Next Article in Journal
Efficiency of Tris-Based Extender Steridyl for Semen Cryopreservation in Stallions
Next Article in Special Issue
Changes in Fatty Acid and Volatile Compound Profiles during Storage of Smoked Cheese Made from the Milk of Native Polish Cow Breeds Raised in the Low Beskids
Previous Article in Journal
Small Ruminant Production Based on Rangelands to Optimize Animal Nutrition and Health: Building an Interdisciplinary Approach to Evaluate Nutraceutical Plants
Previous Article in Special Issue
MiR-143 Regulates Milk Fat Synthesis by Targeting Smad3 in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Selected Factors on the Content of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Macro-Elements in Raw Milk from Holstein-Friesian and Simmental Cows and Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog)

1
Institute of Quality Assessment and Processing of Animal Products, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
2
Institute of Animal Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences–SGGW, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101800
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 3 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
Depending on the region, specific methods of cheese production are used. Acid coagulation is applied in the production of the traditional acid curd cheese highly valued in Poland, called ‘tvarog’. It is important to maintain the traditional nature of production that guarantees cheese with a high nutritional value and health-promoting properties. By conducting an analysis of tvarog, taking into account the quality of the raw milk and the type of starter cultures used, we found that the content of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E) mainly depended on the quality of the raw milk from which it was produced. A higher content of fat-soluble vitamins was found in milk obtained from Simmental cows kept in a traditional system in the spring/summer season and in the tvarog produced from it. Vitamin retention rates from raw milk to cheese were above 90%. In contrast, we noticed that the mineral composition of the cheese was not linked to the quality of the milk used. More Ca and Mg were lost with the whey, as indicated by the very low retention rates of these minerals from milk to tvarog (below 20%).
The study was conducted to determine the content and retention of selected fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in curd cheese–tvarog made by a traditional method, taking into account the effect of the quality of the raw milk and the type of starter cultures used. The raw milk used to make the tvarog was obtained in various conditions, i.e., with and without the use of pasture forage (in a traditional and an intensive system), in two production seasons (spring/summer and autumn/winter), from two breeds raised in Poland (the Black-and-White variety of Polish Holstein-Friesian and Simmental). Two variants of starter cultures were used to make tvarog: Freeze-dried DVS starters (Flora Danica) and pure cultures of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. The acidity and content of protein, fat, selected fat-soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E), and selected macro-elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in samples of bulk milk and cheese. Retention rates of individual nutrients from the milk to the cheese were calculated. A higher content of fat-soluble vitamins was found in milk obtained from Simmental cows kept in a traditional system in the spring/summer season, as well as in the tvarog produced from it. Vitamin retention rates from the raw material to the tvarog were above 90%. The mineral composition of the cheese was not associated with the quality of the milk used. Very low retention rates from milk to cheese were obtained for Ca and Mg (below 20%). Higher retention rates were obtained in the spring/summer season when culture variant 1 was used. However, the starter culture was not found to significantly influence the concentration or retention of vitamins in the experimental cheese. View Full-Text
Keywords: Holstein-Friesian breed; Simmental breed; milk; fat-soluble vitamins; macro-elements; retention rates; tvarog Holstein-Friesian breed; Simmental breed; milk; fat-soluble vitamins; macro-elements; retention rates; tvarog
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Król, J.; Wawryniuk, A.; Brodziak, A.; Barłowska, J.; Kuczyńska, B. The Effect of Selected Factors on the Content of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Macro-Elements in Raw Milk from Holstein-Friesian and Simmental Cows and Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog). Animals 2020, 10, 1800.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop