao Chen, Fenglu Han and Erchao Li
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122246 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
To determine the response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to different levels of dietary choline, juvenile white shrimp (1.75 ± 0.09 g) were fed six semi-purified diets supplemented with 0 (control), 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 12,000 mg/kg choline chloride for eight [...] Read more.
To determine the response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to different levels of dietary choline, juvenile white shrimp (1.75 ± 0.09 g) were fed six semi-purified diets supplemented with 0 (control), 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 12,000 mg/kg choline chloride for eight weeks. Growth performance, whole-body composition, serum characteristics and hepatopancreatic antioxidant indexes were evaluated. Meanwhile, serum metabolome and hepatopancreas transcriptome were performed to examine the overall difference in metabolite and gene expression. The weight gain, survival, specific growth rate, condition factor and hepatosomatic index were not affected by dietary choline levels. The shrimp fed 6000 mg/kg dietary choline chloride gained the maximal whole-body crude protein, which was significantly higher than that of shrimp fed with 12,000 mg/kg dietary choline. Serum total cholesterol of shrimp fed 6000 mg/kg dietary choline was higher than that in shrimp fed 4000 mg/kg choline. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in shrimp hepatopancreas. Compared with the shrimp fed 6000 mg/kg dietary choline chloride, the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway was significantly enriched in the shrimp fed 0 mg/kg dietary choline chloride, and the choline content and bile salt-activated lipase-like expression were upregulated. The expression of trypsin-1-like in protein digestion and absorption pathway was significantly downregulated in the shrimp fed 12,000 mg/kg dietary choline chloride. Apolipoprotein D might be a potential biomarker in shrimp, and dietary choline played an important role in lipid metabolism, especially in the reduction of oxidative damage in L. vannamei. Based on the results of weight gain and degree of oxidative damage, 1082 mg/kg dietary choline could meet the growth requirement of L. vannamei, but 2822 mg/kg dietary choline was needed to reduce peroxidation damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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25 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Determining the Importance of Macro and Trace Dietary Minerals on Growth and Nutrient Retention in Juvenile Penaeus monodon
by Ha H. Truong, Amy F. Moss, Nicholas A. Bourne and Cedric J. Simon
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112086 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3727
Abstract
Twelve minerals were screened to identify key dietary minerals important for Penaeus monodon growth. The minerals selected included boron, calcium plus phosphorus (assessed in tandem at a 1:1 ratio), cobalt, copper, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, strontium and zinc. Twelve purified casein/gelatin-based diets [...] Read more.
Twelve minerals were screened to identify key dietary minerals important for Penaeus monodon growth. The minerals selected included boron, calcium plus phosphorus (assessed in tandem at a 1:1 ratio), cobalt, copper, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, strontium and zinc. Twelve purified casein/gelatin-based diets were formulated and contained minerals at two levels: below expected requirements, as attributed by the basal formulation (−) and above expected requirements by adding inorganic minerals (+). The two levels were allocated to dietary treatments in juvenile prawns in accordance with the PB design. A two-level screening analysis was employed where effect of each mineral at level − or + across twelve diets were compared to identify the minerals of importance for culture performance of juvenile prawns. Calcium plus phosphorus (at a 1:1 ratio), magnesium, boron, manganese, selenium and zinc produced the greatest positive effects on weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, biomass gain and nutrient/energy retention. Particularly, boron and manganese significantly increased retention of key macronutrients and energy including gross energy, crude protein and crude lipid. Our study demonstrates the importance of several macro and trace minerals in prawn diets and the pressing need to refine their requirements for P. monodon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)

Review

Jump to: Research

39 pages, 2783 KiB  
Review
Intensification of Penaeid Shrimp Culture: An Applied Review of Advances in Production Systems, Nutrition and Breeding
by Maurício G. C. Emerenciano, Artur N. Rombenso, Felipe d. N. Vieira, Mateus A. Martins, Greg J. Coman, Ha H. Truong, Tansyn H. Noble and Cedric J. Simon
Animals 2022, 12(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030236 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 10346
Abstract
Intensification of the shrimp sector, also referred to as vertical expansion, has been predominately driven by consecutive incidences of global disease outbreaks, which have caused enormous economic loss for the main producer countries. A growing segment of the shrimp farming industry has opted [...] Read more.
Intensification of the shrimp sector, also referred to as vertical expansion, has been predominately driven by consecutive incidences of global disease outbreaks, which have caused enormous economic loss for the main producer countries. A growing segment of the shrimp farming industry has opted to use production systems with higher density, biosecurity, and operating control to mitigate the risks posed by disease. However, successful super-intensive shrimp production is reliant on an advanced understanding of many important biological and economic parameters in the farming system, coupled with effective monitoring, to maintain optimal production. Compared to traditional extensive or semi-intensive systems, super-intensive systems require higher inputs of feed, energy, labor, and supplements. These systems are highly sensitive to the interactions between these different inputs and require that the biological and economical parameters of farming are carefully balanced to ensure success. Advancing nutritional knowledge and tools to support consistent and efficient production of shrimp in these high-cost super-intensive systems is also necessary. Breeding programs developing breeding-lines selected for these challenging super-intensive environments are critical. Understanding synergies between the key areas of production systems, nutrition, and breeding are crucial for super-intensive farming as all three areas coalesce to influence the health of shrimp and commercial farming success. This article reviews current strategies and innovations being used for Litopenaeus vannamei in production systems, nutrition, and breeding, and discusses the synergies across these areas that can support the production of healthy and high-quality shrimp in super-intensive systems. Finally, we briefly discuss some key issues of social license pertinent to the super-intensive shrimp farming industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Feeds and Feeding)
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