Special Issue "Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Cattle".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 8537

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Beata Kuczyńska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Animal Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: cattle breeding; organic production of milk; bioactive substances of milk; technological parameters of milk; modern instrumental methods
Prof. Jolanta Król
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Quality Assessment and Processing of Animal Products, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Interests: milk production; milk quality; milk protein; whey protein; milk products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Under the European Commission's provisions, a new policy has been implemented in recent months, encompassing the "Green order" and a "field-to-table" strategy. Both plans envisage significant changes in the functioning of European economies, including the dairy sector, which will be prioritised over the coming years. Zero carbon footprint, recycling, organic food, biodiversity, zero waste – these are the catchwords of these plans.

Today, the carbon footprint per unit of milk produced in Europe is among the lowest in the world. Many European dairy companies have already committed to a carbon-neutral chain by 2035, with ambitious reduction targets by 2030. Moreover, the sequestration of coal by pasture can balance the share of emissions from dairy production and other sectors, in addition to increasing soil biodiversity. Thus a return to traditional grazing of cattle and sustainable production systems has many benefits. Natural enrichment of milk with bioactive substances with excellent health-promoting properties, e.g. CLA, omega 3 acids or fat-soluble vitamins, is confirmed by many researchers.

Depending on the needs of consumers, which are always a priority for producers, dedicated solutions should be addressed to people who value their health and food safety, but also convenience and functionality, as well as to those who are looking for new products. This is in line with the philosophy of the “tailor-made” product.

We are convinced that the dairy sector, as well as other branches of the food industry, will continue to look for innovations associated with milk production.

This is evidenced by all the publications selected for this special edition.

Dr. Beata Kuczyńska
Prof. Jolanta Król
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Innovations
  • Dairy production
  • Organic milk
  • Bioactive substances
  • Technological parameters
  • Sustainable production systems
  • Carbon footprint

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effect of Humic Mineral Substances from Oxyhumolite on the Coagulation Properties and Mineral Content of the Milk of Holstein-Friesian Cows
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071970 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the effect of humic mineral substances from oxyhumolite added to the diet of Holstein-Friesian cows on the coagulation properties, proximate chemical composition, and mineral profile of milk. The experiment was conducted on 64 cows divided into two [...] Read more.
The study was conducted to determine the effect of humic mineral substances from oxyhumolite added to the diet of Holstein-Friesian cows on the coagulation properties, proximate chemical composition, and mineral profile of milk. The experiment was conducted on 64 cows divided into two groups of 32 each, control (CON) and experimental (H). The group H cows received the humic mineral substances as feed additive, containing 65% humic acids, for 60 days (100 g cow/day). Milk samples were collected twice, after 30 and 60 days. After 30 days no significant changes were observed in the chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), mineral content (except potassium), or curd texture parameters. However, the coagulation properties improved. The milk from group H after both 30 and 60 days coagulated significantly (15%) faster on average (p < 0.05), and the curd was about 36% and 28% firmer after 30 and 60 days, respectively (p < 0.05). After 60 days there was an increase in the content of fat (by 0.27 p.p.; p = 0.041), protein (by 0.14 p.p.; p = 0.012), and casein (by 0.12 p.p.; p = 0.029). SCC decreased by 20% (p = 0.023). The curds were significantly harder and less fracturable compared to the control. Calcium and iron content increased as well. The results indicate that humic mineral substances from oxyhumolite in the diet of cows can improve the suitability of milk for cheese production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
Article
Relationship between Temperament and Stage of Lactation, Productivity and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071840 - 22 Jun 2021
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between temperament and milk performance in cows at different stages of lactation, describing their productivity, metabolic status and resistance to mastitis. This study showed that with increasing lactation, cows’ temperament indicators decreased ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between temperament and milk performance in cows at different stages of lactation, describing their productivity, metabolic status and resistance to mastitis. This study showed that with increasing lactation, cows’ temperament indicators decreased (p < 0.001) and they became calmer. The highest temperament score on a five-point scale was found in cows between 45 and 100 days of lactation. In the group of pregnant cows, we found more cows (p = 0.005) with a temperament score of 1–2 compared with non-pregnant cows A normal temperament was usually detected in cows with lactose levels in milk of 4.60% or more and when the somatic cell count (SCC) values in cow milk were <100,000/mL and 100,000–200,000/mL, with a milk fat-to-protein ratio of 1.2. A larger number of more sensitive and highly aggressive cows was detected at a low milk urea level. In contrast to a positive phenotypic correlation (p < 0.05), this study showed a negative genetic correlation between the temperament of cows and milk yield (p < 0.001). Positive genetic correlations between temperament scores and milk somatic cells (p < 0.001) and milk fat-to-protein ratio (p < 0.05) were found to indicate a lower genetic predisposition in cows with a calmer temperament to subclinical mastitis and ketosis. On the other hand, the heritability of temperament (h2 = 0.044–0.100) showed that only a small part of the phenotypic changes in this indicator is associated with genetic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
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Article
Changes in Fatty Acid and Volatile Compound Profiles during Storage of Smoked Cheese Made from the Milk of Native Polish Cow Breeds Raised in the Low Beskids
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112103 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
This study investigated changes in the proximate chemical composition and profiles of fatty acids and volatile compounds of 12 smoked cheeses made from the milk of native Polish cow breeds used in Beskid Niski. Analyses were performed during the shelf life i.e., in [...] Read more.
This study investigated changes in the proximate chemical composition and profiles of fatty acids and volatile compounds of 12 smoked cheeses made from the milk of native Polish cow breeds used in Beskid Niski. Analyses were performed during the shelf life i.e., in the 1st, 21st, 42nd and 69th day of storage. Studies have shown that thanks to smoking and vacuum-packing, the chemical composition of cheese remained stable throughout the whole shelf-life. Up until the 21st day of storage, there were no statistically significant changes in the profile of fatty acids as well as volatile compounds. Changes were observed only after the mentioned storage time. After 21 days, there was a significant (p < 0.05) and steady decrease (up to day 69) in the proportion of odd-chain (by about 36%), branched-chain (by about 17%) and unsaturated fatty acids (by slightly over 1%). Among unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05), however, there was a significant increase in the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (by 5%) and a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids of nearly 12%. Storage lowered (by 47% in the 69th day of storage) the content of the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), as well as lowered the n6 to n3 fatty acids ratio. During the 69 days of storage, the content of carboxylic acids increased to more than 50%. In the period from the 42nd to 69th day of cheese storage, the content of butyric acid and hexanoic acids increased twofold, whereas that of octanoic acid increased more than tenfold. Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified in the cheese. The largest group was ketones (34%), whose level decreased during storage, with 2-butanone, 3-hydroxy- (acetoin) and 2-butanone predominating. The research found that due to their low odor threshold, carboxylic acids may have negatively affected the flavor profile of the cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
Article
The Effect of Selected Factors on the Content of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Macro-Elements in Raw Milk from Holstein-Friesian and Simmental Cows and Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog)
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101800 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the content and retention of selected fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in curd cheese–tvarog made by a traditional method, taking into account the effect of the quality of the raw milk and the type of starter cultures used. [...] Read more.
The study was conducted to determine the content and retention of selected fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in curd cheese–tvarog made by a traditional method, taking into account the effect of the quality of the raw milk and the type of starter cultures used. The raw milk used to make the tvarog was obtained in various conditions, i.e., with and without the use of pasture forage (in a traditional and an intensive system), in two production seasons (spring/summer and autumn/winter), from two breeds raised in Poland (the Black-and-White variety of Polish Holstein-Friesian and Simmental). Two variants of starter cultures were used to make tvarog: Freeze-dried DVS starters (Flora Danica) and pure cultures of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. The acidity and content of protein, fat, selected fat-soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E), and selected macro-elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in samples of bulk milk and cheese. Retention rates of individual nutrients from the milk to the cheese were calculated. A higher content of fat-soluble vitamins was found in milk obtained from Simmental cows kept in a traditional system in the spring/summer season, as well as in the tvarog produced from it. Vitamin retention rates from the raw material to the tvarog were above 90%. The mineral composition of the cheese was not associated with the quality of the milk used. Very low retention rates from milk to cheese were obtained for Ca and Mg (below 20%). Higher retention rates were obtained in the spring/summer season when culture variant 1 was used. However, the starter culture was not found to significantly influence the concentration or retention of vitamins in the experimental cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
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Article
MiR-143 Regulates Milk Fat Synthesis by Targeting Smad3 in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091453 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Milk fat is the main nutritional component of milk and is also an important indicator for evaluating milk quality. Substantial evidence has implicated miRNAs in the synthesis of milk fat. miR-143 is one of the miRNAs closely related to lipid metabolism. Herein, miR-143 [...] Read more.
Milk fat is the main nutritional component of milk and is also an important indicator for evaluating milk quality. Substantial evidence has implicated miRNAs in the synthesis of milk fat. miR-143 is one of the miRNAs closely related to lipid metabolism. Herein, miR-143 upregulation remarkably promoted the production of lipid droplets and increased the level of intracellular triglyceride (TAG). Meanwhile, miR-143 suppression overtly repressed TAG synthesis and lipid droplet accumulation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). At the same time, miR-143 significantly upregulated the genes associated with lipid synthesis, including PPARγ, SCD1, CEBPβ, and SREBP1. To examine the regulatory mechanism of miR-143 in milk fat synthesis, Smad3 was predicted as a new potential miR-143 target gene by TargetScan. Further studies found that miR-143 expression was inversely related to the levels of Smad3 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays confirmed Smad3 to be a miR-143 direct target. Moreover, Smad3 gene silencing significantly increased intracellular TAG level in BMECs. These findings revealed that miR-143 promotes the TAG synthesis in BMECs via increasing the lipid synthesis related gens expression by targeting Smad3. The results of this study can be exploited in devising novel approaches for improving the nutritional value of milk in dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
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Review

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Review
Antioxidant Activity of Milk and Dairy Products
Animals 2022, 12(3), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030245 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
The aim of the study was to present a review of literature data on the antioxidant potential of raw milk and dairy products (milk, fermented products, and cheese) and the possibility to modify its level at the milk production and processing stage. Based [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to present a review of literature data on the antioxidant potential of raw milk and dairy products (milk, fermented products, and cheese) and the possibility to modify its level at the milk production and processing stage. Based on the available reports, it can be concluded that the consumption of products that are a rich source of bioactive components improves the antioxidant status of the organism and reduces the risk of development of many civilization diseases. Milk and dairy products are undoubtedly rich sources of antioxidant compounds. Various methods, in particular, ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH assays, are used for the measurement of the overall antioxidant activity of milk and dairy products. Research indicates differences in the total antioxidant capacity of milk between animal species, which result from the differences in the chemical compositions of their milk. The content of antioxidant components in milk and the antioxidant potential can be modified through animal nutrition (e.g., supplementation of animal diets with various natural additives (herbal mixtures, waste from fruit and vegetable processing)). The antioxidant potential of dairy products is associated with the quality of the raw material as well as the bacterial cultures and natural plant additives used. Antioxidant peptides released during milk fermentation increase the antioxidant capacity of dairy products, and the use of probiotic strains contributes its enhancement. Investigations have shown that the antioxidant activity of dairy products can be enhanced by the addition of plant raw materials or their extracts in the production process. Natural plant additives should therefore be widely used in animal nutrition or as functional additives to dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
Review
Organic versus Conventional Raw Cow Milk as Material for Processing
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102760 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Milk, as one of the basic raw materials of animal origin, must be of adequate hygienic and physicochemical quality for processing. The aim of the article was to compare the quality of raw milk from three production systems, intensive, traditional (together referred to [...] Read more.
Milk, as one of the basic raw materials of animal origin, must be of adequate hygienic and physicochemical quality for processing. The aim of the article was to compare the quality of raw milk from three production systems, intensive, traditional (together referred to as conventional), and organic, as material for processing, as well as the quality of products made from it. Particular attention was focused on hygienic quality (somatic cell count and total bacterial count), physical characteristics (acidity), basic nutritional value (content of dry matter, total protein, casein, fat, and lactose), content of health-promoting substances (whey proteins, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals), and technological parameters (rennet clotting time, heat stability, and protein-to-fat ratio). Research assessing the quality of organic milk and dairy products is significantly less extensive (if available at all) than for milk from conventional production (intensive and traditional). The available reports indicate that raw milk from organic farms is more valuable, especially in terms of the content of health-promoting compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, whey proteins, and minerals. This applies to organic dairy products as well, mainly cheese and yoghurt. This is explained by the fact that organic farming requires that animals are kept in the pasture. However, the hygienic quality of the raw milk, and often the products as well, raises some concerns; for this reason, organic milk producers should be supported in this regard, e.g., through consultancy and training in Good Hygienic Practices. Importantly, milk production in the traditional and organic systems is in line with the concept of the European Green Deal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
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