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Review

Organic versus Conventional Raw Cow Milk as Material for Processing

1
Institute of Quality Assessment and Processing of Animal Products, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
2
Institute of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Social Sciences, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Todaro
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102760
Received: 14 June 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 22 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics)
Milk, alongside meat, is one of the basic animal materials of importance in food processing. Most of the world’s milk production is carried out in an intensive system focused on high productivity at the expense of quality. This system is dominant in highly developed countries, while milk production in developing and poorer countries is still carried out in a traditional manner, using silage. The popularity of certified organic milk has been increasing in European countries since the 1990s. The aim of the article was to compare the quality of raw milk from three production systems, intensive, traditional, and organic, as material for processing. Research assessing the quality of organic milk and dairy products is much less extensive than for conventionally produced milk (intensive and traditional). The available reports indicate that raw milk from organic farms is more valuable, particularly in terms of the content of health-promoting compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, whey proteins, and minerals. This stems from the fact that animals in organic farming are kept in the pasture. However, the hygienic quality of the raw milk raises some concerns, and organic milk producers should be supported in this regard, e.g., through consultancy and training. Importantly, milk production in traditional and organic systems is in line with the concept of the European Green Deal.
Milk, as one of the basic raw materials of animal origin, must be of adequate hygienic and physicochemical quality for processing. The aim of the article was to compare the quality of raw milk from three production systems, intensive, traditional (together referred to as conventional), and organic, as material for processing, as well as the quality of products made from it. Particular attention was focused on hygienic quality (somatic cell count and total bacterial count), physical characteristics (acidity), basic nutritional value (content of dry matter, total protein, casein, fat, and lactose), content of health-promoting substances (whey proteins, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals), and technological parameters (rennet clotting time, heat stability, and protein-to-fat ratio). Research assessing the quality of organic milk and dairy products is significantly less extensive (if available at all) than for milk from conventional production (intensive and traditional). The available reports indicate that raw milk from organic farms is more valuable, especially in terms of the content of health-promoting compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, whey proteins, and minerals. This applies to organic dairy products as well, mainly cheese and yoghurt. This is explained by the fact that organic farming requires that animals are kept in the pasture. However, the hygienic quality of the raw milk, and often the products as well, raises some concerns; for this reason, organic milk producers should be supported in this regard, e.g., through consultancy and training in Good Hygienic Practices. Importantly, milk production in the traditional and organic systems is in line with the concept of the European Green Deal. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; production system; organic dairy products; yoghurt; cheese; bioactive compounds; mycotoxins; technological parameters milk; production system; organic dairy products; yoghurt; cheese; bioactive compounds; mycotoxins; technological parameters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brodziak, A.; Wajs, J.; Zuba-Ciszewska, M.; Król, J.; Stobiecka, M.; Jańczuk, A. Organic versus Conventional Raw Cow Milk as Material for Processing. Animals 2021, 11, 2760. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102760

AMA Style

Brodziak A, Wajs J, Zuba-Ciszewska M, Król J, Stobiecka M, Jańczuk A. Organic versus Conventional Raw Cow Milk as Material for Processing. Animals. 2021; 11(10):2760. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102760

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brodziak, Aneta, Joanna Wajs, Maria Zuba-Ciszewska, Jolanta Król, Magdalena Stobiecka, and Anna Jańczuk. 2021. "Organic versus Conventional Raw Cow Milk as Material for Processing" Animals 11, no. 10: 2760. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102760

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