Irrigation Schedules Based on Plants, Soil and Meteorological Indicators

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Use and Irrigation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2025 | Viewed by 2975

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: water saving irrigation technology and engineering; crop water content diagnosing; regulate deficit irrigation

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Guest Editor
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Interests: water saving and efficient utilization of water resources in agriculture; sprinkler and surface irrigation technology; fertigation scheduling; SPAC system modeling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the world population approaching 8 billion, there is an urgent need to produce enough food to meet people’s development needs. However, the water shortages caused by the intensification of global climate change are increasingly negatively influencing the development of irrigation agriculture, as well as crop production. Advanced irrigation technology and optimal irrigation schedules could improve agricultural water use efficiency, and thus achieve sustainable development. The irrigation schedule is a key management tool for solving the problem of when to irrigate and how much irrigation to apply, which is crucial for the enhancement of WUE (water usage efficiency). Irrigation scheduling can be performed using information regarding plant, soil, and meteorological factors, such as the leaf cell turgor pressure, stem diameter, sap flow, soil water content, soil water potential, cumulative radiation, cumulative temperature, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0), etc. Therefore, it is of great significance to launch a Special Issue on irrigation schedules based on plant, soil, and meteorological indicators to deepen readers' understanding of irrigation decision-making techniques, theories, and models, and to promote academic exchanges in the field of irrigation among experts around the world.

This Special Issue aims to collate the latest cutting-edge research and advances in irrigation schedules based on plant, soil, and meteorological indicators. Research articles, review articles, and short communications are invited.

Prof. Xiaosen Wang
Prof. Dr. Haijun Liu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • irrigation schedule
  • water use efficiency
  • irrigation indicator
  • intelligent and precision irrigation
  • irrigation model
  • irrigation technology
  • crop water requirement

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2674 KiB  
Article
Research on the Control System for the Use of Biogas Slurry as Fertilizer
by Yue Jiang, Yue Zhang, Hong Li, Hao Li, Haijun Yan and Shouchen Xing
Agronomy 2024, 14(7), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14071439 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Due to its rich nutritional composition, biogas slurry can serve as a special liquid fertilizer. However, the application of slurry in agricultural fields currently faces challenges such as reliance on skilled famers’ experience, low precision, and difficulty in accurately controlling the irrigation dosage. [...] Read more.
Due to its rich nutritional composition, biogas slurry can serve as a special liquid fertilizer. However, the application of slurry in agricultural fields currently faces challenges such as reliance on skilled famers’ experience, low precision, and difficulty in accurately controlling the irrigation dosage. To address these issues, an agricultural biogas slurry mixing agricultural machinery and its system has been designed and developed with the aim of enhancing the precision and safety of slurry application. The structure of the device has been designed, filter components have been selected, and improvements have been made to the structure of traditional connectors. Taking into account factors such as soil and humidity, an algorithm based on biogas slurry conductivity for slurry mixing decisions and the feedback control mechanism has been designed. After assembling the prototype, experiments were conducted, and the results showed that after processing by the system, compared to the calculated theoretical optimum, the concentration error of each component in the mixed fertilizer was controlled within 10%, and the conductivity fluctuation range was within 5%. This indicates that the overall ratio accuracy and stability of the biogas slurry mixing system are high. The biogas slurry mixing agricultural machinery and its system provide a novel intelligent equipment solution for the precise application of slurry, effectively enhancing the accuracy and safety of slurry application, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers during agricultural irrigation, and minimizing pollution to the environment and soil. Full article
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13 pages, 2048 KiB  
Article
Effect of Raised Flat Bed and Ridge Planting on Wheat Crop Growth and Yield under Varying Soil Moisture Depletions
by Lingdi Tang, Irfan Ahmed Shaikh, Anees Tunio, Abdul Rahim Junejo, Li Hao, Jahangeer Dahri, Munir Ahmed Mangrio, Rajesh Kumar Soothar and Zaheer Ahmed Khan
Agronomy 2024, 14(7), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14071404 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Crop yields remain significantly low in underdeveloped countries, such as Pakistan, primarily due to the prevalent use of traditional farming methods by most farmers. Resource-saving strategies, like ridge and raised flat bed systems, could boost water use efficiency and production per acre. However, [...] Read more.
Crop yields remain significantly low in underdeveloped countries, such as Pakistan, primarily due to the prevalent use of traditional farming methods by most farmers. Resource-saving strategies, like ridge and raised flat bed systems, could boost water use efficiency and production per acre. However, further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of these methods, along with different levels of soil moisture depletion (SMD), on wheat development in the climatic conditions of Sindh Province. Thus, field trials were undertaken at Sindh Agriculture University’s Tandojam for two years (2022 and 2023) during the wheat growing seasons. The experiment included six treatments, viz., T1 (raised flat bed method under 40% depletion), T2 (ridge method under 40% depletion), T3 (raised flat bed method under 50% depletion), T4 (ridge method under 50% depletion), T5 (raised flat bed method under 60% depletion), and T6 (ridge method under 60% depletion). The bed planter was employed to make raised flat beds, and the ridges were prepared using a ridge planter. Wheat variety (TJ-83) was sown. Under all treatments, the plant population, plant height, and seed index were statistically significant (p < 0.05), although spike length, grain spikes−1, and grain weight spikes−1 were non-significant at different SMD levels. To compute water saving through the ridge and raised flat methods, the recommended delta value for wheat crops under the traditional method was used as a benchmark. Both irrigation technologies conserve water compared to traditional irrigation methods. The T5 treatment conserved the most water, followed by T6. Under a 60% depletion level, the ridge approach produced the highest yield of 2175 kg ha−1, compared to 601 kg ha−1 with the raised flat bed method. The best crop water productivity (CWP) of 1.34 kg m−3 was achieved under T6, whereas raised flat beds attained the lowest CWP of 0.27 kg m−3 under T1. In terms of wheat grain production and CWP, the ridge furrow method outperformed the raised flat bed furrow method. Based on the results, it is recommended that farmers should use the ridge furrow method and allow a 60% depletion of soil moisture to obtain a high yield of wheat crops. Full article
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21 pages, 4514 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation in Rural Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
by Shoukat Ali Soomro, Li Hao, Gulsher Ali Memon, Abdul Rahim Junejo, Wenquan Niu, Zahid Ali Channa, Muhammad Kareem Chandio, Jamshed Ali Channa, Jawaher Alkahtani and Jahangeer Dahri
Agronomy 2024, 14(5), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14051072 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 777
Abstract
An irrigation quality assessment for rural Hyderabad was made by determining the pH, EC, TDS and TH beside major cations and anions. This study employed various parameters to determine the suitability of groundwater for irrigation and its hydrochemistry. Permissible limits of major cations [...] Read more.
An irrigation quality assessment for rural Hyderabad was made by determining the pH, EC, TDS and TH beside major cations and anions. This study employed various parameters to determine the suitability of groundwater for irrigation and its hydrochemistry. Permissible limits of major cations and anions revealed that approximately 26% of samples exceeded acceptable levels for Electrical Conductivity (EC), 87% for Ca2+, 89% for Mg2+, and 60% for Na+, while none exceeded the limits for K+. Conversely, 47% of samples for HCO3, 91% for Cl, and 100% for SO42−, NO3, and CO32− proved suitability for irrigation. Notably, irrigation indices highlighted favorable results, with 100% conformity for SAR, SSP, RSP, and PI values, and substantial percentages of 78% and 85% for MH and KR values, respectively, affirming their suitability for irrigation practices. Employing the USSL diagram, 22%, 65%, and 11% of samples fall into the C2S1, C3S1, and C4S1 categories. According to the Wilcox diagram, 25%, 43%, 30%, and 2% are classified under C1, C2, C3, and C4 categories, respectively. The Gibbs ratio shows a concentration within the evaporation dominance, and CAI values showed positive ion exchange. Overall, Hyderabad’s rural areas are generally suitable for irrigation, apart from certain areas where water quality may not be acceptable for plants lacking high salt tolerance. Full article
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17 pages, 1240 KiB  
Article
Water-Use Characteristics of Wheat–Maize Rotation System as Affected by Nitrogen Application Rate in North China Plain
by Jingtao Qin, Xichao Fan, Xiaosen Wang, Mingliang Jiang and Mouchao Lv
Agronomy 2024, 14(5), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14051006 - 10 May 2024
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Abstract
Reducing the nitrogen (N) application rate and improving water-use efficiency (WUE) are extremely important for sustainable agricultural development in wheat–maize rotation systems in the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a three-year experiment to investigate the effects of the N application rate on [...] Read more.
Reducing the nitrogen (N) application rate and improving water-use efficiency (WUE) are extremely important for sustainable agricultural development in wheat–maize rotation systems in the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a three-year experiment to investigate the effects of the N application rate on the water-use characteristics of wheat–maize rotation systems in the NCP. The experiment consisted of four N application rates: 250, 167, 84, and 0 kg hm−2, denoted by N3, N2, N1, and N0, respectively. The results showed the following: For the 0–60 cm soil layer, N deficiency could lead to reduced soil water use (SWU) in wheat seasons, but in maize seasons, N deficiency showed no significant effects on SWU in the 0–60 cm layer. For the 60–140 cm soil layer, N deficiency could lead to reduced SWU in wheat seasons, but in maize seasons, the effects of N deficiency on SWU in the 60–140 cm layer varied with the SWC in the 0–60 cm layer. Throughout the three-year experiment, the evapotranspiration (ET), leaf area index (LAI), yield, and WUE of plants receiving low N treatments decreased with the growing season due to the negative effects of low N treatment (N1 and N0) on the soil. The LAI, total ET, grain yield, and WUE were all positively correlated with each other for both wheat and maize. Considering grain yield and WUE, a single-season N application rate of 167 kg hm−2 (N2 treatment) in the NCP could meet the growth needs of the wheat–maize rotation system. Full article
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