Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 16th International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings (ISMB16)"

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jin Zhou

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: magnetic bearings; vibration control
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Huachun Wu

School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, No.122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: magnetic bearings; rotor dynamics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Satoshi Ueno

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: magnetic levitation; self-bearing motors and their applications
Guest Editor
Dr. Feng Sun

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, No.111, Shenliao West Road, Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Area, Shenyang 110870, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: magnetic levitation; magnetic actuator; automotive intelligent suspension with magnetic force

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We plan to publish a Special Issue, including high-quality papers presented during the 16th International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings (ISMB16). Actuators will be one of the sponsors of ISMB16 (website: http://www.ismb16.org/), hosted by Tsinghua University, will be held 13–17 August, 2018 in Beijing, China. The primary aim of ISMB16 is to promote scientific and technological exchanges among researchers and engineering practitioners around the world. The conference is expected to attract several hundred active researchers and engineers, which provides a highly-desired platform for companies to promote their products.

Following the end of the conference, some selected papers that match the Journal topics will be published in open access, with the aim of providing a broad overview of the latest achievements and applications of magnetic bearings, magnetic actuators in many fields of mechanics, covering industry, automation, automotive, aerospace, and transportation. Papers could be original research papers, as well as review papers focused on the current state-of-the-art in one of the areas covered by the journal’s aims and scopes. The main topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Active magnetic bearings (AMB)
  • Passive magnetic bearings (PMB)
  • Electrodynamic bearings (EDB)
  • Superconducting magnetic bearings (SMB)
  • Hybrid bearing systems
  • Smart bearings Sensors, actuators, power electronics for magnetic bearings
  • Self-sensing (sensorless) techniques
  • Modeling, simulation, design and identification
  • Advanced control
  • Rotor dynamics
  • Safety and reliability aspects
  • Fault detection, diagnosis and tolerance
  • Back up / touch down bearings
  • Components and materials industrial, medical and aerospace applications
  • Blood pumps, vacuum pumps and canned pumps
  • Flywheels
  • Ultra high speed bearings
  • Micro bearings
  • Electromagnetic suspensions (EMS)
  • Electrodynamic suspensions (EDS)
  • Diamagnetic levitation
  • Electrostatic levitation
  • Maglev Train
  • Magnetic Transmission
  • Other related new fields

Prof. Dr. Jin Zhou
Prof. Dr. Huachun Wu
Prof. Dr. Satoshi Ueno
Dr. Feng Sun
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Actuators is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigations on Self-Bearing Motors with Combined Torque and Electrodynamic Bearing Windings
Actuators 2019, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8020048
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
The centering guidance forces in self-bearing permanent magnet motors are magnetically integrated with the torque generation windings, and can take place in a single multifunction winding. This radial guidance is usually actively controlled as a function of the rotor position, with the drawbacks [...] Read more.
The centering guidance forces in self-bearing permanent magnet motors are magnetically integrated with the torque generation windings, and can take place in a single multifunction winding. This radial guidance is usually actively controlled as a function of the rotor position, with the drawbacks associated to actively controlled devices. This article describes how multifunction windings can passively generate electrodynamic centering forces without the need for specific additional electronics, and simultaneously a driving torque if fed by a power supply. It shows the experimental electromotive force (EMF) measures, both for the electrodynamic centering and for the motor functions, obtained on a prototype, operating in quasistatic conditions. It also shows the measured radial forces generated by the electrodynamic bearing and the measured drive torque in these conditions. These measures show a good agreement with model predictions. These measures also confirm the theoretical conclusions stating that it is possible to generate passive guidance forces and torque simultaneously in a single winding. The effect of adding external inductors on the coils of the prototype is also investigated by experimental measures and model predictions on the bearing radial forces, and on the motor driving torque. It is shown that these external inductors mainly affect the radial guidance forces with minor impact on the torque. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Space Vector Modulation Strategies for Self-Sensing Three-Phase Radial Active Magnetic Bearings
Actuators 2019, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8020041
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
PDF Full-text (3782 KB)
Abstract
The focus of this study lies on the investigation of the space vector modulation of a self-sensing three-phase radial active magnetic bearing. The determination of the rotor position information is performed by a current slope-based inductance measurement of the actuator coils. Therefore, a [...] Read more.
The focus of this study lies on the investigation of the space vector modulation of a self-sensing three-phase radial active magnetic bearing. The determination of the rotor position information is performed by a current slope-based inductance measurement of the actuator coils. Therefore, a special pulse width modulation sequence is applied to the actuator coils by a conventional three-phase inverter. The choice of the modulation type is not unique and provides degrees of freedom for different modulation patterns, which are described in this work. For a self-sensing operation of the bearing, certain constraints of the space vector modulation must be considered. The approach of a variable space vector modulation is investigated to ensure sufficient dynamic in the current control as well as the suitability for a self-sensing operation with an accurate rotor position acquisition. Therefore, different space vector modulation strategies are considered in theory as well as proven in experiments on a radial magnetic bearing prototype. Finally, the performance of the self-sensing space vector modulation method is verified by an external position measurement system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Thermal Behavior of a Magnetically Levitated Spindle for Fatigue Testing of Fiber Reinforced Plastic
Actuators 2019, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8020037
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
This article discusses the critical thermal behavior of a magnetically levitated spindle for fatigue testing of cylinders made of fiber reinforced plastic. These cylinders represent the outer-rotor of a kinetic energy storage. The system operates under vacuum conditions. Hence, even small power losses [...] Read more.
This article discusses the critical thermal behavior of a magnetically levitated spindle for fatigue testing of cylinders made of fiber reinforced plastic. These cylinders represent the outer-rotor of a kinetic energy storage. The system operates under vacuum conditions. Hence, even small power losses in the rotor can lead to a high rotor temperature. To find the most effective way to keep the rotor temperature under a critical limit in the existing system, first, transient electromagnetic finite element simulations are evaluated for the active magnetic bearings and the electric machine. Using these simulations, the power losses of the active components in the rotor can be derived. Second, a finite element simulation characterizes the thermal behavior of the rotor. Using the power losses calculated in the electromagnetic simulation, the thermal simulation provides the temperature of the rotor. These results are compared with measurements from an experimental spindle. One effective way to reduce rotational losses without major changes in the hardware is to reduce the bias current of the magnetic bearings. Since this also changes the characteristics of the magnetic bearings, the dynamic behavior of the rotor is also considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Analysis of a 1D Actively Stabilized System with Viscoelastic Damping Support
Actuators 2019, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8020033
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Passively magnetically stabilized degrees of freedom yield the benefit of reduced complexity and therefore costs. However, the application of passive magnetic bearings (PMBs) also features some drawbacks. The poor damping capability leads to exaggerated deflection amplitudes when passing the resonance speeds of the [...] Read more.
Passively magnetically stabilized degrees of freedom yield the benefit of reduced complexity and therefore costs. However, the application of passive magnetic bearings (PMBs) also features some drawbacks. The poor damping capability leads to exaggerated deflection amplitudes when passing the resonance speeds of the applied system. This results in the necessity of external damping. Complying with the goal of costs and complexity, viscoelastic materials offer a suitable solution. However, these materials show high frequency and temperature dependent properties which induce the necessity of a proper model. Thus, the design of systems, as presented in this paper, requires accurate modeling of the dynamic behavior including the nonlinear characteristic of damping elements to predict the system displacements. In the investigated setup only two degrees of freedom remain to be controlled actively. These are the axial rotation and the axial position of the rotor which are controlled by the motor and an active magnetic axial bearing (AMB). This article focuses on the rotor dynamic modeling of a radial passively magnetically stabilized system especially considering the nonlinear behavior of viscoelastic damping elements. Finally, the results from the analytic model are verified by measurements on a manufactures test system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Enhancement of a Magnetic System in a Ultra Compact 5-DOF-Controlled Self-Bearing Motor for a Rotary Pediatric Ventricular-Assist Device to Diminish Energy Input
Actuators 2019, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8020031
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Research interests of compact magnetically levitated motors have been strongly increased in development of durable and biocompatible mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices for pediatric heart disease patients. In this study, an ultra-compact axial gap type self-bearing motor with 5-degrees of freedom (DOF) active [...] Read more.
Research interests of compact magnetically levitated motors have been strongly increased in development of durable and biocompatible mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices for pediatric heart disease patients. In this study, an ultra-compact axial gap type self-bearing motor with 5-degrees of freedom (DOF) active control for use in pediatric MCS devices has been developed. The motor consists of two identical motor stators and a centrifugal levitated rotor. This paper investigated a design improvement of the magnetic circuit for the self-bearing motor undergoing development in order to diminish energy input by enhancing magnetic suspension and rotation performances. Geometries of the motor were refined based on numerical calculation and three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field analysis. The modified motor can achieve higher suspension force and torque characteristics than that of a previously developed prototype motor. Oscillation of the levitated rotor was significantly suppressed by 5-DOF control over rotating speeds up to 7000 rpm with lower energy input, indicating efficacy of the design refinement of the motor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Magnetic Spring for Compliant Actuation—Validated Torque Density Benchmark
Actuators 2019, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8010018
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic springs are a fatigue-free alternative to mechanical springs that could enable compliant actuation concepts in highly dynamic industrial applications. The goals of this article are: (1) to develop and validate a methodology for the optimal design of a magnetic spring and (2) [...] Read more.
Magnetic springs are a fatigue-free alternative to mechanical springs that could enable compliant actuation concepts in highly dynamic industrial applications. The goals of this article are: (1) to develop and validate a methodology for the optimal design of a magnetic spring and (2) to benchmark the magnetic springs at the component level against conventional solutions, namely, mechanical springs and highly dynamic servo motors. We present an extensive exploration of the magnetic spring design space both with respect to topology and geometry sizing, using a 2D finite element magnetostatics software combined with a multi-objective genetic algorithm, as a part of a MagOpt design environment. The resulting Pareto-optima are used for benchmarking rotational magnetic springs back-to-back with classical industrial solutions. The design methodology has been extensively validated using a combination of one physical prototype and multiple virtual designs. The findings show that magnetic springs possess an energy density 50% higher than that of state-of-the-art reported mechanical springs for the gigacycle regime and accordingly a torque density significantly higher than that of state-of-the-practice permanently magnetic synchronous motors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Condition Monitoring of Active Magnetic Bearings on the Internet of Things
Actuators 2019, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8010017
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A magnetic bearing is an industrial device that supports a rotating shaft with a magnetic field. Magnetic bearings have advantages such as high efficiency, low maintenance, and no lubrication. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) use electromagnets with actively controlled coil currents based on rotor [...] Read more.
A magnetic bearing is an industrial device that supports a rotating shaft with a magnetic field. Magnetic bearings have advantages such as high efficiency, low maintenance, and no lubrication. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) use electromagnets with actively controlled coil currents based on rotor position monitored by sensors integral to the AMB. AMBs are apt to the Internet of Things (IoT) due to their inherent sensors and actuators. The IoT is the interconnection of physical devices that enables them to send and receive data over the Internet. IoT technology has recently rapidly increased and is being applied to industrial devices. This study developed a method for the condition monitoring of AMB systems online using off-the-shelf IoT technology. Because off-the-shelf IoT solutions were utilized, the developed method is cost-effective and can be implemented on existing AMB systems. In this study, a MBC500 AMB test rig was outfitted with a Raspberry Pi single board computer. The Raspberry Pi monitors the AMB’s position sensors and current sensors via an analog-to-digital converter. Several loading cases were imposed on the experimental test rig and diagnosed remotely using virtual network computing. It was found that remote AMB condition monitoring is feasible for less than USD 100. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability and Performance Analysis of Electrodynamic Thrust Bearings
Actuators 2019, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8010011
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Electrodynamic thrust bearings (EDTBs) provide contactless rotor axial suspension through electromagnetic forces solely leaning on passive phenomena. Lately, linear state-space equations representing their quasi-static and dynamic behaviours have been developed and validated experimentally. However, to date, the exploitation of these models has been [...] Read more.
Electrodynamic thrust bearings (EDTBs) provide contactless rotor axial suspension through electromagnetic forces solely leaning on passive phenomena. Lately, linear state-space equations representing their quasi-static and dynamic behaviours have been developed and validated experimentally. However, to date, the exploitation of these models has been restricted to basic investigations regarding the stiffness and the rotational losses as well as qualitative stability analyses, thus not allowing us to objectively compare the intrinsic qualities of EDTBs. In this context, the present paper introduces four performance criteria directly related to the axial stiffness, the bearing energy efficiency and the minimal amount of external damping required to stabilise the thrust bearing. In addition, the stability is thoroughly examined via analytical developments based on these dynamical models. This notably leads to static and dynamic conditions that ensure the stability at a specific rotor spin speed. The resulting stable speed ranges are studied and their dependence to the axial external stiffness as well as the external non-rotating damping are analysed. Finally, a case study comparing three topologies through these performance criteria underlines that back irons fixed to the windings are not advantageous due to the significant detent force. Full article
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