Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Poultry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 18915

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Poultry Center, Cooperative Agricultural Research Center, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX 77446, USA
Interests: poultry nutrition; feed additives; nutrigenomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
Interests: poultry nutrition; feed additives
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Poultry meat and eggs can meet the demands of the protein need for the growing human population as one of the cheapest animal protein sources. With the rising trend in the consumption of poultry products, it is necessary to sustainably produce poultry products without causing environmental damage and maintaining profitability. For sustainable poultry production, there is a need to find alternatives to costly vegetable protein sources such as soybean meal or increase the efficiency of production by using feed additives, or utilization of agro-industrial byproducts for nutrient recycling. Microalgae and insect proteins can serve as alternatives to soy-bean meal. Studies on how nutrients from these alternative protein sources can be efficiently utilized to meet the physiological demands are required. The focus of this Special Issue is to improve our current understanding of the nutritional physiology of alternate protein sources, feed additives, and agro-byproducts for efficient nutrient utilization and recycling for sustainable poultry production.

Dr. Jayant Lohakare
Dr. Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
Dr. Ahmed Abdel-wareth
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • poultry
  • sustainability
  • physiology
  • nutrition
  • feed additives
  • microalgae
  • agricultural byproducts

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Early Feeding Strategy Mitigates Major Physiological Dynamics Altered by Heat Stress in Broilers
by Ahmed Gouda, Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser, Nancy N. Kamel, Sherin Gabr and Kamal M. A. Eid
Animals 2024, 14(10), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14101485 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Heat stress is one of the stressors that negatively affect broiler chickens, leading to a reduction in production efficiency and profitability. This reduction affects the economy in general, especially in hot and semi-hot countries. Therefore, improving heat tolerance of broiler chicks is a [...] Read more.
Heat stress is one of the stressors that negatively affect broiler chickens, leading to a reduction in production efficiency and profitability. This reduction affects the economy in general, especially in hot and semi-hot countries. Therefore, improving heat tolerance of broiler chicks is a key to sustained peak performance, especially under adverse environmental heat stress conditions. The present study investigated three early feed withdrawal regimes (FWD) as a potential mitigation for thermal stress exposure. A total of 240 unsexed one-day-old Cobb-500 chicks were randomly recruited to one of four experimental groups using a completely randomized design (10 birds × 6 replicates). The experimental groups included the control group with no feed withdrawal (control), while the other three groups were subjected to early feed withdrawal for either 24 h on the 5th day of age (FWD-24), 12 h on the 3rd and 5th day of age (FWD-12), or 8 h on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th day of age (FWD-8), respectively. Production performance was monitored throughout the experiment. Meanwhile, blood and liver samples were taken at the end of the experimental period to evaluate major physiological dynamic changes. Our findings demonstrated that under chronic heat stress conditions, FWD treatments significantly improved broilers’ production performance and enhanced several physiological parameters compared with the control. Serum levels of thyroid hormones were elevated, whereas leptin hormone was decreased in FWD groups compared with the control. Moreover, serum total protein, globulin, and hemoglobin levels were higher, while total cholesterol and uric acid were lower in the FWD groups. Furthermore, FWD groups showed significantly higher antioxidant marker activity with a significantly lower lipid peroxidation level. Immunoglobulin levels, lysozyme, complement factor C3, and liver heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentration were also elevated in FWD compared with the control. Also, serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) significantly increased with FWD. Based on our findings, early feed withdrawal can be applied as a promising non-invasive nutritional strategy for broilers reared under chronic heat stress conditions. Such a strategy promotes the alleviation of the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler performance, immunity, and redox status, owing to the onset of physiological adaptation and the development of thermotolerance ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
13 pages, 3036 KiB  
Article
Effects of Methionine Supplementation Levels in Normal or Reduced Protein Diets on the Body Composition and Femur Bone Characteristics of Broilers Challenged with Coccidia
by Guanchen Liu, Venkata Sesha Reddy Choppa, Milan Kumar Sharma, Hanseo Ko, Janghan Choi and Woo Kyun Kim
Animals 2024, 14(6), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060917 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 790
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of dietary methionine (Met) levels on the bone quality of broilers challenged with coccidia. A total of 600 fourteen-day-old male Cobb500 broilers were gavaged with mixed Eimeria spp. and randomly allocated into 10 treatment groups by a 2 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of dietary methionine (Met) levels on the bone quality of broilers challenged with coccidia. A total of 600 fourteen-day-old male Cobb500 broilers were gavaged with mixed Eimeria spp. and randomly allocated into 10 treatment groups by a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement. Birds received normal protein diets (NCP) or reduced-protein diets (LCP), containing 2.8, 4.4, 6.0, 7.6, and 9.2 g/kg of Met. Data were analyzed via two-way ANOVA and orthogonal polynomial contrast. At 9 days post-inoculation (DPI), whole body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) linearly decreased as Met levels increased (p < 0.05). For the femoral metaphysis bone quality at 9 DPI, BMD linearly decreased, and porosity linearly increased as Met levels increased (p < 0.05) in the cortical bone. The increased Met levels linearly improved trabecular bone quality in LCP groups (p < 0.05) while not in NCP groups. For the femoral diaphysis cortical bone at 6 DPI, LCP groups had higher BMD and BMC than NCP groups (p < 0.05). Bone volume linearly increased as Met levels increased in LCP groups (p < 0.05) while not in NCP groups. In summary, the results suggested that increased Met levels decreased the cortical bone quality. However, in the context of reduced-protein diets, the increased Met levels improved trabecular bone quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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25 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Hemp Seeds Alone or with Dried Fruit Pomace on Laying Hens’ Performance and on Lipid Composition and Oxidation Status of Egg Yolks
by Daniel Mierlita, Alin Cristian Teușdea, Mădălina Matei, Constantin Pascal, Daniel Simeanu and Ioan Mircea Pop
Animals 2024, 14(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14050750 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of introducing hemp seeds, as a source of PUFAs, into a standard diet with or without dried fruit pomace (dried blackcurrant (DB) or dried rosehip (DR)), as a source of natural antioxidants, on the [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of introducing hemp seeds, as a source of PUFAs, into a standard diet with or without dried fruit pomace (dried blackcurrant (DB) or dried rosehip (DR)), as a source of natural antioxidants, on the laying performance of hens and the FA profile, cholesterol level, antioxidant content, and lipid oxidative status in the yolks of fresh eggs or eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The experiment used 128 Tetra SL hens at 35 weeks of age, which were divided into four groups and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: a standard corn–wheat–soybean meal diet (C), standard diet containing 8% ground hemp seed (H), hemp seed diet containing 3% dried blackcurrant pomace (HB), and hemp seed diet containing 3% dried rosehip pomace (HR). The laying rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight, and yolk weight were improved by the use of hemp seeds. The yolks of the H, HB, and HR eggs had a lower cholesterol (p ˂ 0.01) and SFA content, while the concentration of total and individual PUFAs (n-6 and n-3 FAs) was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.01) compared to C. In addition, the introduction of hemp seeds into the diets alone or with dried fruit pomace (DB or DR) led to increased (p ˂ 0.001) content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and hypo-/hypercholesterolemic FA ratio and decreased arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) content, n-6/n-3 ratio, and thrombogenicity index (TI) compared to the control eggs. The introduction of dried fruit pomace (DB or DR) into the diets had no effect on the laying performance of the hens or the cholesterol content and FA profile of the egg yolks, compared to the diet supplemented only with hemp seeds. The dried fruit pomace improved the color, accumulation of antioxidants, and oxidative stability of fats in the yolks of the fresh eggs and eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The DR was found to have the most desirable effects, producing the most intense color of egg yolks, the highest content of natural antioxidants, and the best oxidative stability of yolk lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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14 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Growth and Development Characteristics of Lindian Chickens
by Jie Liu, Yitong Jin, Shijie Zhou, Xinyu Wang, Yumao Li, Peng Luan, Hui Li, Li Leng and Yuxiang Wang
Animals 2024, 14(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020354 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 831
Abstract
As an excellent chicken breed found in a high-altitude zone of northern China, Lindian chickens are characterized by good egg and meat production, strong adaptability, cold tolerance, rough feeding resistance, excellent egg quality, and delicious meat quality. To facilitate the exploitation of the [...] Read more.
As an excellent chicken breed found in a high-altitude zone of northern China, Lindian chickens are characterized by good egg and meat production, strong adaptability, cold tolerance, rough feeding resistance, excellent egg quality, and delicious meat quality. To facilitate the exploitation of the unique qualities of the Lindian chicken, the varying patterns and correlations of various body size and carcass traits of 3–22-week-old Lindian chickens were analyzed in this study. The optimal growth model of these traits was determined by growth curve fitting analysis. The results showed that most traits of Lindian chickens increased steadily with increasing age, and most of them increased rapidly before 10 weeks of age. In addition, the inflection point age of each trait was predicted to be between 4 and 10 weeks. Furthermore, this study revealed that body size traits were closely related to carcass traits in Lindian chickens. In summary, Lindian chickens are in a rapid growth stage before the age of 10 weeks, and better slaughter performance can be achieved through good feeding management during this stage. The reproductive traits and muscles are the main developmental focus after the age of 19 weeks, so it is important to adequately meet their energy requirements for subsequent good breeding performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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14 pages, 1541 KiB  
Article
Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Serum Metabolites, Meat Quality, and Jejunal Basal Morphology in Broilers
by Sara Basharat, Sajid Khan Tahir, Khalid Abdul Majeed, Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf, Khalil Khadim Hussain, Muhammad A. Rashid, Hafsa Zaneb and Habib Rehman
Animals 2024, 14(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14010099 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 942
Abstract
The current research aimed to evaluate the supplemental effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on production performance, viscera development, blood metabolites, redox status, meat quality, and jejunal histology in broilers. A total of 300 day-old broilers were randomly divided into six groups with [...] Read more.
The current research aimed to evaluate the supplemental effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on production performance, viscera development, blood metabolites, redox status, meat quality, and jejunal histology in broilers. A total of 300 day-old broilers were randomly divided into six groups with five replicates per group. Birds were fed on a corn soybean-based diet supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80 mg/kg IONPs or 80 mg/kg of FeSO4 for 35 days. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in birds supplemented with 60 mg/kg IONPs. The pH24h was lower in birds supplemented with 40 mg/kg IONPs compared to that of the bulk group. Pectoral muscle fascicle diameter and fiber density were significantly increased in 20 mg/kg IONP-supplemented birds compared to those of the bulk group, respectively. The muscle fiber diameter was higher in 40 mg/kg IONP-supplemented birds compared with the bulk group. The jejunal villus height, crypt depth, and villus surface area were significantly increased with 60 mg/kg IONP supplementation, whereas villus width was decreased in birds supplemented with 40 mg/kg IONPs. The villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratio was lower in IONP-supplemented birds compared to the bulk group. IONP supplementation improved the FCR, jejunal, and pectoral muscle morphology without affecting the carcass characteristics and redox status of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2129 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Betaine on the Laying Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, and Uterus and Ovary Function of Laying Hens at the Late Stage of Production
by Feng Guo, Mengna Jing, Aaoyu Zhang, Jinfan Yi and Yanhong Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203283 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Betaine has been found to alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. However, whether dietary betaine can protect late-laying hens against these adverse effects is unknown. Here, 270 65-week-old Jinghong-1 laying hens were randomly divided into the Control, 0.1% Betaine, and 0.5% Betaine groups [...] Read more.
Betaine has been found to alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. However, whether dietary betaine can protect late-laying hens against these adverse effects is unknown. Here, 270 65-week-old Jinghong-1 laying hens were randomly divided into the Control, 0.1% Betaine, and 0.5% Betaine groups and fed a basal diet, 0.1%, and 0.5% betaine supplemented diet, respectively. The trial lasted for seven weeks. Birds that consumed 0.5% betaine laid more eggs with thicker eggshells. Accordingly, uterine reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and ovarian superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were increased. The uterine calcium ion content and the mRNA expression of ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and carbonic anhydrase two were increased. Moreover, ovarian IL-1β, Caspase-1, Caspase-8, and Caspase-9 mRNA expressions were decreased; luteinising hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expressions were increased. Furthermore, dietary betaine decreased the ovaries’ mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT)1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b. The methylation level at the promoter region of ovarian LHR decreased. These results indicated that dietary betaine consumption with a concentration of 0.5% could increase the laying rate and the eggshell thickness during the late-laying period. The underlying mechanism may include antioxidative, anti-apoptosis, and hormone-sensitivity-enhancing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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18 pages, 2587 KiB  
Article
Colonization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Chicks with Different Bacterial Microbiota Profiles
by Laura Franco, Martine Boulianne, Eric Parent, Neda Barjesteh and Marcio C. Costa
Animals 2023, 13(16), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13162633 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the consequences of early-life microbiota transplantation using different caecal content sources in broiler chicks. We hypothesized that chicks receiving at-hatch microbiota from organic hens would harbour a distinct microbiota from chicks receiving industry-raised broiler microbiota after six weeks [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the consequences of early-life microbiota transplantation using different caecal content sources in broiler chicks. We hypothesized that chicks receiving at-hatch microbiota from organic hens would harbour a distinct microbiota from chicks receiving industry-raised broiler microbiota after six weeks of age. Three hundred Cobb broilers eggs were randomly assigned to one of four groups according to the caecal content received: organic laying hens (Organic); autoclaved caecal content of organic laying hens (Autoclaved); conventionally grown broilers (Conventional); and sterile saline (Control). caecal microbiota transplantation was given by gavage on day 1. Ten birds/group were euthanized on days 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42. The caecal tonsils and contents were collected for cytokines and microbiota analyses. The microbiota from chicks receiving live inocula resembled the donors’ microbiota from day seven until day 42. The microbiota composition from the chickens who received the Organic inoculum remained markedly different. Starting on day 7, the Organic group had higher richness. Simpson and Shannon’s indices were higher in the Conventional group on days 2 and 7. Chickens in the Conventional group presented higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 in plasma on days 2 and 28, increased IL-6 expression in the caecal tonsils at days 7 and 42, and increased IL-12 expression on day 7. However, the Conventional group was infected with Eimeria spp., which likely caused inflammation. In conclusion, microbiota transplantation using different microbiota profiles persistently colonized newly hatched broiler chicks. Future studies evaluating the importance of microbiota composition during infections with common enteropathogens are necessary. This study also highlights the need for a strict screening protocol for pathogens in the donors’ intestinal content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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14 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Dietary Supplementation with Zinc-Chromium Mixture, Organic Selenium, or Their Combinations on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Blood Profiles of Broilers under Heat Stress Conditions
by Abdelhameed S. A. Mohamed, Maha A. Abd El Latif, Eman A. M. Hussein, Enas M. A. Toson, Mohamed Saleh, Dariusz Kokoszynski, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mohamed Mohany, Salim S. Al-Rejaie and Hamada Elwan
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152539 - 7 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1621
Abstract
To determine the effects of organic selenium (0.0–0.6 mg and 0.9 mg Se/Kg diet) and Zn-Cr mixture (100 mg Zn/Kg diet plus 1.5 mg Cr/Kg diet) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, blood hematology, and biochemistry under heat stress conditions, this study was [...] Read more.
To determine the effects of organic selenium (0.0–0.6 mg and 0.9 mg Se/Kg diet) and Zn-Cr mixture (100 mg Zn/Kg diet plus 1.5 mg Cr/Kg diet) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, blood hematology, and biochemistry under heat stress conditions, this study was conducted. Under temperatures between 30.21 to 31.82 °C, 240 broiler chickens (Ross-308), which were 7-day-old, were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: T1 (control), T2 (100 mg Zn per kg of diet and 1.5 mg Cr per kg of diet), T3 (0.6 mg Se per kg of diet), T4 (0.9 mg Se per kg of diet), T5 (100 mg Zn, 1.5 mg Cr and (LSe), and T6 (100 mg Zn, 1.5 mg Cr and (HSe)). At 35 days old, the chicks fed a diet containing Zn-Cr with low or high organic selenium (organic-Se) outweighed the control group in terms of live body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05). In comparison to the control treatment, birds fed diets supplemented with Zn-Cr or organic-Se (LSe, HSe) significantly increased their serum levels of total protein and total antioxidant capacity. However, these additives resulted in a decrease (p < 0.01) in their serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, creatinine, and uric acid. Together, it was found that trace elements (Zn-Cr and organic-Se) may greatly lessen the impacts of heat stress on broilers by promoting growth performance and boosting metabolic processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
16 pages, 2122 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Enzyme System Modulation by Dietary Palm Oils, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil in Laying Hens
by Wan Ibrahim Izuddin, Teck Chwen Loh, Nazri Nayan, Henny Akit, Hooi Ling Foo and Ahmadilfitri Md Noor
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142245 - 8 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Palm-based oils (palm oil and kernel oil) and soybean oil have unique fatty acid and antioxidant profiles based on the compounds present in them. Hence, this study elucidated the antioxidant properties of crude palm oil (CPO), red palm oil (RPO), refined palm oil [...] Read more.
Palm-based oils (palm oil and kernel oil) and soybean oil have unique fatty acid and antioxidant profiles based on the compounds present in them. Hence, this study elucidated the antioxidant properties of crude palm oil (CPO), red palm oil (RPO), refined palm oil (RBD), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) and the influence of dietary oils on blood lipid profiles, tissue fatty acid deposition and the expression of hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism genes in laying hens. The oils were analyzed for color, beta-carotene, free fatty acid and acid value, phenolic content and lipid peroxidation. In an in vivo trial, 150 laying hens were allotted into five groups and supplemented with either CPO, RPO, RBD, PKO or SBO for 16 weeks. High antioxidant compounds present in palm oils help reduce the oxidation of oils. Dietary supplementation with palm oils, particularly CPO and RPO, contributed to the lower liver, serum and jejunal mucosal antioxidant enzyme activities. The antioxidant enzyme genes in the jejunal mucosa were downregulated in palm oils and PKO, but there was no difference between oils in antioxidant enzyme genes in the liver. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with oils with high antioxidant content contributed to protection against oxidation and was associated with a lower requirement for producing antioxidant enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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15 pages, 936 KiB  
Article
Housing Systems Affect Eggshell Lightness and Free Amino Acid Contents of Egg Albumen in Tosa-Jidori Chickens: A Preliminary Research
by Nonoka Kawamura, Masahiro Takaya, Hideaki Hayashi and Tatsuhiko Goto
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111837 - 1 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Many countries have gradually shifted to animal welfare-friendly housing systems for egg layers. However, there is still no consensus among researchers on whether the housing system affects egg quality traits. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of housing systems on egg [...] Read more.
Many countries have gradually shifted to animal welfare-friendly housing systems for egg layers. However, there is still no consensus among researchers on whether the housing system affects egg quality traits. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of housing systems on egg traits and free amino acid contents of albumen and yolk using two types of housing systems, the conventional cage (cage) system and a floor rearing (litter) system. Tosa-jidori (n = 20) hens were divided into two groups. Experiments during the 7 weeks were performed twice by switching the housing systems (first and second stages). One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effects of housing systems on body weight gain, egg traits, albumen and yolk amino acid contents, and fecal corticosterone. We observed significant housing effects in body weight gain, eggshell weight, yolk weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell lightness, and several albumen amino acids (A_Gln, A_His, A_Met, A_Cys, A_Lys, A_Asp, A_Glu, A_Ser, A_Thr, A_Ala, A_Pro, and A_Phe). Notably, a robust effect was seen in eggshell lightness, even after switching housing systems. These results suggest that eggshell lightness and several egg traits, including albumen amino acid contents, can be changed by using the different housing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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12 pages, 4028 KiB  
Article
Developmental Changes of Duckling Liver and Isolation of Primary Hepatocytes
by Qiang Bao, Laidi Wang, Xiaodan Hu, Chunyou Yuan, Yang Zhang, Guobin Chang and Guohong Chen
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111820 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
The liver is the main site of fat synthesis and plays an important role in the study of fat deposition in poultry. In this study, we investigated the developmental changes of duckling livers and isolated primary duck hepatocytes. Firstly, we observed morphological changes [...] Read more.
The liver is the main site of fat synthesis and plays an important role in the study of fat deposition in poultry. In this study, we investigated the developmental changes of duckling livers and isolated primary duck hepatocytes. Firstly, we observed morphological changes in duckling livers from the embryonic period to the first week after hatching. Liver weight increased with age. Hematoxylin-eosin and Oil Red O staining analyses showed that hepatic lipids increased gradually during the embryonic period and declined post-hatching. Liver samples were collected from 21-day-old duck embryos for hepatocyte isolation. The hepatocytes showed limited self-renewal and proliferative ability and were maintained in culture for up to 7 days. Typical parenchymal morphology, with a characteristic polygonal shape, appeared after two days of culture. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining analysis confirmed the characteristics of duck embryo hepatocytes. PCR analysis showed that these cells from duck embryos expressed the liver cell markers ALB and CD36. Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence analysis also confirmed ALB and CK18 expression. Our findings provide a novel insight regarding in vitro cell culture and the characteristics of hepatocytes from avian species, which could enable further studies concerning specific research on duck lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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15 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Organic Selenium on Growth Performance, Gut Health, and Coccidiosis Response in Broiler Chickens
by Samiru S. Wickramasuriya, Inkyung Park, Youngsub Lee and Hyun S. Lillehoj
Animals 2023, 13(9), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13091560 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
A total of 252 one-day-old Ross broilers were randomly allocated to one of six treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with respective Eimeria challenges (non-infection and infection) and three different selenium (Se) diets. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) Se un-supplemented [...] Read more.
A total of 252 one-day-old Ross broilers were randomly allocated to one of six treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with respective Eimeria challenges (non-infection and infection) and three different selenium (Se) diets. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) Se un-supplemented control (CON), (2) inorganic Se treatment (SS; 0.3 mg/kg as sodium selenite), and (3) organic Se treatment (SY; 0.3 mg/kg as selenized yeast). Six replicate cages were allocated per treatment. Chickens in the respective Eimeria infection groups were infected with an E. acervulina, E. tenella, and E. maxima oocyst mixture (15,000 oocysts/chicken) on day 16. Growth performance was measured on days 16, 22, and 24. On day 22, intestinal samples were collected from randomly selected chickens to evaluate gut lesion scores, antioxidant enzymes, and tight junction gene expression. Blood, breast, and liver samples were collected to analyze the Se concentrations on day 24. Dietary SY supplementation improved (p < 0.05) the growth performance of the chickens regardless of the Eimeria challenge. Moreover, independent of Eimeria infection, Se supplementation elevated (p < 0.05) the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1) expression in jejunal mucosa at 6 days post-infection (dpi). Duodenal junctional adhesion molecule 2 (JAM-2) expression and jejunal occludin (OCLN) were elevated (p < 0.05) with dietary SY supplementation at 6 dpi. Among Se sources, broiler chickens fed with the SY diet showed higher (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in breast muscle and serum on 8 dpi. These results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary Se and the efficiency of organic Se compared with inorganic Se for growth improvement and muscle Se enrichment in broiler chickens regardless of coccidiosis infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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16 pages, 1067 KiB  
Article
Effects of Phage Cocktail, Probiotics, and Their Combination on Growth Performance and Gut Microbiota of Broiler Chickens
by Mohd Asrore Mohd Shaufi, Chin Chin Sieo, Chun Wie Chong, Tan Geok Hun, Abdul Rahman Omar, Gan Han Ming and Yin Wan Ho
Animals 2023, 13(8), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13081328 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
Phages, which are often used therapeutically, have begun to receive interest as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for enhancing chicken growth. Another option that has been extensively studied as a growth promoter in chickens is probiotics. To the best of our knowledge, [...] Read more.
Phages, which are often used therapeutically, have begun to receive interest as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for enhancing chicken growth. Another option that has been extensively studied as a growth promoter in chickens is probiotics. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no study available on the use of phages and probiotics in combination as potential feed additives for broiler chickens. Therefore, this study demonstrated the effects of a phage cocktail, probiotics, and their combination on the growth performance and gut microbiota of broiler chickens. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allotted to one of six treatments in a completely randomised design. The treatments were (i) C (basal diet (BD) only), (ii) 1ϕ (BD + 0.1% phage cocktail), (iii) 2ϕ (BD + 0.2% phage cocktail), (iv) P (BD + 0.1% probiotic), (v) 1ϕP (BD + 0.1% phage cocktail + 0.1% probiotic), and (vi) 2ϕP (BD + 0.2% phage cocktail + 0.1% probiotic). The 1ϕP treatment had significantly (p < 0.05) better BW (35 days), BWG (22–35 days, 1–35 days), and FCR (1–21 days, 22–35 days, 1–35 days) compared to C. Unique gut microbiota diversity was also found between the ϕP (1ϕP and 2ϕP) and non-ϕP groups (C, 1ϕ, 2ϕ, and P) in ilea, particularly in the 35-day-old chickens. Microorganisms associated with short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers were significantly (p < 0.05) more present in the ϕP group than in the non-ϕP group. The predicted genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were significantly upregulated in ϕP groups compared to non-ϕP groups. These genes were involved in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, as well as the production of energy. Our findings showed that the 1ϕP treatment could be a potential alternative to AGPs for poultry, as growth performance was enhanced, and gut microbiota was positively modulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Poultry Production: Physiology and Nutrition)
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