Special Issue "Calf and Heifer Feeding and management"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Cattle".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Zhijun Cao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
China Calf and Heifer Association, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P. R. China
Interests: calf feeding, colostrum, heifer feeding, nutrient metabolism, weaning, welfare, forage
Prof. Michael Van Amburgh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From birth to first calving, the replacement heifer undergoes tremendous changes anatomically as well as in feeding and management practices. The calf changes from a pseudo-mogastric to a full ruminant within a period of two months. During the same time, the calf is fed colostrum, milk or milk replacer, and starter with or without hay. Notably, lifetime milk production and the health of a dairy cow is highly dependent on early life nutrition and the management of the calf and subsequently the heifer. Hence, animal scientists continue to investigate critical areas such as colostrum feeding, the level of liquid feeding, gut microbial succession, energy and protein level, housing, health management, and their interactions with the animal in an effort to help dairy producers raise successful and sustainable dairy enterprises. Emerging research techniques have opened new frontiers to understanding the whole animal better and how its diet and environment might influence its microbial, endocrinal, immunity, and metabolic systems. The integration of existing and current knowledge will help refine replacement heifer feeding and management practices. The aim of this Special Issue is to publish current and relevant information related to the nutrition, metabolism, housing, and health of replacement heifers. Therefore, this Special Issue welcomes submissions, including reviews or original research studies.

Assoc. Prof. Zhijun Cao
Prof. Michael Van Amburgh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • calf feeding
  • colostrum
  • heifer feeding
  • housing
  • microbiota
  • nutrient metabolism
  • protein and energy
  • weaning
  • welfare

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Appropriate Dairy Calf Feeding from Birth to Weaning: “It’s an Investment for the Future”
Animals 2020, 10(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010116 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
Dairy calves must be fed appropriately to meet their nutritional needs, supporting optimal growth and development to achieve the recommended target age at first calving (AFC) of 24 months. Traditional restricted milk feeding practices suppress growth, contribute to negative welfare states and may [...] Read more.
Dairy calves must be fed appropriately to meet their nutritional needs, supporting optimal growth and development to achieve the recommended target age at first calving (AFC) of 24 months. Traditional restricted milk feeding practices suppress growth, contribute to negative welfare states and may result in malnutrition and immunosuppression. Despite more recent recommendations to increase milk allowances for pre-weaned calves, restricted feeding remains a common practice. This study explored the rationales behind the calf feeding protocols used by dairy farmers in England. Forty qualitative interviews (26 farmers, 14 advisors) were conducted between May 2016 and June 2017, transcribed in full, then coded into themes. Results indicate that a variety of calf feeding regimes are used on farms, largely determined by farmers’ attitudes regarding ease of management and the wellbeing of calves. Advisors were concerned about widespread underfeeding of calves, which may be partially due to insufficiently clear recommendations for calf milk replacer (CMR) feeding rates. There was also evidence of uncertainty regarding best practices for weaning calves. Collaboration between academic research and industry is essential to establish a consensus on calf feeding standards which support physiological function, facilitate weaning, support growth targets and ensure calf health and welfare is protected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pair Versus Individual Housing on Performance, Health, and Behavior of Dairy Calves
Animals 2020, 10(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010050 - 25 Dec 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pair versus individual housing on performance, health, and behavior of dairy calves. Thirty female Holstein dairy calves were assigned to individual (n = 10) or pair housing (n = 10 pairs). The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pair versus individual housing on performance, health, and behavior of dairy calves. Thirty female Holstein dairy calves were assigned to individual (n = 10) or pair housing (n = 10 pairs). The results showed that both treatments had a similar starter intake and average daily gain (ADG) during the preweaning period. During weaning and postweaning periods, paired calves had a higher starter intake, and the ADG of paired calves continued to increase but calves housed individually experienced a growth check. Paired calves showed higher diarrhea frequency only in week three. The results on behavior showed that feeding, chewing and ruminating time increased, and self-grooming time decreased with age during weaning and postweaning periods, and paired calves spent less time feeding, standing and self-grooming but more time lying during this time. After mixing, feeding, and chewing and ruminating time continued to rise, and self-grooming time continued to decline for both treatments. All calves spent less time standing and non-nutritive manipulation after mixing, and previously individually housed calves tended to increase non-nutritive manipulation. These results showed that pair housing improved growth during weaning and postweaning periods and that calves altered their behavior at different phases. Less social contact may lead to more non-nutritive manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Body Condition Score Changes During Peripartum on the Postpartum Health and Production Performance of Primiparous Dairy Cows
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121159 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
This is a prospective observational study that evaluates the effects of body condition score (BCS) changes in primiparous Holstein cows during peripartum on their NEFA and BHBA concentrations, hormone levels, postpartum health, and production performance. The cows under study (n = 213) [...] Read more.
This is a prospective observational study that evaluates the effects of body condition score (BCS) changes in primiparous Holstein cows during peripartum on their NEFA and BHBA concentrations, hormone levels, postpartum health, and production performance. The cows under study (n = 213) were assessed to determine their BCS (5-point scale; 0.25-point increment) once a week during the whole peripartum by the same researchers; backfat was used for corrections. Blood samples were collected 21 and 7 days before calving and 7, 21, and 35 days after calving, and were assayed for NEFA, BHBA, growth hormone (GH), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. The incidence of disease and milk yield were recorded until 84 days after calving. Cows were classified according to their BCS changes during peripartum as follows: Those that gained BCS (G; ΔBCS ≥ 0.25), maintained BCS (M; ΔBCS = 0–0.25), or lost BCS (L; ΔBCS ≥ 0.5). The BCS at −21 days and at 7, 14, and 21 days were different (p < 0.01), but trended toward uniformity in all groups at calving. The L group had higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations and hormone levels (p < 0.01) than the M and G groups at 21 and 35 days after calving, and had a higher incidence of uterine and metabolic diseases; however, there were no differences in production performance between the various groups. In conclusion, a lower BCS in primiparous cows during peripartum influences the NEFA and BHBA concentrations, hormone levels, and occurrence of health problems postpartum. The postpartum effects of BCS changes appear prior to calving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
Weaning Holstein Calves at 17 Weeks of Age Enables Smooth Transition from Liquid to Solid Feed
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121132 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Development of calves depends on prenatal and postnatal conditions. Primiparous cows were still maturing during pregnancy, which can lead to negative intrauterine conditions and affect the calf’s metabolism. It is hypothesized that weaning calves at higher maturity has positive effects due to reduced [...] Read more.
Development of calves depends on prenatal and postnatal conditions. Primiparous cows were still maturing during pregnancy, which can lead to negative intrauterine conditions and affect the calf’s metabolism. It is hypothesized that weaning calves at higher maturity has positive effects due to reduced metabolic stress. We aimed to evaluate effects of mothers’ parity and calves’ weaning age on growth performance and blood metabolites. Fifty-nine female Holstein calves (38.8 ± 5.3 kg birth weight, about 8 days old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with factors weaning age (7 vs. 17 weeks) and parity of mother (primiparous vs. multiparous cows). Calves were randomly assigned one of these four groups. Live weight, live weight gain and morphometry increased over time and were greater in calves weaned later. Metabolic indicators except total protein were interactively affected by time and weaning age. Leptin remained low in early-weaned calves born to primiparous cows, while it increased in the other groups. The results suggest that weaning more mature calves has a positive effect on body growth, and calves born to primiparous cows particularly benefit from this weaning regimen. It also enables a smooth transition from liquid to solid feed, which might reduce the associated stress of weaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Farm Management for Calves on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Traits Duration Fattening of Simmental Bulls and Heifers
Animals 2019, 9(11), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110941 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study assessed the effects of farm management during rearing practices in the first months of a calf’s life on growth performance and meat quality traits during the fattening period. A total of 48 Simmental calves were divided into two groups at a [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effects of farm management during rearing practices in the first months of a calf’s life on growth performance and meat quality traits during the fattening period. A total of 48 Simmental calves were divided into two groups at a commercial cattle feedlot. In the first group were calves from the same farm and herd (n = 12 male and n = 12 female). The second group included calves from several different herds and farms (n = 12 male and n= 12 female). Calves were transferred to a feedlot and fed with a commercial feedlot ration at three to four months of age. The aim was to determine if identical fattening conditions at feedlot can reduce initial calf rearing differences between cattle during the fattening period. Bulls grew faster than heifers reaching higher total gain and showed significantly higher slaughter weight than heifers. Meat samples of heifers from the same herd had the highest intramuscular fat content and reddest color with significant differences among cattle groups. The most abundant fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), followed by palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), linoleic (C18:2), and myristic acid (C14:0). Meat samples of heifers from different herds were darkest with highest content of iron (Fe) with significant differences among cattle groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
Open AccessArticle
Changed Caecal Microbiota and Fermentation Contribute to the Beneficial Effects of Early Weaning with Alfalfa Hay, Starter Feed, and Milk Replacer on the Growth and Organ Development of Yak Calves
Animals 2019, 9(11), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110921 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of early weaning by supplying calves with alfalfa hay, starter feed, and milk replacer on caecal bacterial communities and on the growth of pre-weaned yak calves. Ten 30-day-old male yak calves were randomly assigned to 2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of early weaning by supplying calves with alfalfa hay, starter feed, and milk replacer on caecal bacterial communities and on the growth of pre-weaned yak calves. Ten 30-day-old male yak calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The maternal grazing (MG) group was maternally nursed and grazed, and the early weaning (EW) group was supplied milk replacer, starter feed, and alfalfa hay twice per day. Compared with the yak calves in the MG group, the yak calves in the EW group showed significantly increased body weight, body height, body length, and chest girth. When suffering to the potential mechanism of improved growth of yak calves, except for the enhanced ruminal fermentation, the significantly increased total volatile fatty acids, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and valerate in the caecum in the EW group could also serve to promote the growth of calves. By using 16S rDNA sequencing, some significantly increased caecal phylum and genera, which were all related to the enhanced caecal fermentation by utilizing both the fibrous and non-fibrous carbohydrates, were identified in the EW group. In conclusion, early weaning of yak calves by supplying them with alfalfa hay, starter feed, and milk replacer is more beneficial to the growth of yak calves when compared with maternal grazing and nursing, in part due to alterations in caecal microbiota and fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Heat Stress on Autophagy and Apoptosis of Rumen, Abomasum, Duodenum, Liver and Kidney Cells in Calves
Animals 2019, 9(10), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100854 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of heat stress on the autophagy and apoptosis of the rumen, abomasum, duodenum, liver and kidney in calves. Two groups of Holstein male calves were selected with similar birth weights and health conditions. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of heat stress on the autophagy and apoptosis of the rumen, abomasum, duodenum, liver and kidney in calves. Two groups of Holstein male calves were selected with similar birth weights and health conditions. Heat stress (HT): Six calves (birth weight 42.2 ± 2.3) were raised from July 15 to August 19. Cooling (CL): Six calves (birth weight 41.5 ± 3.1 kg) were raised from April 10 to May 15. All the calves were euthanized following captive bolt gun stunning at 35 d of age. The expression of protein 1 light chain 3-Ⅱ (LC3-Ⅱ) and caspase3 in the rumen, abomasum, duodenum, liver and kidney were determined by western blotting. In addition, other possible relevant serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Significant differences were observed in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB) and glucose (Glu). The results showed that heat stress could increase the autophagy and apoptosis of the kidney, duodenum and abomasum. However, heat stress had no effect on the autophagy and apoptosis of the liver. Additionally, the expression of caspase-3 in the rumen in HT was significantly lower than that in CL. In conclusion, the effects of heat stress on autophagy and apoptosis are organ-specific. The results provide knowledge regarding autophagy and autophagy in calf heat stress management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Limiting Sequence and Appropriate Amino Acid Ratio of Lysine, Methionine, and Threonine for Seven- to Nine-Month-Old Holstein Heifers Fed Corn–Soybean M-Based Diet
Animals 2019, 9(10), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100750 - 30 Sep 2019
Abstract
An “Amino acid (AA) partial deletion method” was used in this experiment to study the limiting sequences and appropriate ratio of lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) in the diets of 7- to 9-month-old Holstein heifers. The experiment was conducted for three [...] Read more.
An “Amino acid (AA) partial deletion method” was used in this experiment to study the limiting sequences and appropriate ratio of lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) in the diets of 7- to 9-month-old Holstein heifers. The experiment was conducted for three months with 72 Holstein heifers (age = 22 ± 0.5 weeks old; BW = 200 ± 9.0 kg; mean ± standard deviation). Following an initial two weeks adaptation period, heifers were allocated to one of four treatments: a theoretically balanced amino acid diet (positive control [PC]; 1.00% Lys, 0.33% Met, and 0.72% Thr), a 30% Lys deleted diet (partially deleted Lys [PD–Lys]; 0.66% Lys, 0.33% Met, and 0.72% Thr), a 30% Met deleted diet (partially deleted Met, [PD–Met]; 1.00% Lys, 0.22% Met, and 0.72% Thr), and a 30% Thr deleted diet (partially deleted Thr [PD–Thr]; 1.00% Lys, 0.33% Met, and 0.45% Thr). Experimental animals were fed a corn–soybean meal-based concentrate and alfalfa hay. In addition, the animals were provided with supplemental Lys, Met, and Thr (ruminal bypass). The results found no differences in the growth performance and nitrogen retention between PD–Thr treatment and PC treatment (p > 0.05). The average daily gain (p = 0.0013) and feed conversion efficiency (p = 0.0057) of eight- to ninr-month-old heifers were lower in both PD–Lys and PD–Met treatment than those in PC treatment. According to growth performance, Lys was the first limiting AA, followed by Met and Thr. Moreover, nine-month-old Holstein heifers in PD–Lys treatment and PD–Met treatment had higher levels of serum urea nitrogen (p = 0.0021), urea nitrogen (p = 0.0011) and total excreted N (p = 0.0324) than those in PC treatment, which showed that nitrogen retention significantly decreased (p = 0.0048) as dietary Lys and Met levels decreased. The limiting sequence based on nitrogen retention was the same as that based on growth performance. The appropriate ratio of Lys, Met, and Thr in the diet based on nitrogen retention was 100:32:57. In summary, the limiting sequence and appropriate amino acid ratio of Lys, Met, and Thr for seven- to nine-month-old Holstein heifers fed a corn–soybean meal-based diet were Lys > Met > Thr and 100:32:57, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
Mortality-Culling Rates of Dairy Calves and Replacement Heifers and Its Risk Factors in Holstein Cattle
Animals 2019, 9(10), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100730 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
The rates of mortality and involuntary culling of dairy calves and replacement heifers have great economic implications on the dairy cattle industry around the world. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to obtain population parameters of mortality and involuntary culling rates [...] Read more.
The rates of mortality and involuntary culling of dairy calves and replacement heifers have great economic implications on the dairy cattle industry around the world. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to obtain population parameters of mortality and involuntary culling rates of dairy calves and replacement heifers; and, (2) to investigate the factors affecting mortality and involuntary culling rates in Chinese Holstein cattle. Two datasets containing records of birth, calving, and culling events from 142,833 Holstein cattle born between 1991 and 2018 were used in this study. The population parameters were obtained using dataset 1, which consisted of dairy calves and replacement heifers that died or were involuntarily culled. Three survival traits were defined in dataset 2, which consisted of females born from 1999 to 2018. A binomial logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors on the survival traits. The mortality rate of dairy calves and replacement heifers from day 3 to 60, 61 to 365, and 366 to first calving was 5.5%, 7.4%, and 8.7%, and an unfavorable increasing trend was observed. Health events associated with digestive and respiratory or circulatory systems were the main death reasons. Herd-birth year, birth season, and dam parity had significant effects on survival traits. The results from this study will help farmers to better manage calves and replacement heifers and highlight the need to include survival traits in dairy calves and replacement heifers as part of national genetic evaluation schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessArticle
An Economic Analysis of the Costs Associated with Pre-Weaning Management Strategies for Dairy Heifers
Animals 2019, 9(7), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070471 - 23 Jul 2019
Abstract
Dairy calves are raised in various housing and feeding environments on dairy farms around North America. The objective of this study was to develop a simulation model to calculate the cost of raising replacement dairy heifers using different inputs that reflect different management [...] Read more.
Dairy calves are raised in various housing and feeding environments on dairy farms around North America. The objective of this study was to develop a simulation model to calculate the cost of raising replacement dairy heifers using different inputs that reflect different management decisions and evaluate their influence on the total cost. In this simulation, 84 calves were modeled between 0–2 months of age to reflect a 1000 heifer herd. The decisions associated with housing, liquid diet source and allowance, labor utilization, and health were calculated. Costs and biological responses were reflective of published surveys, literature, and market conditions. A 10,000-iteration economic simulation was used for each management scenario using @Risk and PrecisionTree add-ons (Palisade Corporation, Ithaca, NY, USA) to account for variation in pre-weaning mortality rate, weaning age, and disease prevalence. As milk allotment increased, total feed cost increased. Feeding calves a higher allowance of milk resulted in a lower cost per kg of gain. Average feed cost percentage of the total cost was 46% (min, max: 33%, 59%) while labor, and fixed and variable cost represented 33% (20%, 45%), 9% (2%, 12%), and 12% (10%, 14%), respectively. Total pre-weaning costs ranged from $258.56 to $582.98 per calf across all management scenarios and milk allotments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessCommunication
The Effect of Intravenous Infusions of Glutamine on Duodenal Cell Autophagy and Apoptosis in Early-Weaned Calves
Animals 2019, 9(7), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070404 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of intravenous infusions of L-glutamine (Gln) on the autophagy and apoptosis of duodenum cells in early-weaned calves. Holstein male calves were weaned at day 35 (20 male calves, birth weight 43 ± 1.8 [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of intravenous infusions of L-glutamine (Gln) on the autophagy and apoptosis of duodenum cells in early-weaned calves. Holstein male calves were weaned at day 35 (20 male calves, birth weight 43 ± 1.8 kg; 35 ± 3 d of age) and randomly allocated to four treatments (5 calves/treatment). The treatments were: (1) infusion of NaCl, representing the control group (C); (2) infusion of 10 g/d of Gln solution (L); (3) infusion of 20 g/d of Gln solution (M); and (4) infusion of 40 g/d of Gln solution (H). The solutions were infused for 2 h daily for 3 consecutive days after weaning. All calves were killed on the third day post-weaning. The results showed that the autophagy level of the duodenal cells was increased as the Gln infusions increased from 0 to 20 g/d and dropped with a further increase in dose (40 g/d). We also found that the level of apoptosis was decreased with Gln infusion from 0 to 20 g/d and rose as the dose increased to 40 g/d. This knowledge provides a reference for weaned calf health management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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Open AccessCommunication
Effects of Dietary Rumen-Protected Betaine Supplementation on Performance of Postpartum Dairy Cows and Immunity of Newborn Calves
Animals 2019, 9(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040167 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected betaine supplementation on performance of postpartum dairy cows and immunity of newborn calves. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly divided into the control (CON, n = 12) and rumen-protected betaine [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected betaine supplementation on performance of postpartum dairy cows and immunity of newborn calves. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly divided into the control (CON, n = 12) and rumen-protected betaine (BET, n = 12) groups after blocking by parity and milk yield during the previous lactation cycle. The cows were fed a basal total mixed ration diet without BET (CON) or with BET at 20 g/d per cow (BET) from four weeks before expected calving to six weeks postpartum. The results showed that betaine supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield of the cows. The BET cows tended to increase feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) and body weight loss postpartum compared to the CON cows. The plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of the BET cows were greater at d seven after calving than those of the CON cows. Moreover, compared to the CON calves, the BET calves had greater plasma total protein and globulin concentrations. The plasma glucose concentrations of the BET calves tended to decrease relative to CON cows. In conclusion, rumen-protected betaine supplementation from four weeks before expected calving tended to increase fat mobilization of postpartum dairy cows, and might improve the immunity of newborn calves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Review of Strategies to Promote Rumen Development in Calves
Animals 2019, 9(8), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080490 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Digestive tract development in calves presents a uniquely organized system. Specifically, as the rumen develops and becomes colonized by microorganisms, a calf physiologically transitions from a pseudo-monogastric animal to a functioning ruminant. Importantly, the development of rumen in calves can directly affect the [...] Read more.
Digestive tract development in calves presents a uniquely organized system. Specifically, as the rumen develops and becomes colonized by microorganisms, a calf physiologically transitions from a pseudo-monogastric animal to a functioning ruminant. Importantly, the development of rumen in calves can directly affect the intake of feed, nutrient digestibility and overall growth. Even minor changes in the early feeding regime and nutrition can drastically influence rumen development, resulting in long-term effects on growth, health, and milk yields in adult cattle. Rumen development in newborn calves is one of the most important and interesting areas of calf nutrition. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract development in calves. Moreover, we also describe the effect of the environment in shaping the GI tract, including diet, feed additives and feeding management, as well as discuss the strategies to promote the physiological and microbiological development of rumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf and Heifer Feeding and management)
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