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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Dietary Andrographolide Levels on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Intestinal Immune Function and Microbioma of Rice Field Eel (Monopterus Albus)

by 1,†, 1,2,†, 1, 1, 1, 1 and 1,2,*
1
Hunan Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Characteristics of Aquatic Resources, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
2
Hunan Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed to this work equally.
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101744
Received: 22 August 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
This study investigated the effects of dietary andrographolide on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, intestinal immune function and microbioma of rice field eel. This study indicated that the diets supplemented with low-dose andrographolide (75 and 150 mg/kg) significantly improved growth performance, enhanced antioxidant capacity and regulated the intestinal physical barrier and microbiota of M. albus. In addition, dietary supplementation of andrographolide upregulated of anti-inflammatory cytokines and downregulated of proinflammatory cytokines. The anti-inflammatory function of andrographolide may be related to the suppression of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway. These results can provide the valuable data for future rice field eel feeds.
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary andrographolide on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity in the liver, intestinal inflammatory response and microbiota of Monopterus albus. A total of 900 health fish (25.00 ± 0.15 g) were randomly divided into five groups: AD1 (the basal diet) as the control, and AD2, AD3, AD4 and AD5 groups, which were fed the basal diet supplemented with 75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg andrographolide, respectively. The results showed that compared with the control group, dietary andrographolide supplementation (1) significantly increased trypsin and lipase activities in the intestine, and increased the weight gain rate but not significantly; (2) significantly increased the levels of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the content of in the liver; significantly decreased the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA); remarkably upregulated the Nrf2, SOD1, GSTK and GSTO mRNA levels in the liver; downregulated the Keap1 mRNA level; (3) significantly increased the villi length and goblet cell numbers in the intestine, remarkably upregulated the Occludin mRNA level in the intestine, downregulated the Claudin-15 mRNA level; (4) remarkably upregulated the IL-10, TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in the intestine; downregulated the IL-12β and TLR-3 mRNA levels; (5) significantly decreased the richness and diversity of the intestinal microbioma, increased the percentages of Fusobacteria and Firmicutes and significantly decreased the percentages of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. In conclusion, these results showed that dietary low-dose andrographolide (75 and 150 mg/kg) promoted growth and antioxidant capacity, regulated the intestinal microbioma, enhanced intestinal physical and immune barrier function in rice field eel. View Full-Text
Keywords: andrographolide; Monopterus albus; growth; antioxidant capacity; intestinal immune; intestinal microbioma andrographolide; Monopterus albus; growth; antioxidant capacity; intestinal immune; intestinal microbioma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shi, Y.; Zhong, L.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lv, Z.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y. Effects of Dietary Andrographolide Levels on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Intestinal Immune Function and Microbioma of Rice Field Eel (Monopterus Albus). Animals 2020, 10, 1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101744

AMA Style

Shi Y, Zhong L, Liu Y, Zhang J, Lv Z, Li Y, Hu Y. Effects of Dietary Andrographolide Levels on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Intestinal Immune Function and Microbioma of Rice Field Eel (Monopterus Albus). Animals. 2020; 10(10):1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shi, Yong; Zhong, Lei; Liu, Yanli; Zhang, Junzhi; Lv, Zhao; Li, Yao; Hu, Yi. 2020. "Effects of Dietary Andrographolide Levels on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Intestinal Immune Function and Microbioma of Rice Field Eel (Monopterus Albus)" Animals 10, no. 10: 1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101744

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