Antibiotic Use in Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal System and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 34210

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, 30071 Murcia, Spain
Interests: pharmacokinetics; antibiotics; anesthetics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global problem and is steadily increasing worldwide in almost every bacterial species treated with antibiotics. Continued access to antibiotics is critical to veterinary medicine; however, the use of these drugs in animals must be managed well.

Often, there are few registered drugs for minor or exotic species, which cause the use of different drugs under exceptional prescription by adapting or extrapolating the recommended dosage from major species. This extrapolation can cause potential overdosing or underdosing, risks of bacterial resistance development, and the presence of residues of these pharmacologically active substances in meat or other animal-derived products intended for human consumption.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish original research papers or reviews concerning the use of antibiotics in animals to ensure clinical success and prevent the emergence of bacterial resistance and food residues.

Areas of interest, relevant to antibiotics, include the following: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, susceptibility, PK/PD integration, efficacy studies, and withdrawal periods.

We invite you to share your recent findings through this Special Issue.

Dr. Pedro Marín Carrillo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • pharmacodynamics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • PK/PD integration
  • susceptibility
  • withdrawal periods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 435 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics of Tildipirosin in Ewes after Intravenous, Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Administration
by Juan Sebastián Galecio, Elisa Escudero, José Joaquín Cerón, Giuseppe Crescenzo and Pedro Marín
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081332 - 1 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2815
Abstract
A single-dose disposition kinetics for tildipirosin was evaluated in clinically healthy ewes (n = 6) after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration of a commercial formulation. Tildipirosin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Plasma concentration-time data [...] Read more.
A single-dose disposition kinetics for tildipirosin was evaluated in clinically healthy ewes (n = 6) after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration of a commercial formulation. Tildipirosin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Plasma concentration-time data was calculated by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic methods. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz) of tildipirosin after IV administration was 5.36 ± 0.57 L/kg suggesting a wide distribution in tissues and inside the cells. The elimination half-life (t½λz) was 17.16 ± 2.25, 23.90 ± 6.99 and 43.19 ± 5.17 h after IV, IM and SC administration, respectively. Following IM administration, tildipirosin was rapidly absorbed (tmax = 0.62 ± 0.10 h) even to a greater extent than after SC administration. Time to reach peak concentration (tmax) and peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) differed significantly, but both parameters showed a more significant variability after SC than after IM administration. Bioavailabilities after extravascular administration were high (>70%). Therefore, given general adverse reactions that were not observed in any ewe and favourable pharmacokinetics, tildipirosin could be effective in treating bacterial infections in sheep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in Animals)
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8 pages, 432 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics of a Long-Acting Formulation of Oxytetracycline in Freshwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) after Intramuscular Administration at Three Different Dosages
by Saranya Poapolathep, Narumol Klangkaew, Napasorn Phaochoosak, Tara Wongwaipairoj, Mario Giorgi, Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Darren J. Trott and Amnart Poapolathep
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081281 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
To date, the necessary pharmacokinetic information has been limited to establish suitable therapeutic plans for freshwater crocodiles. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of the oxytetracycline long-acting formulation (OTC-LA) in the freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus siamensis, following a single [...] Read more.
To date, the necessary pharmacokinetic information has been limited to establish suitable therapeutic plans for freshwater crocodiles. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of the oxytetracycline long-acting formulation (OTC-LA) in the freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus siamensis, following a single intramuscular (i.m.) administration at three different dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 216 h after i.m. administration at the three different dosages. The plasma concentrations of OTC were measured using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The Cmax (± SD) values of OTC were 2.15 ± 0.51 µg/mL, 7.68 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.08 ± 2.09 µg/mL at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The elimination half-life values were 33.59 ± 2.51 h, 38.42 ± 5.47 h and 38.04 ± 1.98 h at dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index, the susceptibility break-point and plasma protein binding, a dosage once every two weeks of 10 mg/kg b.w. OTC intramuscularly might be suitable for initiating the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in freshwater crocodiles. However, further PK/PD studies are warranted to confirm whether the dose rates used in this study can produce longer-term antimicrobial success for diseases caused by susceptible bacteria in freshwater crocodiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in Animals)
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9 pages, 844 KiB  
Article
Effects of Single and Repeated Doses on Disposition and Kinetics of Doxycycline Hyclate in Goats
by Erdinc Turk, Orhan Corum, Ibrahim Ozan Tekeli, Fatih Sakin and Kamil Uney
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061088 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5286
Abstract
The aims of this study in goats were to determine the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hyclate following single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral administrations of 20 mg/kg and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and accumulation of doxycycline hyclate after repeated oral administrations at a [...] Read more.
The aims of this study in goats were to determine the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hyclate following single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral administrations of 20 mg/kg and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and accumulation of doxycycline hyclate after repeated oral administrations at a 20 mg/kg dose every 24 h for 5 days. Six healthy male goats were used for the study. The study was performed in four periods according to a longitudinal study with a 15-day washout period. Plasma concentrations of doxycycline were determined using HPLC-UV and analyzed by a non-compartmental method. IM injection of doxycycline caused swelling and pain due to irritation in the injection site. After IM and oral administrations, terminal elimination half-life (t1/2λz) and mean residence time (MRT) were prolonged and areas under the curve (AUCs) were low. The mean bioavailability of IM and oral administration was 51.51% and 31.39%, respectively. Following repeated oral administration, the accumulation ratio of doxycycline was 1.76. Pharmacokinetic properties including weak accumulation, wide distribution volume and long elimination half-life can make doxycycline hyclate valuable for repeated use via an oral route in the treatment of some infectious diseases in goats. However, the determination of pharmacodynamic effects on susceptible pathogens isolated from goats is also necessary to confirm the drug dosage regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in Animals)
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14 pages, 1504 KiB  
Article
Oral Plus Topical Administration of Enrofloxacin-Hydrochloride-Dihydrate for the Treatment of Unresponsive Canine Pyoderma. A Clinical Trial
by Lilia Gutierrez, Graciela Tapia, Luis Ocampo, Minerva Monroy-Barreto and Hector Sumano
Animals 2020, 10(6), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060943 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3673
Abstract
An outpatient clinical trial on unresponsive deep-bacterial canine pyoderma (UDCP), without a control group, is presented. The chosen treatment was implemented with a new crystal-solvate of enrofloxacin (enrofloxacin HCl-2H2O or enro-C), in a dual scheme, i.e., 10 mg/kg/day PO, plus its [...] Read more.
An outpatient clinical trial on unresponsive deep-bacterial canine pyoderma (UDCP), without a control group, is presented. The chosen treatment was implemented with a new crystal-solvate of enrofloxacin (enrofloxacin HCl-2H2O or enro-C), in a dual scheme, i.e., 10 mg/kg/day PO, plus its topical administration, prepared as 0.5% in an alginate gel, thrice per day. Fifty-five cases that were unsuccessfully treated previously with another antibacterial drug, were selected and then classified as severe or very severe, according to a clinical score tailored for this trial. Aerobic bacteriological cultures of skin lesions and antibacterial sensitivity tests, were performed. Hematological status, liver, and kidney functions were determined before and after treatment. A complete success was obtained in 32 severe and 23 very severe, cases. The main bacterial isolates were: Staphylococcus intermedius (19/99), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (16/99), Staphylococcus epidermidis (15/99), Staphylococcus pyogenes (14/99), Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus sp., and others including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6/99). The average duration of treatment was 8.03 days ± 2.1 SD and 12.0 ± 2.4 days, for dogs with severe or very severe UDCP, respectively. The adverse effects caused by enro-C were inconsequential and the hematological tests showed no deviations from normality. The use of enro-C administered dually to treat UDCP, is considered safe and highly effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in Animals)
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10 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
The Addition of Lactobacillus spp., Enrofloxacin or Doxycycline Negatively Affects the Viability of Mycoplasma bovis in Diluted Bovine Semen
by Ana García-Galán, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Esther Bataller, Jesús Gomis, Antonio Sánchez, Joaquín Gadea, Luis Alberto Vieira, Empar García-Roselló and Christian De la Fe
Animals 2020, 10(5), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050837 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2972
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis is an important etiologic agent of bovine mycoplasmosis in cattle. Different transmission routes have been described, including those related to reproduction. The presence of mycoplasma in semen has led to its appearance in infection-free areas through artificial insemination (AI). Semen was [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis is an important etiologic agent of bovine mycoplasmosis in cattle. Different transmission routes have been described, including those related to reproduction. The presence of mycoplasma in semen has led to its appearance in infection-free areas through artificial insemination (AI). Semen was recently reported to be the initial source of two M. bovis mastitis outbreaks in two closed dairy herds in Finland. This questions the effectiveness of the antimicrobials currently used in semen extenders to control the pathogens in contaminated semen. They should be re-evaluated, or alternative measures to antimicrobials should be tested to obtain M. bovis-free semen. This in vitro study aimed to assess different strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of M. bovis through AI technologies. The viability of M. bovis (PG45, NCTC 10131) in bull semen diluted (DS) in a Tris-citrate-fructose solution was tested, after the addition of enrofloxacin, doxycycline or a Lactobacillus spp.-based probiotic. The data show the susceptibility of the pathogen to the addition of 0.125 μg/mL of enrofloxacin or 0.0625 μg/mL of doxycycline and to the addition of the probiotic at a concentration of 3.24 × 106 colony forming units (CFU)/mL or 3.24 × 108 CFU/mL in DS. The Tris-citrate-fructose medium negatively affected the viability of M. bovis, although this effect was lower than that observed after the addition of the probiotic and antimicrobials (p < 0.05). Our results may support new strategies for reducing the risk of M. bovis transmission through AI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in Animals)

Review

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16 pages, 2045 KiB  
Review
Ginger and Its Derivatives as Promising Alternatives to Antibiotics in Poultry Feed
by Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Hazem Shaheen, Dalia Samak, Sarah I. Othman, Ahmed A. Allam, Ayman E. Taha, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Muhammad Arif, Ali Osman, Ahmed I. El Sheikh, Shaaban S. Elnesr and Mahmoud Sitohy
Animals 2020, 10(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030452 - 9 Mar 2020
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 15549
Abstract
Poultry enterprises have sustained rapid development through the last three decennaries. For which reason, higher utilization of antibacterial, either as therapeutic or growth promoting agents, has been accepted. Owing to the concern of developing bacterial resistance among populations towards antibiotic generations, accumulation of [...] Read more.
Poultry enterprises have sustained rapid development through the last three decennaries. For which reason, higher utilization of antibacterial, either as therapeutic or growth promoting agents, has been accepted. Owing to the concern of developing bacterial resistance among populations towards antibiotic generations, accumulation of antibacterial remaining’s in chicken products and elevating shopper request for outcomes without antibacterial remaining’s, looking for unconventional solutions that could exchange antibacterial without influencing productiveness or product characters. Using natural alternatives including ginger, garlic prebiotics, organic acids, plant extracts, etheric oils and immune stimulants have been applied to advance the performance, hold poultry productiveness, prevent and control the enteric pathogens and minimize the antibacterial utilization in the poultry production in recent years. The use of a single replacement or ideal assemblage of different choices besides good supervision and livestock welfare may play a basic role in maximizing benefits and preserving poultry productiveness. The object of this review was to support an outline of the recent knowledge on the use of the natural replacements (ginger and its derivatives) in poultry feed as feed additives and their effects on poultry performance, egg and meat quality, health as well as the economic efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use in Animals)
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