Special Issue "Progress in Jet Engine Technology"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ernesto Benini
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: design optimization; fluid machinery; propulsion
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the past decade, the need for more efficient, low-noise, and environmentally friendly propulsors has brought innovative engine concepts and configurations to the attention of researchers within both academia and industry. Noticeable examples include but not limited to ultra-high by-pass ratio turbofans in podded configurations, distributed propulsion, boundary layer ingestion engines, and hybrid turbo/electric engines. Although such configurations are characterized by non-negligible technology readiness levels, they still require huge research efforts, both theoretical and experimental, to be validated.

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of recent advances in jet engine technology for the civil sector, with special emphasis on new design configurations and performance assessment. Authors are invited to submit full research articles and review manuscripts addressing (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Concurrent design methodologies for high-efficiency, low-noise jet engines;
  • Numerical/experimental analyses of jet engines at system and component levels;
  • Integrated propulsor/airframe configurations;
  • Very large/ultra-high by-pass ratio engines;
  • Turbo/electric engines;
  • Jet engines under boundary layer ingestion;
  • Open rotors.
Prof. Dr. Ernesto Benini

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Jet Engines
  • Jet Propulsion
  • Jet Engine Architectures
  • Turbofans
  • Civil Aviation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Model for Aero-Engines Fleet Condition Monitoring
Aerospace 2020, 7(6), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7060066 - 26 May 2020
Abstract
Since aeronautic transportation is responsible for a rising share of polluting emissions, it is of primary importance to minimize the fuel consumption any time during operations. From this perspective, continuous monitoring of engine performance is essential to implement proper corrective actions and avoid [...] Read more.
Since aeronautic transportation is responsible for a rising share of polluting emissions, it is of primary importance to minimize the fuel consumption any time during operations. From this perspective, continuous monitoring of engine performance is essential to implement proper corrective actions and avoid excessive fuel consumption due to engine deterioration. This requires, however, automated systems for diagnostics and decision support, which should be able to handle large amounts of data and ensure reliability in all the multiple conditions the engines of a fleet can be found in. In particular, the proposed solution should be robust to engine-to-engine deviations and different sensors availability scenarios. In this paper, a probabilistic Bayesian network for fault detection and identification is applied to a fleet of engines, simulated by an adaptive performance model. The combination of the performance model and the Bayesian network is also studied and compared to the probabilistic model only. The benefit in the suggested hybrid approach is identified as up to 50% higher accuracy. Sensors unavailability due to manufacturing constraints or sensor faults reduce the accuracy of the physics-based method, whereas the Bayesian model is less affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of a Turbo-Electric Aircraft Configuration with Aft-Propulsion Using Boundary Layer Ingestion
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120134 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a turbo-electric propulsion system was analyzed, and its performance was assessed. The aircraft considered here was a single-aisle, medium-range configuration targeting a capacity of 150 Pax. The propulsion concept comprised two boosted geared turbofan engines mounted under-wing. Those main engines [...] Read more.
In this paper, a turbo-electric propulsion system was analyzed, and its performance was assessed. The aircraft considered here was a single-aisle, medium-range configuration targeting a capacity of 150 Pax. The propulsion concept comprised two boosted geared turbofan engines mounted under-wing. Those main engines were supported by an electrically driven aft-propulsor contributing to the thrust generation and by taking advantage of ingesting the boundary layer of the fuselage for potentially higher levels of propulsive efficiency and allowing for the improved operation of the main engines. The performance assessment as carried out in the context of this paper involved different levels: Firstly, based on the reference aircraft and the detailed description of its major components, the engine performance model for both main engines, as well as for the electrically driven aft-propulsor was set up. The methodology, as introduced, has already been applied in the context of hybrid-electric propulsion and allowed for the aforementioned aircraft sizing, as well as the subsequent gas turbine multi-point synthesis (simulation). A geared turbofan architecture with 2035 technology assumptions was considered for the main engine configuration. The present trade study focused on the design and performance analysis of the aft-propulsor and how it affected the performance of the main engines, due to the electric power generation. In order to allow for a more accurate description of the performance of this particular module, the enhanced streamline curvature method with an underlying and pre-optimized profile database was used to design a propulsor tailored to meet the requirements of the aft propulsor as derived from the cycle synthesis and overall aircraft specification; existing design expertise for novel and highly integrated propulsors could be taken advantage of herein. The resulting performance characteristics from the streamline curvature method were then fed back to the engine performance model in a closely coupled approach in order to have a more accurate description of the module behavior. This direct coupling allowed for enhanced sensitivity studies, monitoring different top-level parameters, such as the thrust/power split between the main engines and the aft propulsor. As a result, different propulsor specifications and fan designs with optimal performance characteristics were achieved, which in return affected the performance of all subsystems considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
DLR TAU-Code uRANS Turbofan Modeling for Aircraft Aerodynamics Investigations
Aerospace 2019, 6(11), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6110121 - 03 Nov 2019
Abstract
In the context of an increased focus on fuel efficiency and environmental impact, turbofan engine developments continue towards larger bypass ratio engine designs, with Ultra-High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines becoming a likely power plant option for future commercial transport aircraft. These engines promise [...] Read more.
In the context of an increased focus on fuel efficiency and environmental impact, turbofan engine developments continue towards larger bypass ratio engine designs, with Ultra-High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines becoming a likely power plant option for future commercial transport aircraft. These engines promise low specific fuel consumption at the engine level, but the resulting size of the nacelle poses challenges in terms of the installation on the airframe. Thus, their integration on an aircraft requires careful consideration of complex engine–airframe interactions impacting performance, aeroelastics and aeroacoustics on both the airframe and the engine sides. As a partner in the EU funded Clean Sky 2 project ASPIRE, the DLR Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology is contributing to an investigation of numerical analysis approaches, which draws on a generic representative UHBR engine configuration specifically designed in the frame of the project. In the present paper, project results are discussed, which aimed at demonstrating the suitability and accuracy of an unsteady RANS-based engine modeling approach in the context of external aerodynamics focused CFD simulations with the DLR TAU-Code. For this high-fidelity approach with a geometrically fully modeled fan stage, an in-depth study on spatial and temporal resolution requirements was performed, and the results were compared with simpler methods using classical engine boundary conditions. The primary aim is to identify the capabilities and shortcomings of these modeling approaches, and to develop a best-practice for the uRANS simulations as well as determine the best application scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Supersonic Compressor Cascade Shape Optimization under Multiple Inlet Mach Operating Conditions
Aerospace 2019, 6(6), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6060064 - 30 May 2019
Abstract
Transonic compressors are widely used today in propulsion and industrial applications thanks to their higher specific work compared to subsonic. In this work, the aerodynamic optimization of a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the transonic cascade ARL-SL19 is described. The validated [...] Read more.
Transonic compressors are widely used today in propulsion and industrial applications thanks to their higher specific work compared to subsonic. In this work, the aerodynamic optimization of a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the transonic cascade ARL-SL19 is described. The validated computational model is used for a multi-objective optimization of the cascade at three different inlet Mach numbers using a genetic algorithm and an artificial neural network, with the aim of reducing total pressure loss and increasing maximum pressure ratio. Finally, the optimized shapes on the Pareto fronts are investigated, analyzing mechanisms responsible for loss reduction and enhanced compression. Profiles having the lowest losses have flatter camberlines and reduced acceleration of flow on the suction side, while geometries achieving the highest pressure ratio values have a more cambered shape with a concave suction side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Accurate 2-D Modelling of Transonic Compressor Cascade Aerodynamics
Aerospace 2019, 6(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6050057 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Modern aeronautic fans are characterised by a transonic flow regime near the blade tip. Transonic cascades enable higher pressure ratios by a complex system of shockwaves arising across the blade passage, which has to be correctly reproduced in order to predict the performance [...] Read more.
Modern aeronautic fans are characterised by a transonic flow regime near the blade tip. Transonic cascades enable higher pressure ratios by a complex system of shockwaves arising across the blade passage, which has to be correctly reproduced in order to predict the performance and the operative range. In this paper, we present an accurate two-dimensional numerical modelling of the ARL-SL19 transonic compressor cascade. A large series of data from experimental tests in supersonic wind tunnel facilities has been used to validate a computational fluid dynamic model, in which the choice of turbulence closure resulted critical for an accurate reproduction of shockwave-boundary layer interaction. The model has been subsequently employed to carry out a parametric study in order to assess the influence of main flow variables (inlet Mach number, static pressure ratio) and geometric parameters (solidity) on the shockwave pattern and exit status. The main objectives of the present work are to perform a parametric study for investigating the effects of the abovementioned variables on the cascade performance, in terms of total-pressure loss coefficient, and on the shockwave pattern and to provide a quite large series of data useful for a preliminary design of a transonic compressor rotor section. After deriving the relation between inlet and exit quantities, peculiar to transonic compressors, exit Mach number, mean exit flow angle and total-pressure loss coefficient have been examined for a variety of boundary conditions and parametrically linked to inlet variables. Flow visualisation has been used to describe the shock-wave pattern as a function of the static pressure ratio. Finally, the influence of cascade solidity has been examined, showing a potential reduction of total-pressure loss coefficient by employing a higher solidity, due to a significant modification of shockwave system across the cascade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of Concepts, Benefits, and Challenges for Future Electrical Propulsion-Based Aircraft
Aerospace 2020, 7(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7040044 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Electrification of the propulsion system has opened the door to a new paradigm of propulsion system configurations and novel aircraft designs, which was never envisioned before. Despite lofty promises, the concept must overcome the design and sizing challenges to make it realizable. A [...] Read more.
Electrification of the propulsion system has opened the door to a new paradigm of propulsion system configurations and novel aircraft designs, which was never envisioned before. Despite lofty promises, the concept must overcome the design and sizing challenges to make it realizable. A suitable modeling framework is desired in order to explore the design space at the conceptual level. A greater investment in enabling technologies, and infrastructural developments, is expected to facilitate its successful application in the market. In this review paper, several scholarly articles were surveyed to get an insight into the current landscape of research endeavors and the formulated derivations related to electric aircraft developments. The barriers and the needed future technological development paths are discussed. The paper also includes detailed assessments of the implications and other needs pertaining to future technology, regulation, certification, and infrastructure developments, in order to make the next generation electric aircraft operation commercially worthy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Gas Turbine Gas-Path Diagnostics: State-of-the-Art Methods, Challenges and Opportunities
Aerospace 2019, 6(7), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6070083 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Gas-path diagnostics is an essential part of gas turbine (GT) condition-based maintenance (CBM). There exists extensive literature on GT gas-path diagnostics and a variety of methods have been introduced. The fundamental limitations of the conventional methods such as the inability to deal with [...] Read more.
Gas-path diagnostics is an essential part of gas turbine (GT) condition-based maintenance (CBM). There exists extensive literature on GT gas-path diagnostics and a variety of methods have been introduced. The fundamental limitations of the conventional methods such as the inability to deal with the nonlinear engine behavior, measurement uncertainty, simultaneous faults, and the limited number of sensors available remain the driving force for exploring more advanced techniques. This review aims to provide a critical survey of the existing literature produced in the area over the past few decades. In the first section, the issue of GT degradation is addressed, aiming to identify the type of physical faults that degrade a gas turbine performance, which gas-path faults contribute more significantly to the overall performance loss, and which specific components often encounter these faults. A brief overview is then given about the inconsistencies in the literature on gas-path diagnostics followed by a discussion of the various challenges against successful gas-path diagnostics and the major desirable characteristics that an advanced fault diagnostic technique should ideally possess. At this point, the available fault diagnostic methods are thoroughly reviewed, and their strengths and weaknesses summarized. Artificial intelligence (AI) based and hybrid diagnostic methods have received a great deal of attention due to their promising potentials to address the above-mentioned limitations along with providing accurate diagnostic results. Moreover, the available validation techniques that system developers used in the past to evaluate the performance of their proposed diagnostic algorithms are discussed. Finally, concluding remarks and recommendations for further investigations are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Jet Engine Technology)
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