Special Issue "Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 16340

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Barbara Turchi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: Staphylococcus spp.; E. coli; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by several factors, including the connection with domestic and wild animals. The interconnections between domestic and wild animals are very important to understand the epidemiology of zoonotic infectious disease and to prevent human infections, on the basis of the “One Health” approach. Recent studies highlight that the diffusion of extensive breeding could promote contact between wildlife and domestic animals, and, therefore, the spread of infectious diseases.

This Special Issue aims to explore and understand the epidemiology and/or the effect of bacterial, viral, and parasitic zoonotic diseases in wild and domestic animals.

You are invited to submit either an original article or a review summarizing different aspects of zoonoses. Articles highlighting and documenting any aspect of bacterial, viral, or parasitic zoonoses in wild and domestic animals are welcome and will be taken into consideration for the publication.

Dr. Giovanni Cilia
Dr. Barbara Turchi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pathology
  • Zoonosis
  • Wildlife
  • Infectious disease
  • Domestic animal

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Lineages of Staphylococcus aureus from Wild Rodents: First Report of mecC-Positive Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in Portugal
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061537 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
The frequent carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), by wild animals along with its zoonotic potential poses a public health problem. Furthermore, the repeated detection of the mecA gene homologue, mecC, in wildlife raises the question whether [...] Read more.
The frequent carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), by wild animals along with its zoonotic potential poses a public health problem. Furthermore, the repeated detection of the mecA gene homologue, mecC, in wildlife raises the question whether these animals may be a reservoir for mecC-MRSA. Thus, we aimed to isolate S. aureus and MRSA from wild rodents living in port areas and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages. Mouth and rectal swab samples were recovered from 204 wild rodents. The samples were incubated in BHI broth with 6.5% of NaCl and after 24 h at 37 °C the inoculum was seeded onto Baird-Parker agar, Mannitol Salt agar and ORSAB (supplemented with 2 mg/L of oxacillin) plates. Species identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method against 14 antibiotics. The presence of virulence and resistance genes was performed by PCR. The immune evasion cluster (IEC) system was investigated in all S. aureus. All isolates were characterized by MLST, spa- and agr typing. From 204 samples, 38 S. aureus were isolated of which six MRSA were detected. Among the six MRSA isolates, three harbored the mecC gene and the other three, the mecA gene. All mecC-MRSA isolates were ascribed to sequence type (ST) 1945 (which belongs to CC130) and spa-type t1535 whereas the mecA isolates belonged to ST22 and ST36 and spa-types t747 and t018. Twenty-five S. aureus were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. S. aureus isolates were ascribed to 11 MLST and 12 spa-types. S. aureus presents a great diversity of genetic lineages in wild rodents. This is the first report of mecC-MRSA in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Article
Presence and Characterization of Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens in Wild Boar Hunting Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in Tuscany (Italy)
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041139 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) used for wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunting may represent incidental hosts for several zoonotic pathogens. This investigation aimed to evaluate the presence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of [...] Read more.
Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) used for wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunting may represent incidental hosts for several zoonotic pathogens. This investigation aimed to evaluate the presence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes in sera and rectal swabs collected from 42 domestic hunting dogs in the Tuscany region (Italy). Regarding Leptospira, 31 out of 42 serum samples (73.8%) were positive and serogroup Pomona was the most detected (71.4%) at titers between 1:100 and 1:400. Four Salmonella isolates (9.52%) were obtained, all belonging to serotype Infantis; two of them showed antimicrobial resistance to streptomycin, while pipB and sopE presence was assessed in all but one isolate. Concerning Yersinia enterocolitica, seven isolates (16.7%) were obtained, six belonging to biotype 1 and one to biotype 4. Resistance to amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, cephalothin, and ampicillin was detected. Biotype 4 presented three of the virulence genes searched (ystA, ystB, inv), while isolates of biotype 1 showed only one gene. No Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from dog rectal swabs. The results suggest that hunting dogs are exposed to different bacterial zoonotic agents, potentially linked to their work activity, and highlight the possible health risks for humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
Article
Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Species Isolated from Wild Mammal Reservoirs in Sardinia
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041109 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira that infect a large spectrum of domestic and wild animals. This study is the first molecular identification, characterization, and phylogeny of Leptospira strains with veterinary and zoonotic impact in Sardinian wild hosts. [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira that infect a large spectrum of domestic and wild animals. This study is the first molecular identification, characterization, and phylogeny of Leptospira strains with veterinary and zoonotic impact in Sardinian wild hosts. All samples collected were cultured and analyzed by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Sequencing, phylogenetic analyses (based on rrs and secY sequences), and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) based on the analysis of seven concatenated loci were also performed. Results revealed the detection of Leptospira DNA and cultured isolates in 21% and 4% of the samples examined, respectively. Sequence analysis of Leptospira positive samples highlighted the presence of the interrogans and borgpetersenii genospecies that grouped in strongly supported monophyletic clades. MLST analyses identified six different Sequence Types (ST) that clustered in two monophyletic groups specific for Leptospirainterrogans, and L. borgpetersenii. This study provided about the prevalence of leptospires in wild mammals in Sardinia, and increased our knowledge of this pathogen on the island. Monitoring Leptospira strains circulating in Sardinia will help clinicians and veterinarians develop strategic plans for the prevention and control of leptospiral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Article
Detection and Characterization of Viral Pathogens Associated with Reproductive Failure in Wild Boars in Central Italy
Animals 2021, 11(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020304 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Wild boar and domestic swine share several pathogens, including viruses responsible for reproductive failures, representing an important sanitary and economic risk for the swine industry. Among them, suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) are widely diffused [...] Read more.
Wild boar and domestic swine share several pathogens, including viruses responsible for reproductive failures, representing an important sanitary and economic risk for the swine industry. Among them, suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) are widely diffused in the wild boar population. Unfortunately, little is known about their pathogenetic mechanisms and impact on the reproductive parameters of wild animals. This study aims to investigate the presence of viruses responsible for reproductive failure in pregnant wild boar sows and their foetuses. The investigation was conducted on 46 pregnant wild boar and their foetuses by molecular analysis; a phylogenetic study was performed on the positive samples. All of the investigated pathogens were identified in sows, while only herpesvirus and circovirus were detected in the tissues of their foetuses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viral sequences obtained from the positive wild boars were closely related to those previously identified in domestic swine belonging to the same study areas. The results suggest that SuHV-1 and PCV2 can infect wild boar foetuses, with a possible impact on wild boar reproductive performance. Moreover, our data highlight the importance of continuous monitoring of swine pathogens circulating in wild environments, so as to carry out adequate sanitary actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Article
Epidemiology of Dog Bite Incidents in Chile: Factors Related to the Patterns of Human-Dog Relationship
Animals 2021, 11(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010096 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Dog bites are one of the main public health problems. They produce important consequences for those who suffer them (physical and psychological injuries, secondary infections, sequelae, risk of transmission of zoonoses and surgeries, among others). The objective of this study was to characterize [...] Read more.
Dog bites are one of the main public health problems. They produce important consequences for those who suffer them (physical and psychological injuries, secondary infections, sequelae, risk of transmission of zoonoses and surgeries, among others). The objective of this study was to characterize epidemiologically the incidents of bites in Chile and the patterns of human-dog relationship involved. The records analyzed in this article were obtained from bitten patients who attended the main public health facilities in Chile during the period 17 September 2017 and 17 September 2018: In the period studied, 17,299 animal bites were recorded; however, only 7220 (41.74%) cases were analyzed in which the offending species could be identified. Of the bites analyzed, 6533 were caused by dogs (90.48%). Of these, 41.05% were caused by medium-sized dogs. Most bites were caused by dogs of mixed breeds (55.99%), followed by dogs of the German Shepherd breed (8.50%). Most of the dogs that bit were known to the victim (99.95%) and most of the attacks occurred indoors (57.48%). Although dog bite records have improved in Chile, it would be useful to also include background information on the context in which the incident occurred, which would be very useful for developing effective bite prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Article
Characterization of Salmonella spp. Isolates from Swine: Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122418 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Salmonella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Swine represent typical reservoirs of this bacterium and a frequent source of human infection. Some intrinsic traits make some serovars or strains more virulent than others. Twenty-nine Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs belonging [...] Read more.
Salmonella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Swine represent typical reservoirs of this bacterium and a frequent source of human infection. Some intrinsic traits make some serovars or strains more virulent than others. Twenty-nine Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs belonging to 16 different serovars were analyzed for gastric acid environment resistance, presence of virulence genes (mgtC, rhuM, pipB, sopB, spvRBC, gipA, sodCI, sopE), antimicrobial resistance and presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (blaTEM, blaPSE-1, aadA1, aadA2, aphA1-lab, strA-strB, tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, sul1, sul2, sul3). A percentage of 44.83% of strains showed constitutive and inducible gastric acid resistance, whereas 37.93% of strains became resistant only after induction. The genes sopB, pipB and mgtC were the most often detected, with 79.31%, 48.28% and 37.93% of positive strains, respectively. Salmonella virulence plasmid genes were detected in a S. enterica sup. houtenae ser. 40:z4,z23:-strain. Fifteen different virulence profiles were identified: one isolate (ser. Typhimurium) was positive for 6 genes, and 6 isolates (3 ser. Typhimurium, 2 ser. Typhimurium monophasic variant and 1 ser. Choleraesuis) scored positive for 5 genes. None of the isolates resulted resistant to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, while all isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, colistin and gentamycin. Many strains were resistant to sulfonamide (75.86%), tetracycline (51.72%), streptomycin (48.28%) and ampicillin (31.03%). Twenty different resisto-types were identified. Six strains (4 ser. Typhimurium, 1 ser. Derby and 1 ser. Typhimurium monophasic variant) showed the ASSuT profile. Most detected resistance genes sul2 (34.48%), tetA (27.58%) and strA-strB (27.58%). Great variability was observed in analyzed strains. S. ser. Typhimurium was confirmed as one of the most virulent serovars. This study underlines that swine could be a reservoir and source of pathogenic Salmonella strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
Article
Increasing Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar in Bulgaria
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091521 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
(1) Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute viral hepatitis, predominantly transmitted by the fecal–oral route. In developed countries, HEV is considered to be an emerging pathogen since the number of autochthonous cases is rising. Hepatitis E is a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute viral hepatitis, predominantly transmitted by the fecal–oral route. In developed countries, HEV is considered to be an emerging pathogen since the number of autochthonous cases is rising. Hepatitis E is a viral disease with a proven zoonotic potential for some of its genotypes. The main viral reservoirs are domestic pigs and wild boar. Consumption of undercooked meat, as well as occupational exposure, are key factors for the spread of HEV. In order to evaluate the risks of future viral evolution, a detailed examination of the ecology and distribution of the virus is needed. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG Ab in domestic pigs and wild boar in Bulgaria; (2) Methods: In this study, during the period of three years between 2017 and 2019, 433 serum samples from 19 different pig farms and 1 slaughterhouse were collected and analyzed. In addition, 32 samples from wild boar were also collected and analyzed during the 2018–2019 hunting season. All samples were analyzed by commercial indirect ELISA; (3) Results: Overall, HEV seroprevalence was 60% (95% CI 42.7–77.1) in domestic pigs and 12.5% (4/32) in wild boar. The observed seroprevalence of the slaughter-aged pigs was 73.65% (95% Cl 58.7–87.3). Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in the samples collected during 2019 (98% (95% Cl 96.1–99.9)) compared to those collected during 2017 (45.33% (95% CI 2.7–87.3)) and 2018 (38.46% (95% CI 29.1–49.7.); (4) Conclusions: Our findings suggest that domesticated pigs and wild boar might be the reason for the increased HEV transmission across Bulgaria. The genotypic characterization of HEV found in pigs, wild boar and humans will give a more accurate view of the zoonotic transmission of this virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Article
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets in Klang Valley, and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia; (2) Methods: A total of 192 meat samples were purchased [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets in Klang Valley, and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia; (2) Methods: A total of 192 meat samples were purchased from 51 wet markets in six districts in Klang Valley (Gombak, Klang, Kuala Lumpur, Hulu Langat, Petaling and Putrajaya). Meanwhile, a total of 200 diaphragm samples were collected from two government abattoirs located in Shah Alam and Banting, Selangor. All meat juices from samples were subjected to an indirect-ELISA kit for the presence of T. gondii IgG antibodies. Furthermore, all 184 meat samples of goat and sheep were subjected to conventional nested PCR (B1 genes) for the detection of T. gondii DNA; (3) Results: T. gondii antibodies were detected in 25% (n = 98/392) of the samples with seroprevalence of 9.1% (19/208, CI: 5.9%–13.8%) in cattle meat; 54.7% (41/75, 95% CI: 43.5%–65.4%) in goat meat and 34.9% (38/109, CI: 26.6%–44.2%) in sheep meat. No T. gondii DNA was detected in any of the meat samples of goat and sheep. T. gondii seropositivity in wet market samples was higher in goat (OR = 37.1 CI 12.4–110.3) and sheep meat (OR 9.03 CI: 3.28–24.8) compared to cattle meat (OR = 1.0) At univariate level, meat from non-licensed abattoirs (OR = 6.0 CI: 2.9–12.3) and female animals (OR = 6.7; CI 1.9–22.6) had higher risks of being seropositive for T. gondii antibodies than licensed abattoirs and male animals, respectively. (4) Conclusions: This is the first report of seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant meats for human consumption in Malaysia. The findings signified high exposure of meat samples from wet markets to T. gondii and the need for control measures to reduce the likelihood of infection when such raw or undercooked meats are consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Review

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Review
Insight into the Epidemiology of Leptospirosis: A Review of Leptospira Isolations from “Unconventional” Hosts
Animals 2021, 11(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010191 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a re-emerging worldwide zoonotic disease. Even though the primary serological test for diagnosis and surveying is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), isolation remains the gold-standard test to detect Leptospira infections. The leptospirosis transmission is linked to maintenance and accidental hosts. In [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a re-emerging worldwide zoonotic disease. Even though the primary serological test for diagnosis and surveying is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), isolation remains the gold-standard test to detect Leptospira infections. The leptospirosis transmission is linked to maintenance and accidental hosts. In the epidemiology of Leptospira some serovar are strictly related to specific maintenance hosts; however, in recent years, the bacterium was isolated from an even wider spectrum of species. The aim of this review is to report the isolation of Leptospira strains in animals which could be recognized as “unconventional” hosts, analyzing studies from 1960 to 2020 that highlighted the Leptospira isolation. This scientific literature aimed to provide evidence of infection in several animal species including of the Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Rodentia, Cetacea, Cingulata, Afrosoricida, Chiroptera and Primate orders, as well as in Reptilia and Amphibia classes. In conclusion, the spreading of Leptospira is attention-worthy because the infection could occur in all the animal species ranging in a specific area. Further screening and isolations are needed to collect all necessary data to gain a complete understanding of leptospirosis epidemiology and its modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Systematic Review: Comparison of the Main Variables of Interest in Publications of Canine Bite Accidents in the Written Press, Gray and Scientific Literature in Chile and Spain, between the Years 2013 and 2017
Animals 2021, 11(3), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030893 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Dog bites are a major public health problem, with consequences such as physical injury, psychological trauma, transmission of zoonoses, infections, and economic costs. For this reason, it is necessary to develop preventive programs, which require quality information to support the authorities’ decision-making and [...] Read more.
Dog bites are a major public health problem, with consequences such as physical injury, psychological trauma, transmission of zoonoses, infections, and economic costs. For this reason, it is necessary to develop preventive programs, which require quality information to support the authorities’ decision-making and to raise public awareness about the application of the proposed measures. The objective of this review was to analyze the press, indexed and gray dog bite literature published during the 2013–2017 period. During that period, 385 articles from three sources of information were analyzed: Press literature, scientific literature, and gray literature. Of these, the greatest amount of information corresponding to the context and the aggressor animal was found in the press literature, where it was recorded that the greatest number of records reported in the Chilean articles were caused by potentially dangerous breeds (87.50%), having significant differences with the gray literature (p = 0.030), and in Spain, the greatest number of attacks was also made by potentially dangerous dogs 91.30% (21/23), statistically significant differences with the gray literature (p = 0.002) and with the indexed (p < 0.001). In the case of the scientific and gray literature, the greatest amount of information was found about the victim of the attack and the treatments applied to them. In these cases, the highest percentage of victims included in the reports contained both sexes for the two literatures (44.62% and 87.71%, respectively). Regarding the treatment applied, in the scientific literature in most of the reports, the patients received washings, rabies vaccine, and tetanus vaccine (46.26%) and presented significant differences in Chile with the information contained in the gray literature (p = 0.023), in Spain with the gray (p = 0.017) and with the press (p = 0.023). In conclusion, the press literature differs in multiple variables with the information reported in the scientific literature and, in some cases, with the gray literature. The reason why the material that is being distributed to the population would not coincide in multiple relevant variables in other literature and the representative reality of the problem is the basis for this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses: Wild and Domestic Animal Interaction)
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