Animal Poisoning Related to Pathology and Toxicology

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 November 2024 | Viewed by 5506

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia 58397-000, PB, Brazil
Interests: animal health; clinical; epidemiology; pathology; toxicology
College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: animal toxicology and animal nutrition metabolic disease; toxicology of heavy metal; toxicology of mycotoxin
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animal poisoning related to pathology and toxicology is a complex field that investigates the etiology, pathogenesis, and consequences of toxic substances in various animal species. It encompasses the study of toxic agents, their interactions with biological systems, and pathological changes in animals' cells and tissues. Recent research shows that poisoning is one of the most significant health problems globally. Incidents of poisoning have diverse etiologies, resulting from the ingestion, inhalation, contact, or injection of various drugs, chemicals, poisons, toxins, or gases. Thus, understanding animal poisoning is crucial for early diagnosis, the development of therapeutic measures, antidotes, and effective strategies for preventing poisoning incidents.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together the latest findings on animal poisonings. Original research papers, as well as literature reviews from different research areas, are invited for this Special Issue. This includes the identification of toxic compounds that impact animal health, clinical aspects of poisonings, description of lesions, epidemiological studies, and new therapeutic and preventive measures for poisonings. Additional topics and interdisciplinary studies on the impact of toxic substances on the environment and their relationship to the conservation of wildlife species will also be considered.

Dr. Ricardo Barbosa Lucena
Dr. Xu Yang
Dr. Yanzhu Zhu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • animal poisoning
  • chemical
  • pathogenesis
  • toxic
  • toxins

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 8342 KiB  
Article
Acute Oral Chromium Exposure Resulting in Ulcerative Gastritis and Perforated Ulcers in Swine
by Fernanda Felicetti Perosa, Anderson Hentz Gris, Manoela Marchezan Piva, Jean Carlo Olivo Menegatt, Claiton Ismael Schwertz, Paola Sônego, Tatiane Terumi Negrao Watanabe, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, David Driemeier and Welden Panziera
Animals 2024, 14(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14010063 - 23 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Heavy metal poisoning poses a challenge in diagnostic practices and environmental safety. This study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of a chromium (Cr) poisoning outbreak in growing/finishing pigs housed in pens with bedding of pine wood shavings containing Cr. A visit [...] Read more.
Heavy metal poisoning poses a challenge in diagnostic practices and environmental safety. This study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of a chromium (Cr) poisoning outbreak in growing/finishing pigs housed in pens with bedding of pine wood shavings containing Cr. A visit to the affected farm was conducted. Epidemiological data were collected, and necropsy and histopathological examinations and heavy metal quantifications were performed. Up to 30% of the animals from the affected pens displayed clinical signs 48 h after housing, characterized by apathy, rigid gait, distended abdomen, pain to abdominal palpation, fever, vomiting, and skin cyanosis. The lethality rate reached 76.6%. Main postmortem findings consisted of ulcerative gastritis with perforation of the glandular stomach in all necropsied swine. Heavy metal analysis revealed a higher concentration of Cr in the bedding of the affected pens, along with elevated levels of Cr in the livers of the affected swine. Given that Cr is a known cause of poisoning in humans (with acute oral exposure resulting in corrosive lesions in the gastrointestinal tract), this study marks the first diagnosis of acute oral natural Cr poisoning in animals. This diagnosis was established through the association of epidemiological, pathological, and heavy metal quantification data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Poisoning Related to Pathology and Toxicology)
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12 pages, 2167 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Toxic Effects of ZEA on IPEC-J2 Cells from the Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis
by Haoyue Guan, Wenxue Ma, Qiong Wu, Jingzeng Cai and Ziwei Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(17), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13172731 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEA) is the most common fungal toxin contaminating livestock and poultry feeding, especially in pigs, causing severe toxic effects and economic losses. However, the mechanism of ZEA damage to the intestine is unknown. We constructed an in vitro model of ZEA toxicity [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is the most common fungal toxin contaminating livestock and poultry feeding, especially in pigs, causing severe toxic effects and economic losses. However, the mechanism of ZEA damage to the intestine is unknown. We constructed an in vitro model of ZEA toxicity in a porcine small intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) line. ZEA causes severe oxidative stress in porcine small intestine cells, such as the production of ROS and a significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes GSH, CAT, SOD, and T-AOC. ZEA also caused apoptosis in porcine small intestine cells, resulting in a significant reduction in protein and/or mRNA expression of apoptosis-related pathway factors such as P53, caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax, and Cyt-c, which in turn caused a significant decrease in protein and/or mRNA expression of inflammatory-related factors such as IL-1β, IL-2, Cox-2, NF-κD, NLRP3, IL-6, and IL -18, which in turn caused a significant increase in protein and/or mRNA expression levels. The final results suggest that ZEA can cause a severe toxic response in porcine small intestine cells, with oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death and inflammatory damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Poisoning Related to Pathology and Toxicology)
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18 pages, 3693 KiB  
Article
Cadmium Exposure Affects Serum Metabolites and Proteins in the Male Guizhou Black Goat
by Yuanfeng Li and Xiaoyun Shen
Animals 2023, 13(17), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13172705 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Food safety and environmental pollution are the hotspots of general concern globally. Notably, long-term accumulation of trace toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), in animals may endanger human health via the food chain. The mechanism of Cd toxicity in the goat, a [...] Read more.
Food safety and environmental pollution are the hotspots of general concern globally. Notably, long-term accumulation of trace toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), in animals may endanger human health via the food chain. The mechanism of Cd toxicity in the goat, a popular farmed animal, has not been extensively investigated to date. Therefore, in this study, ten male goats (Nubian black goat × native black goat) were exposed to Cd via drinking water containing CdCl2 (20 mg Cd·kg−1·BW) for 30 days (five male goats per group). In this study, we used an integrated approach combining proteomics and metabolomics to profile proteins and metabolites in the serum of Cd-exposed goats. It was found that Cd exposure impacted the levels of 30 serum metabolites and 108 proteins. The combined proteomic and metabolomic analysis revealed that Cd exposure affected arginine and proline metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Further, antioxidant capacity in the serum of goats exposed to Cd was reduced. We identified CKM and spermidine as potential protein and metabolic markers, respectively, of early Cd toxicity in the goat. This study details approaches for the early diagnosis and prevention of Cd-poisoned goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Poisoning Related to Pathology and Toxicology)
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20 pages, 4785 KiB  
Article
Development of Novel Formulation for Sustained Release of Drug to Prevent Swainsonine-Containing Plants Poisoning in Livestock
by Bo Li, Congsheng Zhang, Yiru Zhu, Pinzhi Sun, Shangrui Fan, Weina Wang, Yanan Tian and Hao Lu
Animals 2023, 13(16), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13162646 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Swainsonine-containing plants contain swainsonine which has been shown to cause neurological signs and pathological changes in farm animals. It causes a large number of livestock poisonings every year resulting in economic losses to the livestock industry. At present, “Jifang E” is used in [...] Read more.
Swainsonine-containing plants contain swainsonine which has been shown to cause neurological signs and pathological changes in farm animals. It causes a large number of livestock poisonings every year resulting in economic losses to the livestock industry. At present, “Jifang E” is used in the prevention of swainsonine-containing plants poisoning livestock, and the preventive effects have been well-documented. However, “Jifang E” is typically administered in drinking water, making it difficult to control the administered dosage, because of feeding difficulties and it may cause certain side effects that are unique to the water-dissolved powder. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a temperature-sensitive gel for injection and the optimal ratio of each formula of sustained-release injection is P407 (24%), P188 (6%), Vitamin C (1%), PEG4000 (0.5%), and “Jifang E” (10%). Our results suggest that novel formulation makes the micellar system more stable and the particles are uniformly dispersed. Colloidal morphological studies showed that each group formed a homogeneous pore structure after gelling, and the structure became more dense with the addition of “Jifang E”. The rheological study shows that “Jifang E” is a pseudoplastic fluid, and the addition of “Jifang E” reduces the viscosity of the formula, which is beneficial to the injection. In vitro and in vivo release rate studies have shown that the effective concentration of “Jifang E” can be maintained for 3 to 5 days. The acute toxicity test in SPF Kunming mice showed that its LD50 was 828.323 mg/kg, with confidence limits of 676.706–1013.911 mg/kg, which is a safe dosage (LD50 > 200 mg/kg). There were no observed reactions of muscle irritation or subcutaneous tissue irritation with the dosage used for New Zealand rabbits. In summary, we successfully developed the sustained-release injection formulation of “Jifang E” for the prevention of swainsonine-containing plants poisoning livestock, which provides the basis for subsequent field extension trials and the further study of its detoxification mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Poisoning Related to Pathology and Toxicology)
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14 pages, 5539 KiB  
Article
Environmental Microplastic Exposure Changes Gut Microbiota in Chickens
by Wen Zou, Sijia Lu, Jia Wang, Yixiao Xu, Muhammad Akbar Shahid, Muhammad Usman Saleem, Khalid Mehmood and Kun Li
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152503 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
As novel environmental contaminants, MPs exist widely in the environment and accumulate in organisms, which has become a global ecological problem. MP perturbations of organismal physiology and behavior have been extensively recorded in aquatic animals, but the potential effects of MPs on poultry [...] Read more.
As novel environmental contaminants, MPs exist widely in the environment and accumulate in organisms, which has become a global ecological problem. MP perturbations of organismal physiology and behavior have been extensively recorded in aquatic animals, but the potential effects of MPs on poultry are not well characterized. Here, we explored the adverse effects of MP exposure on the growth performance and gut microbiota of chickens. Results showed that the growth performance of chickens decreased significantly during MP exposure. Additionally, Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Proteobacteria were found to be dominant in the gut microbiota of MP-exposed chickens, regardless of health status. Although the types of dominant bacteria did not change, the abundances of some bacteria and the structure of the gut microbiota changed significantly. Compared with the controls, the alpha diversity of gut microbiota in chickens exposed to MPs showed a significant decrease. The results of comparative analyses of bacteria between groups showed that the levels of 1 phyla (Proteobacteria) and 18 genera dramatically decreased, whereas the levels of 1 phyla (Cyanobacteria) and 12 genera dramatically increased, during MP exposure. In summary, this study provides evidence that exposure to MPs has a significant impact on the growth performance and gut microbial composition and structure of chickens, leading to a gut microbial imbalance. This may raise widespread public concern about the health threat caused by MP contamination, which is relevant to the maintenance of environmental quality and protection of poultry health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Poisoning Related to Pathology and Toxicology)
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