Special Issue "Dairy Cattle Mammary Health—Reducing Mammary Disease"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Cattle".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2023 | Viewed by 6469

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Valerie E. Ryman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USA
Interests: dairy science; mammary health; mastitis; milk quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optimal dairy cattle mammary health is imperative not only for the well-being of the dairy cow, but also for the sustainability of the operation, as reduced mammary health negatively impacts milk yield and quality, productive ability, longevity in the herd, and reproductive ability, among others. While there have been tremendous advances in reducing mammary disease over the last several decades, challenges still remain. The key mammary disease that affects dairy cattle, mastitis, is an ever-present concern, even in well-managed herds. Notably, the industry struggles with pathogens that are not treatable with antibiotic therapy, such as yeasts, molds, algae and Mycoplasma spp. Moreover, advances in rapid, cost-effective on-farm methods for bacterial identification are needed to enhance targeted management strategies. Lastly, replacement heifers are largely left out of most conversations related to mammary diseases, yet they represent a population of animals that have the potential to be most impacted.

We invite original research and review papers that aim to discuss novel and innovative approaches to the detection, control, and treatment of mammary disease to support this Special Issue, which aims to highlight potential areas of interest for future research questions.

Dr. Valerie E. Ryman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cattle mammary health
  • productive ability
  • dairy cattle
  • milk yield
  • longevity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
In Silico Tools for Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Bovine Transferrin Gene
Animals 2022, 12(6), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12060693 - 10 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Dairy cattle with a high milk yield are susceptible to many infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is the most prevalent form of mastitis that predominantly affects animal health, and causes adverse effects on the quality and quantity of milk. In [...] Read more.
Dairy cattle with a high milk yield are susceptible to many infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is the most prevalent form of mastitis that predominantly affects animal health, and causes adverse effects on the quality and quantity of milk. In dairy animals, subclinical mastitis often remains undetected, as no gross changes in udder characteristics are visible. In the present study, 135 Holstein Friesian dairy animals were selected and screened as healthy (n = 25) and mastitic (n = 110) based on diagnostic tests such as the California mastitis test, pH, electrical conductivity, and somatic cell count. In this study, the somatic cell count was used as a gold-standard test in differentiating subclinical mastitis animals from healthy ones. The present study was carried out to study polymorphisms in the bovine transferrin gene in cows (with subclinical mastitis and healthy). For the early detection of resistant/or susceptible animals, a useful marker could be provided by the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transferrin gene, which are often associated with mammary innate immune response. The sequencing results revealed three nucleotide substitutions: two transversions (230 A > C, 231 C > A) and one transition (294 A > G) in susceptible cows as compared to disease-free subjects. The nucleotide variations at position 230 (GAC > GCA) and 231 (GAC > GCA) were nonsynonymous, and corresponded to an amino acid change from aspartic acid to alanine; whereas at position 294 (GAA > GAG), the mutation was synonymous. In the present study, many in silico tools were taken into consideration to determine the effect of SNPs on protein structure and function. The PROVEAN tool found the amino acid substitution to be neutral and deleterious. PolyPhen-2 revealed the amino acid variations at positions 320 and 321 to most likely be damaging; and at the 341 position, the variations were benign. The I-Mutant and MUpro tools found that the protein stability decreased for nonsynonymous variations. The SIFT tool revealed the protein function was likely to be affected in nonsynonymous variations, with no change in the case of synonymous ones. Phylogenetic analysis of the bovine transferrin gene revealed a close relation of the CA allele with the Bos taurus transferrin, while the G allele was closely related to a cross of Bos indicus × Bos taurus serotransferrins, followed by the Bison bison transferrin. The least relation was shown by both alleles to Capra hircus, Ovis aries, and Bubalus bubalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Cattle Mammary Health—Reducing Mammary Disease)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Selective Dry Cow Treatment on Intramammary Infection Risk after Calving, Cure Risk during the Dry Period, and Antibiotic Use at Drying-Off: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Current Literature (2000–2021)
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123403 - 29 Nov 2021
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Abstract
The objectives of this paper were (i) to perform a systematic review of the literature over the last 21 yr and (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) vs. blanket dry cow treatment (BDCT) in dairy cows regarding the [...] Read more.
The objectives of this paper were (i) to perform a systematic review of the literature over the last 21 yr and (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) vs. blanket dry cow treatment (BDCT) in dairy cows regarding the risk of intramammary infection (IMI) after calving, new IMI risk after calving, cure risk during the dry period, and a reduction in antibiotic use at drying-off by meta-analysis. The systematic search was carried out using the databases PubMed, CAB Direct, and ScienceDirect. A meta-analytical assessment was performed for each outcome of interest using random-effects models, and the relative risk (RR) for IMI and cure or the pooled proportion for antibiotic use was calculated. The final number of included studies was n = 3 for IMI risk after calving and n = 5 for new IMI risk after calving, cure risk during the dry period, and antibiotic use. The RR levels for IMI (RR, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 0.94–1.11; p = 0.592), new IMI (RR, 95% CI: 1.06, 0.94–1.20; p = 0.994), and cure (RR, 95% CI: 1.00, 0.97–1.02; p = 0.661) did not differ significantly between SDCT and BDCT. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between the trials regarding the pooled proportion of antibiotic use within the SDCT groups (I2 = 97.7%; p < 0.001). This meta-analysis provides evidence that SDCT seems to be an adequate alternative to BDCT regarding udder health with a simultaneous reduction in antibiotic use. Limitations might arise because of the small number of studies included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Cattle Mammary Health—Reducing Mammary Disease)
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Review
The Association between Selected Dietary Minerals and Mastitis in Dairy Cows—A Review
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082330 - 07 Aug 2021
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to describe the association between selected dietary minerals and mastitis in dairy cows. Minerals are a group of nutrients with a proven effect on production and reproductive performance. They also strongly affect immune system function. In particular [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to describe the association between selected dietary minerals and mastitis in dairy cows. Minerals are a group of nutrients with a proven effect on production and reproductive performance. They also strongly affect immune system function. In particular their deficiencies may result in immunosuppression, which is a predisposing factor for udder inflammation occurrence. The role of selected dietary minerals (including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, copper and zinc) has been reviewed. Generally, minerals form structural parts of the body; as cofactors of various enzymes they are involved in nerve signaling, muscle contraction and proper keratosis. Their deficiencies lead to reduced activity of immune cells or malfunction of teat innate defense mechanisms, which in turn promote the development of mastitis. Special attention was also paid to minerals applied as nanoparticles, which in the future may turn out to be an effective tool against animal diseases, including mastitis. To conclude, minerals are an important group of nutrients, which should be taken into account on dairy farms when aiming to achieve high udder health status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Cattle Mammary Health—Reducing Mammary Disease)
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Review
Nanomaterials and Essential Oils as Candidates for Developing Novel Treatment Options for Bovine Mastitis
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061625 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
Nanomaterials have been used for diagnosis and therapy in the human medical field, while their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Nanotechnology, however, is a rapidly growing field, offering the possibility of manufacturing new materials at the nanoscale [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials have been used for diagnosis and therapy in the human medical field, while their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Nanotechnology, however, is a rapidly growing field, offering the possibility of manufacturing new materials at the nanoscale level, with the formidable potential to revolutionize the agri-food sector by offering novel treatment options for prevalent and expensive illnesses such as bovine mastitis. Since current treatments are becoming progressively more ineffective in resistant bacteria, the development of innovative products based on both nanotechnology and phytotherapy may directly address a major global problem, antimicrobial resistance, while providing a sustainable animal health solution that supports the production of safe and high-quality food products. This review summarizes the challenges encountered presently in the treatment of bovine mastitis, emphasizing the possibility of using new-generation nanomaterials (e.g., biological synthesized nanoparticles and graphene) and essential oils, as candidates for developing novel treatment options for bovine mastitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Cattle Mammary Health—Reducing Mammary Disease)
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