Special Issue "Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Giovanni Cilia
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Italy
Interests: pathogens; microbiology; molecular biology; antimicrobials; bacterial infectious disease; zoonosis; antimicrobial resistance; wildlife; honey bee
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Barbara Turchi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Italy
Interests: Staphylococcus spp.; E. coli; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by several factors, including the connection with domestic and wild animals. The interconnections between domestic and wild animals are very important to understand the epidemiology of zoonotic infectious disease and to prevent human infections, on the basis of the “One Health” approach. Recent studies highlight that the diffusion of extensive breeding could promote contact between wildlife and domestic animals, and, therefore, the spread of infectious diseases.

This Special Issue aims to explore and understand the epidemiology and/or the effect of bacterial, viral, and parasitic zoonotic diseases in wild and domestic animals.

You are invited to submit either an original article or a review summarizing different aspects of zoonoses. Articles highlighting and documenting any aspect of bacterial, viral, or parasitic zoonoses in wild and domestic animals are welcome and will be taken into consideration for the publication.

Dr. Giovanni Cilia
Dr. Barbara Turchi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pathology
  • Zoonosis
  • Wildlife
  • Infectious disease
  • Domestic animal

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Detection and Characterization of Viral Pathogens Associated with Reproductive Failure in Wild Boars in Central Italy
Animals 2021, 11(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020304 - 25 Jan 2021
Abstract
Wild boar and domestic swine share several pathogens, including viruses responsible for reproductive failures, representing an important sanitary and economic risk for the swine industry. Among them, suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) are widely diffused [...] Read more.
Wild boar and domestic swine share several pathogens, including viruses responsible for reproductive failures, representing an important sanitary and economic risk for the swine industry. Among them, suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) are widely diffused in the wild boar population. Unfortunately, little is known about their pathogenetic mechanisms and impact on the reproductive parameters of wild animals. This study aims to investigate the presence of viruses responsible for reproductive failure in pregnant wild boar sows and their foetuses. The investigation was conducted on 46 pregnant wild boar and their foetuses by molecular analysis; a phylogenetic study was performed on the positive samples. All of the investigated pathogens were identified in sows, while only herpesvirus and circovirus were detected in the tissues of their foetuses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viral sequences obtained from the positive wild boars were closely related to those previously identified in domestic swine belonging to the same study areas. The results suggest that SuHV-1 and PCV2 can infect wild boar foetuses, with a possible impact on wild boar reproductive performance. Moreover, our data highlight the importance of continuous monitoring of swine pathogens circulating in wild environments, so as to carry out adequate sanitary actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Epidemiology of Dog Bite Incidents in Chile: Factors Related to the Patterns of Human-Dog Relationship
Animals 2021, 11(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010096 - 06 Jan 2021
Abstract
Dog bites are one of the main public health problems. They produce important consequences for those who suffer them (physical and psychological injuries, secondary infections, sequelae, risk of transmission of zoonoses and surgeries, among others). The objective of this study was to characterize [...] Read more.
Dog bites are one of the main public health problems. They produce important consequences for those who suffer them (physical and psychological injuries, secondary infections, sequelae, risk of transmission of zoonoses and surgeries, among others). The objective of this study was to characterize epidemiologically the incidents of bites in Chile and the patterns of human-dog relationship involved. The records analyzed in this article were obtained from bitten patients who attended the main public health facilities in Chile during the period 17 September 2017 and 17 September 2018: In the period studied, 17,299 animal bites were recorded; however, only 7220 (41.74%) cases were analyzed in which the offending species could be identified. Of the bites analyzed, 6533 were caused by dogs (90.48%). Of these, 41.05% were caused by medium-sized dogs. Most bites were caused by dogs of mixed breeds (55.99%), followed by dogs of the German Shepherd breed (8.50%). Most of the dogs that bit were known to the victim (99.95%) and most of the attacks occurred indoors (57.48%). Although dog bite records have improved in Chile, it would be useful to also include background information on the context in which the incident occurred, which would be very useful for developing effective bite prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Salmonella spp. Isolates from Swine: Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122418 - 17 Dec 2020
Abstract
Salmonella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Swine represent typical reservoirs of this bacterium and a frequent source of human infection. Some intrinsic traits make some serovars or strains more virulent than others. Twenty-nine Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs belonging [...] Read more.
Salmonella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Swine represent typical reservoirs of this bacterium and a frequent source of human infection. Some intrinsic traits make some serovars or strains more virulent than others. Twenty-nine Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs belonging to 16 different serovars were analyzed for gastric acid environment resistance, presence of virulence genes (mgtC, rhuM, pipB, sopB, spvRBC, gipA, sodCI, sopE), antimicrobial resistance and presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (blaTEM, blaPSE-1, aadA1, aadA2, aphA1-lab, strA-strB, tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, sul1, sul2, sul3). A percentage of 44.83% of strains showed constitutive and inducible gastric acid resistance, whereas 37.93% of strains became resistant only after induction. The genes sopB, pipB and mgtC were the most often detected, with 79.31%, 48.28% and 37.93% of positive strains, respectively. Salmonella virulence plasmid genes were detected in a S. enterica sup. houtenae ser. 40:z4,z23:-strain. Fifteen different virulence profiles were identified: one isolate (ser. Typhimurium) was positive for 6 genes, and 6 isolates (3 ser. Typhimurium, 2 ser. Typhimurium monophasic variant and 1 ser. Choleraesuis) scored positive for 5 genes. None of the isolates resulted resistant to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, while all isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, colistin and gentamycin. Many strains were resistant to sulfonamide (75.86%), tetracycline (51.72%), streptomycin (48.28%) and ampicillin (31.03%). Twenty different resisto-types were identified. Six strains (4 ser. Typhimurium, 1 ser. Derby and 1 ser. Typhimurium monophasic variant) showed the ASSuT profile. Most detected resistance genes sul2 (34.48%), tetA (27.58%) and strA-strB (27.58%). Great variability was observed in analyzed strains. S. ser. Typhimurium was confirmed as one of the most virulent serovars. This study underlines that swine could be a reservoir and source of pathogenic Salmonella strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
Open AccessArticle
Increasing Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar in Bulgaria
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091521 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
(1) Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute viral hepatitis, predominantly transmitted by the fecal–oral route. In developed countries, HEV is considered to be an emerging pathogen since the number of autochthonous cases is rising. Hepatitis E is a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute viral hepatitis, predominantly transmitted by the fecal–oral route. In developed countries, HEV is considered to be an emerging pathogen since the number of autochthonous cases is rising. Hepatitis E is a viral disease with a proven zoonotic potential for some of its genotypes. The main viral reservoirs are domestic pigs and wild boar. Consumption of undercooked meat, as well as occupational exposure, are key factors for the spread of HEV. In order to evaluate the risks of future viral evolution, a detailed examination of the ecology and distribution of the virus is needed. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG Ab in domestic pigs and wild boar in Bulgaria; (2) Methods: In this study, during the period of three years between 2017 and 2019, 433 serum samples from 19 different pig farms and 1 slaughterhouse were collected and analyzed. In addition, 32 samples from wild boar were also collected and analyzed during the 2018–2019 hunting season. All samples were analyzed by commercial indirect ELISA; (3) Results: Overall, HEV seroprevalence was 60% (95% CI 42.7–77.1) in domestic pigs and 12.5% (4/32) in wild boar. The observed seroprevalence of the slaughter-aged pigs was 73.65% (95% Cl 58.7–87.3). Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in the samples collected during 2019 (98% (95% Cl 96.1–99.9)) compared to those collected during 2017 (45.33% (95% CI 2.7–87.3)) and 2018 (38.46% (95% CI 29.1–49.7.); (4) Conclusions: Our findings suggest that domesticated pigs and wild boar might be the reason for the increased HEV transmission across Bulgaria. The genotypic characterization of HEV found in pigs, wild boar and humans will give a more accurate view of the zoonotic transmission of this virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets in Klang Valley, and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia; (2) Methods: A total of 192 meat samples were purchased [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets in Klang Valley, and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia; (2) Methods: A total of 192 meat samples were purchased from 51 wet markets in six districts in Klang Valley (Gombak, Klang, Kuala Lumpur, Hulu Langat, Petaling and Putrajaya). Meanwhile, a total of 200 diaphragm samples were collected from two government abattoirs located in Shah Alam and Banting, Selangor. All meat juices from samples were subjected to an indirect-ELISA kit for the presence of T. gondii IgG antibodies. Furthermore, all 184 meat samples of goat and sheep were subjected to conventional nested PCR (B1 genes) for the detection of T. gondii DNA; (3) Results: T. gondii antibodies were detected in 25% (n = 98/392) of the samples with seroprevalence of 9.1% (19/208, CI: 5.9%–13.8%) in cattle meat; 54.7% (41/75, 95% CI: 43.5%–65.4%) in goat meat and 34.9% (38/109, CI: 26.6%–44.2%) in sheep meat. No T. gondii DNA was detected in any of the meat samples of goat and sheep. T. gondii seropositivity in wet market samples was higher in goat (OR = 37.1 CI 12.4–110.3) and sheep meat (OR 9.03 CI: 3.28–24.8) compared to cattle meat (OR = 1.0) At univariate level, meat from non-licensed abattoirs (OR = 6.0 CI: 2.9–12.3) and female animals (OR = 6.7; CI 1.9–22.6) had higher risks of being seropositive for T. gondii antibodies than licensed abattoirs and male animals, respectively. (4) Conclusions: This is the first report of seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant meats for human consumption in Malaysia. The findings signified high exposure of meat samples from wet markets to T. gondii and the need for control measures to reduce the likelihood of infection when such raw or undercooked meats are consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Insight into the Epidemiology of Leptospirosis: A Review of Leptospira Isolations from “Unconventional” Hosts
Animals 2021, 11(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010191 - 14 Jan 2021
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a re-emerging worldwide zoonotic disease. Even though the primary serological test for diagnosis and surveying is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), isolation remains the gold-standard test to detect Leptospira infections. The leptospirosis transmission is linked to maintenance and accidental hosts. In [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a re-emerging worldwide zoonotic disease. Even though the primary serological test for diagnosis and surveying is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), isolation remains the gold-standard test to detect Leptospira infections. The leptospirosis transmission is linked to maintenance and accidental hosts. In the epidemiology of Leptospira some serovar are strictly related to specific maintenance hosts; however, in recent years, the bacterium was isolated from an even wider spectrum of species. The aim of this review is to report the isolation of Leptospira strains in animals which could be recognized as “unconventional” hosts, analyzing studies from 1960 to 2020 that highlighted the Leptospira isolation. This scientific literature aimed to provide evidence of infection in several animal species including of the Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Rodentia, Cetacea, Cingulata, Afrosoricida, Chiroptera and Primate orders, as well as in Reptilia and Amphibia classes. In conclusion, the spreading of Leptospira is attention-worthy because the infection could occur in all the animal species ranging in a specific area. Further screening and isolations are needed to collect all necessary data to gain a complete understanding of leptospirosis epidemiology and its modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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