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Article

Supplementing Garlic Nanohydrogel Optimized Growth, Gastrointestinal Integrity and Economics and Ameliorated Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens Using a Clostridium perfringens Challenge Model

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Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Turabah University College, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Matrouh University, Matrouh 51511, Egypt
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Department of Bacteriology, Zagazig Branch, Agriculture Research Center, Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Department of Biochemistry, Zagazig Branch, Agriculture Research Center, Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Department of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Zagazig Branch, Agriculture Research Center, Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Department of Animal Wealth Development, Biostatistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mahmoud M. Naguib, Ahmed Samy Ibrahim and Antonio José Piantino Ferreira
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072027
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 22 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 7 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most serious diseases in terms of economic losses. Aspects related to application of nanotechnology to control outbreaks of NE due to Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) are not completely understood. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of garlic nano-hydrogel (G-NHG) on the performance, intestinal integrity, economic returns and alleviation of the intestinal C. perfringens levels using an NE challenge model in broiler chickens. Dietary inclusion of 400 mg/kg of G-NHG improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The digestive enzymes and tight junction and gut barrier-related genes expression were negatively impacted post C. perfringens challenge, resulting in a decrease in BWG with an increase in FCR. Meanwhile, G-NHG supplementation decreased C. perfringens levels, mortality rates and intestinal lesion score, and thereby improved intestinal permeability measurements, which consequently resulted in improved growth performance parameters. In conclusion, G-NHG markedly ameliorated the negative effects of C. perfringens challenge, which positively reflected on the growth performance of challenged birds, suggesting its beneficial effects in controlling C. perfringens infection in broiler chickens.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) results in impaired bird growth performance and increased production costs. Nanotechnology application in the poultry industry to control NE outbreaks is still not completely clarified. Therefore, the efficacy of dietary garlic nano-hydrogel (G-NHG) on broilers growth performance, intestinal integrity, economic returns and its potency to alleviate C. perfringens levels using NE challenge model were addressed. A total of 1200 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned into six groups; four supplemented with 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg of G-NHG/kg diet and co-challenged with C. perfringens at 21, 22 and 23 d of age and two control groups fed basal diet with or without C. perfringens challenge. Over the total growing period, the 400 mg/kg G-NHG group had the most improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency regardless of challenge. Parallel with these results, the mRNA expression of genes encoding digestive enzymes (alpha 2A amylase (AMY2A), pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) and cholecystokinin (CCK)) and intestinal barriers (junctional adhesion molecule-2 (JAM-2), occludin and mucin-2 (Muc-2)) were increased in groups fed G-NHG at higher levels to be nearly similar to those in the unchallenged group. At 14 d post challenge, real-time PCR results revealed that inclusion of G-NHG led to a dose-dependently decrease in the C. perfringens population, thereby decreasing the birds’ intestinal lesion score and mortality rates. Using 400 mg/kg of G-NHG remarkably ameliorated the adverse effects of NE caused by C. perfringens challenge, which contributed to better growth performance of challenged birds with rational economic benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: broilers; garlic nano-hydrogel; growth; clostridium perfringens; intestinal barriers; real-time PCR broilers; garlic nano-hydrogel; growth; clostridium perfringens; intestinal barriers; real-time PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim, D.; Ismail, T.A.; Khalifa, E.; Abd El-Kader, S.A.; Mohamed, D.I.; Mohamed, D.T.; Shahin, S.E.; Abd El-Hamid, M.I. Supplementing Garlic Nanohydrogel Optimized Growth, Gastrointestinal Integrity and Economics and Ameliorated Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens Using a Clostridium perfringens Challenge Model. Animals 2021, 11, 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072027

AMA Style

Ibrahim D, Ismail TA, Khalifa E, Abd El-Kader SA, Mohamed DI, Mohamed DT, Shahin SE, Abd El-Hamid MI. Supplementing Garlic Nanohydrogel Optimized Growth, Gastrointestinal Integrity and Economics and Ameliorated Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens Using a Clostridium perfringens Challenge Model. Animals. 2021; 11(7):2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ibrahim, Doaa, Tamer A. Ismail, Eman Khalifa, Shaimaa A. Abd El-Kader, Dalia I. Mohamed, Dalia T. Mohamed, Sara E. Shahin, and Marwa I. Abd El-Hamid. 2021. "Supplementing Garlic Nanohydrogel Optimized Growth, Gastrointestinal Integrity and Economics and Ameliorated Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens Using a Clostridium perfringens Challenge Model" Animals 11, no. 7: 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072027

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