Special Issue "ECO-COMPASS: Ecological and Multifunctional Composites for Application in Aircraft Interior and Secondary Structures"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xiaosu Yi

1) The University of Nottingham Ningbo China (UNNC), Ningbo 315100, China;
2) AVIC Composite Corporation Ltd (ACC), Beijing 100000, China
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Interests: structural composites; polymer materials; functional composites; process engineering; materials modeling and green composites
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Tserpes

Department of Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics, University of Patras, University Campus, 26504 Rio Achaia, Greece
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Interests: strength of composite materials; strength of bonded and bolted joints between metallic and composite parts; mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes, graphene and nano-reinforced composites; modeling and testing of multifunctional composite materials; multi-scale analysis of materials and structural parts; development of methodologies for relating data from non-destructive testing with numerical strength prediction models; strength prediction of corroded aluminum alloys

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, mainly man-made materials, such as carbon and glass fibers, are used to produce composite parts in aviation. Renewable materials, such as natural fibers or bio-sourced resin systems, have not yet found their way into aviation. The project ECO-COMPASS aims to evaluate the potential applications of ecologically improved composite materials in the aviation sector in an international collaboration of Chinese and European partners. Natural fibers like flax and ramie will be used for different types of reinforcements and sandwich cores. Furthermore, bio-based epoxy resins to substitute bisphenol-A based epoxy resins in secondary structures are under investigation. Adapted material protection technologies to reduce environmental influence and to improve fire resistance are needed to fulfil the demanding safety requirements in aviation. Modelling and simulation of chosen eco-composites aims for an optimized use of materials while a Life Cycle Assessment aims to prove the ecological advantages compared to synthetic state-of-the-art materials. This Special Issue will provide selected papers from the project consortium partners.

This Special Issue is cooperating with the special session entitled “ECO-COMPASS: Ecological and Multifunctional Composites for Application in Aircraft Interior and Secondary Structures” that was organized at ICCS20 (Paris, France, 4–7 September 2017, https://events.unibo.it/iccs20). It will give the opportunity to present research activities carried out within the project and to disseminate recent results and achievements.

Authors of outstanding papers related to the ECO-COMPASS project are invited to submit their work to this Special Issue for publication.

Prof. Dr. Xiaosu Yi
Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Tserpes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bio-composite
  • eco-composite
  • bio-fibre
  • bio-resin
  • multifunction green composites
  • characterization
  • modelling and simulation
  • applications
  • life cycle assessment
  • aviation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Ramie Fabric Chemical Treatments on the Physical Properties of Thermoset Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
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Abstract
Ramie fabric-reinforced thermoset polylactic acid (PLA) composites were prepared by using heat pressing technology. Fabrics were treated with alkali, silane, and alkali–silane respectively, expecting an improvement of the interface between the fabric and the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that after
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Ramie fabric-reinforced thermoset polylactic acid (PLA) composites were prepared by using heat pressing technology. Fabrics were treated with alkali, silane, and alkali–silane respectively, expecting an improvement of the interface between the fabric and the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that after alkali treatment, impurities on the fiber surface were removed and its diameter became finer. After the silane, and alkali–silane treatments, the contact angles of the ramie fibers increased by 14.26%, and 33.12%, respectively. The contact angle of the alkali–silane treated fiber reached 76.41°; this is beneficial for the adhesion between ramie fiber and the PLA. The research revealed that the tensile strength of the fiber increased after the alkali and silane treatments. A slight decrease was noticed on the tensile strength of fibers treated with alkali–silane. After all, three chemical treatments were done, the flexure strength of the ramie fabric-reinforced PLA composites, improved in all cases. Among the three treatments, the alkali–silane treatment demonstrated the best result, as far as the flexure strength and modulus of the fabricated composites were concerned. On the other hand, water absorption of the related composites decreased by 23.70%, which might contribute to the closer contact between the ramie fiber and the matrix. The ramie fabric-reinforced PLA composites, prepared in this study, can meet the standard requirements of aircraft interior structures and have favorable application foreground. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Assessment of Ramie Fiber Used for FRPs
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
With the depletion of natural resources and the deterioration of environment, natural fiber based biomaterials are attracting more and more attentions. Natural fibers are considered to be renewable, biodegradable, and ecofriendly, and have been applied to be used as alternative reinforcements to traditional
[...] Read more.
With the depletion of natural resources and the deterioration of environment, natural fiber based biomaterials are attracting more and more attentions. Natural fibers are considered to be renewable, biodegradable, and ecofriendly, and have been applied to be used as alternative reinforcements to traditional glass fibers for polymer based composites (GFRP). Natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites have been found to be manufactured as secondary structures or interior parts of aircrafts or automobiles. In this paper, a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) study was performed to demonstrate the possible advantages of ramie fiber on environmental impacts and to provide fundamental data for the further assessment of ramie fiber reinforced polymers (RFRP) and its structures. By collecting the material inventories of the production process of ramie fiber, the environmental impacts of ramie fiber (characterized by eight main impact categories, which are climate change, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity potential, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant creation, freshwater ecotoxicity, and fossil depletion) were calculated and compared with that of glass fiber. Found if spinning process is ignored within the production of the ramie fiber, ramie fiber exhibits better ozone depletion and they have almost the same values of climate change and terrestrial acidification in terms of glass fiber. However, if the spinning process is included, ramie fiber only performs better in terms of ozone depletion. And degumming and carding and spinning processes are the processes that cause more pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Paper or Silver Nanowires-Loaded Paper Interleaves on the Electrical Conductivity and Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Composites
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The effect of plant-fiber paper or silver nanowires-loaded paper interleaves on the electrical conductivity and interlaminar fracture toughness of composites was studied. Highly conductive paper was prepared by surface-loaded silver nanowires. The percolation threshold appeared at about 0.4 g/m2. The surface
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The effect of plant-fiber paper or silver nanowires-loaded paper interleaves on the electrical conductivity and interlaminar fracture toughness of composites was studied. Highly conductive paper was prepared by surface-loaded silver nanowires. The percolation threshold appeared at about 0.4 g/m2. The surface resistivity reached 2.3 Ω/sq when the areal density of silver nanowires was 0.95 g/m2. After interleaving the conductive papers in the composite interlayers, in-plane electrical conductivity perpendicular to the fiber direction was increased by 171 times and conductivity through thickness direction was increased by 2.81 times. However, Mode I and Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness decreased by 67.3% and 66.9%, respectively. Microscopic analysis showed that the improvement of conductivity was attributable to the formation of an electrical conducting network of silver nanowires which played a role in electrical connection of carbon fiber plies and the interleaving layers. However, the density of the highly packed flat plant fibers impeded the infiltration of resin. The parallel distribution of flat fibers to the carbon plies, and poor resin-fiber interface made the interlaminar fracture occur mainly at the interface of plant fibers and resin inside the interleaves, resulting in a decline of the interlaminar fracture toughness. The surface-loading of silver nanowires further impeded the infiltration of resin in the densely packed plant fibers, resulting in further decline of the fracture toughness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sound Absorption Characterization of Natural Materials and Sandwich Structure Composites
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Natural fiber and wood are environmentally friendly materials with multiscale microstructures. The sound absorption performance of flax fiber and its reinforced composite, as well as balsa wood, were evaluated using the two-microphone transfer function technique with an impedance tube system. The microstructures of
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Natural fiber and wood are environmentally friendly materials with multiscale microstructures. The sound absorption performance of flax fiber and its reinforced composite, as well as balsa wood, were evaluated using the two-microphone transfer function technique with an impedance tube system. The microstructures of natural materials were studied through scanning electrical microscope in order to reveal their complex acoustical dissipation mechanisms. The sound absorption coefficients of flax fiber fabric were predicted using a double-porosity model, which showed relatively accurate results. The integrated natural materials sandwich structure was found to provide a superior sound absorption performance compared to the synthetic-materials-based sandwich structure composite due to the contribution of their multiscale structures to sound wave attenuation and energy dissipation. It was concluded that the natural-materials-based sandwich structure has the potential of being used as a sound absorption structure, especially at high frequency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Bio-Sourced Epoxies for Bio-Composites
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
In the air and ground transportation sectors, new environmental regulations and societal concerns have triggered a search for new products and processes that complement resources and the environment. To address these issues, this article reports on current R&D efforts to develop bio-sourced materials
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In the air and ground transportation sectors, new environmental regulations and societal concerns have triggered a search for new products and processes that complement resources and the environment. To address these issues, this article reports on current R&D efforts to develop bio-sourced materials by an international joint project. Novel bio-sourced epoxies and biocomposites were developed, characterized, modified and evaluated in terms of the mechanical property levels. Quasi-structural composite parts were finally trial-manufactured and demonstrated. Full article
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