Special Issue "Aeronautical Systems for Flow Control"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Michael Sinapius
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Adaptronik und Funktionsintegration (IAF), Langer Kamp 6, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: Fibre Composites (Dual Matrix Composites, Nanocomposites, Hybrid Materials); Light Weight Structures (CFRP Airframes, Innovative High Lift Systems); Smart Materials (Carbon Nanotube Actuators, Adaptive Composites); Adaptive Structures (Active Structural Acoustic Control, Aktive shape control, Adaptive vibration reduction); Structural dynamics (Experimental system identification, Structural nonlinearities)
Prof. Dr. Rolf Radespiel
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Strömungsmechanik (ISM), Hermann-Blenk-Str. 37, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing demands placed on air traffic in terms of nitrogen oxide emissions, noise emissions and fuel consumption, while at the same time increasing the volume of air transport, call for completely new technical approaches. In particular, aeronautical systems for flow control promise significantly improved laminarity of the flow, significantly increased high-lift properties with simultaneously reduced noise emission from the flow around profiles.

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of recent advances in aeronautical systems for flow control and its application to civil aircraft. Authors are invited to submit full research articles and review manuscripts addressing (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Morphing airfoils (control surfaces, winglets, etc.)
  • Flow control by boundary layer suction and blow-out
  • Active measures to maintain laminar flow
  • Adaptive high-lift devices
  • Sensing technologies for flow control
  • High-lift systems for steep ascent and descent
  • Measures to reduce noise emissions from advanced high-lift systems
  • Control algorithms for adaptive systems for flow control
  • Experimental on lab scale as well as on full scale profiles
  • Simulation methods for adaptive systems for flow control

Prof. Dr. Michael Sinapius
Prof. Dr. Rolf Radespiel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Morphing airfoils (control surfaces, winglets, etc.)
  • Flow control by boundary layer suction and blow-out
  • Active measures to maintain laminar flow
  • Adaptive high-lift devices
  • Sensing technologies for flow control
  • High-lift systems for steep ascent and descent
  • Measures to reduce noise emissions from advanced high-lift systems
  • Control algorithms for adaptive systems for flow control
  • Experimental on lab scale as well as on full scale profiles
  • Simulation methods for adaptive systems for flow control

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Pulsed Blowing Interacting with a Leading-Edge Vortex
Aerospace 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7010004 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
Manipulation of vortex instabilities for aerodynamic performance increase is of great interest in numerous aeronautical applications. With increasing angle of attack, the leading-edge vortex of a semi-slender delta wing becomes unsteady and eventually collapses, endangering the flight stability. Hence, active flow control by [...] Read more.
Manipulation of vortex instabilities for aerodynamic performance increase is of great interest in numerous aeronautical applications. With increasing angle of attack, the leading-edge vortex of a semi-slender delta wing becomes unsteady and eventually collapses, endangering the flight stability. Hence, active flow control by pulsed blowing stabilizes the vortex system, enlarging the flight envelope for such wing configurations. The most beneficial outcome is the reattachment of the separated shear layer during post-stall, contributing to a lift increase of more than 50%. In contrast to high power consuming brute-force actuation, manipulating the flow instabilities offers a more efficient alternative for mean flow field control, which has direct repercussions on the aerodynamic characteristics. However, the flow mechanisms involving jet–vortex and vortex–vortex interactions and the disturbance convection through the flow field are little understood. This paper reports on the unsteady flow field above a generic half delta wing model with a 65 ° sweep angle and its response to periodic blowing. Numerical and experimental results are presented and discussed in a synergistic manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeronautical Systems for Flow Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Testing of Woven FRP Flexure Hinges for Pressure-Actuated Cellular Structures with Regard to Morphing Wing Applications
Aerospace 2019, 6(11), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6110116 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Shape-variable structures can change their geometry in a targeted way and thus adapt their outer shape to different operating conditions. The potential applications in aviation are manifold and far-reaching. The substitution of conventional flaps in high-lift systems or even the deformation of entire [...] Read more.
Shape-variable structures can change their geometry in a targeted way and thus adapt their outer shape to different operating conditions. The potential applications in aviation are manifold and far-reaching. The substitution of conventional flaps in high-lift systems or even the deformation of entire wing profiles is conceivable. All morphing approaches have to deal with the same challenge: A conflict between minimizing actuating forces on the one hand, and maximizing structural deflections and resistance to external forces on the other. A promising concept of shape variability to face this challenging conflict is found in biology. Pressure-actuated cellular structures (PACS) are based on the movement of nastic plants. Firstly, a brief review of the holistic design approach of PACS is presented. The aim of the following study is to investigate manufacturing possibilities for woven flexure hinges in closed cellular structures. Weaving trials are first performed on the material level and finally on a five-cell PACS cantilever. The overall feasibility of woven fiber reinforced plastics (FRP)-PACS is proven. However, the results show that the materials selection in the weaving process substantially influences the mechanical behavior of flexure hinges. Thus, the optimization of manufacturing parameters is a key factor for the realization of woven FRP-PACS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeronautical Systems for Flow Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphing Wing Droop Nose with Large Deformation: Ground Tests and Lessons Learned
Aerospace 2019, 6(10), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6100111 - 02 Oct 2019
Abstract
A design for a new high lift system that features a morphing wing leading edge “droop nose” has the potential to generate high lift coefficients whilst mitigating airframe noise emissions. This seamless, continuous, and stepless flexible droop nose potentially offers improvements to stall [...] Read more.
A design for a new high lift system that features a morphing wing leading edge “droop nose” has the potential to generate high lift coefficients whilst mitigating airframe noise emissions. This seamless, continuous, and stepless flexible droop nose potentially offers improvements to stall and compressor requirements for an internally-blown active Coandă trailing edge flap. A full-scale, span-trimmed three-dimensional droop nose was manufactured and ground-tested based on results obtained from new design synthesis tools. A new component of the droop nose is the hybrid fiberglass-elastomeric skin that is tailored in stiffness to meet morphing curvature requirements and spanwise bending resistance. A manufacturing concept of the novel skin was established that led to an adequate manufacturing quality. The skin was driven and supported by two optimized kinematic ribs and conventional actuators and overall shape results show good agreement apart from the region closest to the leading edge. Kinematic trajectory measurements showed that the kinematics met the target trajectories well, with and without the influence of the skin, and it was deemed that the error in curvature is due to a higher than expected skin stiffness in the hybrid layer. Calculated actuator torque levels and strain measurements corroborate this inference. The lessons learned show that means of adjustment post-assembly are needed, and a reduction of torque, energy and a better curvature distribution may be achieved if the skin at the spar junction is allowed to move relative to the main wing. Careful aerodynamic, structural, actuation and manufacturing trade-off studies would be needed to determine the overall performance benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeronautical Systems for Flow Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Design and System Considerations for an Active Hybrid Laminar Flow Control System
Aerospace 2019, 6(10), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6100109 - 01 Oct 2019
Abstract
Hybrid laminar flow control or HLFC design is a complex and multi-disciplinary process, which demands a thorough understanding of all aspects from a global systems viewpoint. The objective of the paper is to present a preliminary design of important components of an HLFC [...] Read more.
Hybrid laminar flow control or HLFC design is a complex and multi-disciplinary process, which demands a thorough understanding of all aspects from a global systems viewpoint. The objective of the paper is to present a preliminary design of important components of an HLFC system that helps in quick assessment of conceptual system architectures. This is important to evaluate feasibility, system performance, and overall aircraft benefits at early stages of system development. This paper also discusses the various important system requirements and issues concerning the design of active HLFC systems, and the interfaces between various disciplines are presented. It can be emphasized from the study that the future compressor design for the HLFC system should consider the thermal management aspects and additional mass flow requirements from the aerodynamics-structure design optimization and also from water drain system solutions. A method to calculate the accumulated water content inside the plenum chambers is presented, and the effect of a drain hole on the power consumption is studied. A low order thermal management study of the HLFC compressor motor shows a high temperature rise in the windings for very high speed motors for long duration operation and calls for effective cooling solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeronautical Systems for Flow Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of In-Flight Wingtip Folding Effects on the Roll Characteristics of a Flexible Aircraft
Aerospace 2019, 6(6), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6060063 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wingtip folding is a means by which an aircraft’s wingspan can be extended, allowing designers to take advantage of the associated reduction in induced drag. This type of device can provide other benefits if used in flight, such as flight control and load [...] Read more.
Wingtip folding is a means by which an aircraft’s wingspan can be extended, allowing designers to take advantage of the associated reduction in induced drag. This type of device can provide other benefits if used in flight, such as flight control and load alleviation. In this paper, the authors present a method to develop reduced order flight dynamic models for in-flight wingtip folding, which are suitable for implementation in real-time pilot-in-the-loop simulations. Aspects such as the impact of wingtip size and folding angle on aircraft roll dynamics are investigated along with failure scenarios using a time domain aeroservoelastic framework and an established system identification method. The process discussed in this paper helps remove the need for direct connection of complex physics based models to engineering flight simulators and the need for tedious programming of large look-up-tables in simulators. Instead, it has been shown that a generic polynomial model for roll aeroderivatives can be used in small roll perturbation conditions to simulate the roll characteristics of an aerodynamic derivative based large transport aircraft equipped with varying fold hinge lines and tip deflections. Moreover, the effects of wing flexibility are also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeronautical Systems for Flow Control)
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