Special Issue "Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary"

A special issue of ChemEngineering (ISSN 2305-7084).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 24522

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Changhyun Roh
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Decommissioning Technology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 989-111 Daedukdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 34057, Korea
2. Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Jeonbuk 56212, Korea
3. Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Korea
Interests: radiochemistry; radiation chemistry; nanomaterials; nanotechnology; nuclear energy; decommissioning and decontamination science and technology; environmental science and technology; radioactive isotopes; radiation; chemical engineering; separation technology; catalysis; biotechnology; education; sustainability; chemosensors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal ChemEngineering is a publication that reports industrial and academic research in the broad fields of applied multidisciplinary and chemical engineering, with a special focus on fundamentals, processes, and products. The aim of this Special Issue is the better understanding of the potential industrial significance of chemical engineering. The Special Issue will cover all of the basic areas of chemical engineering, including catalysis, environmental engineering, energy, biotechnology, polymers, materials, process systems, transport, industrial chemistry, separations, and multidisciplinarity. In addition to traditional subjects, papers dealing with new areas of science and technology that fit the broad scope and objectives of the journal are encouraged. My aim is to encourage scientists and engineers to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. Therefore, there is no restriction on the length of the papers. The types of articles to be published include original articles, editorials, case reports, reviews, short communications, and letters to the editor.

Prof. Dr. Changhyun Roh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Chemical engineering
  • Energy and environmental engineering
  • Separation and purification engineering
  • Catalysis
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanotechnology
  • Biotechnology

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development of Continuous Gas Generation Method for Hydrogen Chloride Using Azeotropic Hydrochloric Acid System
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6010012 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Standard gases are often prepared using high-pressure gas cylinders. However, it is difficult to accurately prepare a known concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas using this method because HCl is highly corrosive and adsorptive. In this study, a simple method for the continuous [...] Read more.
Standard gases are often prepared using high-pressure gas cylinders. However, it is difficult to accurately prepare a known concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas using this method because HCl is highly corrosive and adsorptive. In this study, a simple method for the continuous generation of HCl gas was developed using a diffusion tube containing hydrochloric acid and a nitrogen carrier gas. The concentration of HCl produced from this system was almost unstable, but constant gas generation was realized for several hours when azeotropic hydrochloric acid (20.6% HCl in water) and a temperature near the azeotropic point (108.5 °C) were used, resulting in the generation of 103.6 ppm (mean, n = 5) of HCl gas with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.34%. In this case, the percentage of HCl present in the entire gas mixture of HCl and water vapor was 22.5%, which is almost equivalent to the HCl content in the azeotropic hydrochloric acid (20.6%). The HCl concentration could also be controlled by changing the flow rate of the carrier gas. This work demonstrates a simple technique based on the diffusion theory that allows for the constant, controllable generation of a known concentration of HCl gas using an azeotropic hydrochloric acid system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Development of Integrated Electrocoagulation-Sedimentation (IECS) in Continuous Mode for Turbidity and Color Removal
ChemEngineering 2022, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6010003 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1555
Abstract
The present work focused on the development and evaluation of a compact electrocoagulation (EC) reactor, combined between EC and clarifier processes in continuous modes for decolorization and turbidity removal, named the integrated electrocoagulation-sedimentation reactor (IECS). The experiments were firstly conducted in the four-liter [...] Read more.
The present work focused on the development and evaluation of a compact electrocoagulation (EC) reactor, combined between EC and clarifier processes in continuous modes for decolorization and turbidity removal, named the integrated electrocoagulation-sedimentation reactor (IECS). The experiments were firstly conducted in the four-liter batch column in order to optimize the EC configuration and operation condition. The removal kinetics were also investigated and predicted for kinetic correlations. After various optimization steps, the IECS reactor was conducted, consisting of EC and clarifier compartments. Liquid flow pattern in EC compartment was examined through resident time distribution technique for defining the number of EC units and divided baffles. In summary, four units of EC were placed in the EC compartment of the IECS reactor with 90% in the width of three baffles. Each EC unit had two pairs of aluminum electrode plats in monopolar arrangement with a 1.5 cm gap and required a current density of 13.5 mA/cm2. For the clarifier compartment, it was mainly designed based on the batch settling test for separating the precipitated particles. The treatment performance of the IECS reactor was tested at different liquid flows in order to reduce the pollutant to a certain level. For the individual condition, liquid flow rates of 3 and 1 L/min were defined for turbidity and color, respectively. If both pollutants are presented simultaneously, a liquid flow rate of 1–2 L/min can be used for decreasing turbidity from 250 to <20 NTU and color from 6000 to <300 ADMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Low-Cost Eddy-Resolving Simulation in the Near-Field of an Annular Swirling Jet for Spray Drying Applications
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5040080 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Spray drying is one of many industrial applications that use annular swirling jets. For this particular application, the flow characteristics in the near-field of the jet are fundamental to obtaining high-quality dried products. In this article, an annular swirling jet configuration is numerically [...] Read more.
Spray drying is one of many industrial applications that use annular swirling jets. For this particular application, the flow characteristics in the near-field of the jet are fundamental to obtaining high-quality dried products. In this article, an annular swirling jet configuration is numerically studied using three low-cost eddy-resolving turbulence methods: detached-eddy simulation (DES), delayed-DES (DDES) and scale-adaptive simulation (SAS). To focus in industrial applicability, very coarse grids are used. The individual performance of these models is assessed through a comparison with laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements and large-eddy simulation (LES) data from available studies. Results show that all the three turbulence models are suitable for performing industrial cost-effective simulations, capable of reproducing LES results of mean velocities and first-order turbulence statistics at a fraction of the computational cost. Differences in the results of the evaluated models were minor; however, the simulation with DDES still provided a better reproduction of experimental results, especially in the very-near field of the jet, as it enforced RANS behavior near the inlet walls and a better transition from modeled to resolved scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Increasing the Adherence of Metallic Copper to the Surface of Titanium Hydride
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5040072 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Studies have been carried out to increase the adhesive interaction between a titanium hydride substrate and a copper coating. An additional layer containing chemically active groups was created on the surface of the spherical titanium hydride by chemisorption modification. This paper discusses the [...] Read more.
Studies have been carried out to increase the adhesive interaction between a titanium hydride substrate and a copper coating. An additional layer containing chemically active groups was created on the surface of the spherical titanium hydride by chemisorption modification. This paper discusses the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic mapping of coatings obtained on spherical granules of titanium hydride before and after adsorption modification. The mechanism of interaction of the surface of spherical granules of titanium hydride and titanium sulfate salt is proposed. It is shown that the creation of a chemisorbed layer of hydroxotitanyl and the subsequent electrodeposition of metallic copper contribute to the formation of a multilayer shell of a titanium–copper coating on the surface of spherical titanium hydride granules (≡Ti-O-Cu-) with a high adhesive interaction. Results have been given for an experimental study of the thermal stability of the initial spherical granules of titanium hydride and granules coated with a multilayer titanium-copper shell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters Using Microwave toward Structural Properties of ZnO/CNS Intermediate and Application of ZnCr2O4/CNS Final Product for Dark Degradation of Pesticide in Wet Paddy Soil
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5030058 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Pesticide is a pollution problem in agriculture. The usage of ZnCr2O4/CNS and H2O2 as additive in liquid fertilizer has potency for catalytic pesticide degradation. Colloid condition is needed for easy spraying. Rice husk and sawdust were [...] Read more.
Pesticide is a pollution problem in agriculture. The usage of ZnCr2O4/CNS and H2O2 as additive in liquid fertilizer has potency for catalytic pesticide degradation. Colloid condition is needed for easy spraying. Rice husk and sawdust were used as carbon precursor and ZnCl2 as activator. The biomass–ZnCl2 mixtures were pyrolyzed using microwave (400–800 W, 50 min). The products were dispersed in water by blending then evaporated to obtain ZnO/CNS. The composites were reacted with KOH, CrCl3·6H2O, more ZnCl2, and little water by microwave (600 W, 5 min). The ZnCr2O4/CNS and H2O2 were used for degradation of buthylphenylmethyl carbamate (BPMC) in wet deactivated paddy soil. TOC was measured using TOC meter. The FTIR spectra of the ZnO/CNS composites indicated the completed carbonization except at 800 W without ZnCl2. The X-ray diffractograms of the composites confirmed ZnO/CNS structure. SEM images showed irregular particle shapes for using both biomass. ZnCr2O4/CNS structure was confirmed by XRD as the final product with crystallite size of 74.99 nm. The sawdust produced more stable colloids of CNS and ZnO/CNS composite than the rice husk. The pyrolysis without ZnCl2 formed more stable colloid than with ZnCl2. The ZnCr2O4/CNS from sawdust gave better dark catalytic degradation of BPMC than from rice husk, i.e., 2.5 and 1.6 times larger for 400 and 800 W pyrolysis, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Simulation-Based Defect Engineering in “α-Spodumene”
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5030057 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Naturally occurring lithium-rich α-spodumene (α-LiAlSi2O6) is a technologically important mineral that has attracted considerable attention in ceramics, polymer industries, and rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The defect chemistry and dopant properties of this material are studied using a well-established [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring lithium-rich α-spodumene (α-LiAlSi2O6) is a technologically important mineral that has attracted considerable attention in ceramics, polymer industries, and rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The defect chemistry and dopant properties of this material are studied using a well-established atomistic simulation technique based on classical pair-potentials. The most favorable intrinsic defect process is the Al-Si anti-site defect cluster (1.08 eV/defect). The second most favorable defect process is the Li-Al anti-site defect cluster (1.17 eV/defect). The Li-Frenkel is higher in energy by 0.33 eV than the Al-Si anti-site defect cluster. This process would ensure the formation of Li vacancies required for the Li diffusion via the vacancy-assisted mechanism. The Li-ion diffusion in this material is slow, with an activation energy of 2.62 eV. The most promising isovalent dopants on the Li, Al, and Si sites are found to be Na, Ga, and Ge, respectively. The formation of both Li interstitials and oxygen vacancies can be facilitated by doping of Ga on the Si site. The incorporation of lithium is studied using density functional theory simulations and the electronic structures of resultant complexes are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Cooperativity between Dimerization and Binding Equilibria in the Ternary System Laponite-Indocyanine Green-Water
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5010006 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Laponite is an artificial nanoclay available in large quantities and at low cost. This marterial represents an efficient and suitable way of delivering hydrophobic vital dyes without the need for chemical functionalization. Laponite is available in large quantities and at low cost, then [...] Read more.
Laponite is an artificial nanoclay available in large quantities and at low cost. This marterial represents an efficient and suitable way of delivering hydrophobic vital dyes without the need for chemical functionalization. Laponite is available in large quantities and at low cost, then it would be an efficient way of delivering hydrophobic vital dyes without the need for chemical functionalization. The hydrodynamic diameter of laponite extrapolated to infinite dilution indicates that this clay is completely exfoliated. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic diameter in the laponite-Indocyanine green-water ternary system, at a fixed laponite concentration (2% (m/m)) exhibits a saturation curve. It was found that the extrapolated diameter at dye zero concentration is smaller than in pure water. Absorption spectra with fixed concentration of dye exhibit a red shift of 10–13 nm. On the contrary, the spectra acquired at a constant concentration of laponite do not undergo any displacement. The deconvolution of the spectra with two Gaussian peaks allows to calculate the concentration of the monomeric and dimeric species. The results were interpreted as a synergy between the dye dimerization balance and the dye-laponite binding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Synthesis of Single-Phase Zeolite A by Coal Gasification Fine Slag from Ningdong and Its Application as a High-Efficiency Adsorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+ in Simulated Waste Water
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4040065 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Coal gasification is a new direction for the clean utilization of coal, but it also brings huge environmental pressure on solid waste. In this paper, the high-crystallinity single-phase zeolite A was prepared by solid-phase alkali fusion synthesis from coal gasification fine slag (CGFS), [...] Read more.
Coal gasification is a new direction for the clean utilization of coal, but it also brings huge environmental pressure on solid waste. In this paper, the high-crystallinity single-phase zeolite A was prepared by solid-phase alkali fusion synthesis from coal gasification fine slag (CGFS), without template agent, with low water consumption, and with low cost, and it was used to remove heavy metals such as Pb2+ and Cu2+ in simulated waste water. The main factors affecting the solid-phase and green synthesis methods were analyzed, and the optimum conditions for solid-phase synthesis of high-crystallinity single-phase zeolite A were determined as follows: NaOH/CGFS = 1.2; solid-phase alkali fusion temperature 823 K, solid-phase alkali fusion 90 min, liquid–solid ratio 4.5, and 353 K hydrothermal reaction for 12 h. The relative crystallinity, specific surface area, and ion-exchange capacity of single-phase zeolites A are 93.1%, 61.09 m2/g, and 268.4 mmol/100 g. The removal rates of Pb2+ and Cu2+ can reach more than 99%, especially for the removal efficiency of Pb2+, which is common in simulated waste water. This is an effective method with important application prospects, and it formed an effective way to recycle solid waste of coal chemical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
MnO2-Coated Dual Core–Shell Spindle-Like Nanorods for Improved Capacity Retention of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4020042 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
The emerging need for high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries has motivated many researchers to investigate different designs. However, the polysulfide shuttle effect, which is the result of dissolution of many intermediate polysulfides in electrolyte, has still remained unsolved. In this study, we have designed a [...] Read more.
The emerging need for high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries has motivated many researchers to investigate different designs. However, the polysulfide shuttle effect, which is the result of dissolution of many intermediate polysulfides in electrolyte, has still remained unsolved. In this study, we have designed a sulfur-filled dual core–shell spindle-like nanorod structure coated with manganese oxide ([email protected]@MnO2) to achieve a high-performance cathode for lithium–sulfur batteries. The cathode showed an initial discharge capacity of 1661 mA h g−1 with 80% retention of capacity over 70 cycles at a 0.2C rate. Furthermore, compared with the nanorods without any coating ([email protected]), the MnO2-coated material displayed superior rate capability, cycling stability, and Coulombic efficiency. The synergistic effects of the nitrogen-doped hollow carbon host and the MnO2 second shell are responsible for the improved electrochemical performance of this nanostructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Article
Parametric Sensitivity of CSTBRs for Lactobacillus casei: Normalized Sensitivity Analysis
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4020041 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of a continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) was conducted to determine a parametrically sensitive regime. The growth of a lactic acid bacterium, namely, Lactobacillus casei, in a pH-controlled CSTBR was considered as a process model. Normalized [...] Read more.
In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of a continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) was conducted to determine a parametrically sensitive regime. The growth of a lactic acid bacterium, namely, Lactobacillus casei, in a pH-controlled CSTBR was considered as a process model. Normalized objective sensitivities of the minimum pH were determined with respect to input parameters. A generalized criterion for sensitivity was defined for determining the parametric range of three input variables, i.e., dilution rate base stream (θ), base concentration (R), and initial pH (pH0) for maintaining optimal pH range in the reactor. The system exhibits sensitive behavior for θ, R, and pH0, from 0.095 to 0.295, 0 to 0.865, and 4.42 to 4.77, respectively. The critical values of θ, R, and pH0 are 0.0195, 0.48, and 4.6, respectively. The mathematical model can also be used to determine a parametrically sensitive regime for other important parameters, namely, temperature, the concentration of metabolites, and other byproducts. The mathematical tool can also be used in bioreactor design and the improvement of control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Review

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Review
A Mini-Review of Enhancing Ultrafiltration Membranes (UF) for Wastewater Treatment: Performance and Stability
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5030034 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
The scarcity of freshwater resources in many regions of the world has contributed to the emergence of various technologies for treating and recovering wastewater for reuse in industry, agriculture, and households. Deep wastewater treatment from oils and petroleum products is one of the [...] Read more.
The scarcity of freshwater resources in many regions of the world has contributed to the emergence of various technologies for treating and recovering wastewater for reuse in industry, agriculture, and households. Deep wastewater treatment from oils and petroleum products is one of the difficult tasks that must be solved. Among the known technologies, UF membranes have found wide industrial application with high efficiency in removing various pollutants from wastewater. It is shown that the search for and development of highly efficient, durable, and resistant to oil pollution UF membranes for the treatment of oily wastewater is an urgent research task. The key parameters to improve the performance of UF membranes are by enhancing wettability (hydrophilicity) and the antifouling behavior of membranes. In this review, we highlight the using of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes primarily to treat oily wastewater. Various methods of polymer alterations of the UF membrane were studied to improve hydrophilicity, the ability of antifouling the membrane, and oil rejection, including polymer blending, membrane surface modification, and the mixed membrane matrix. The influence of the type and composition of the hydrophilic additives of nanoparticles (e.g., Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), graphene oxide (GO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2), etc.) was investigated. The review further provides an insight into the removal efficiency percent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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Review
Review of NMR Studies for Oilwell Cements and Their Importance
ChemEngineering 2021, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering5020018 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1669
Abstract
This paper summarizes experimental studies using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to evaluate cement porosity, pore size distribution, and other characteristics such as Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) gel structure and morphology. The first known paper on NMR experiments to investigate cement pastes was published [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes experimental studies using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to evaluate cement porosity, pore size distribution, and other characteristics such as Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) gel structure and morphology. The first known paper on NMR experiments to investigate cement pastes was published in 1978. Two main NMR parameters, the so-called longitudinal T1 and transverse T2 relaxation times, are commonly measured and analyzed, representing the water response which is trapped in the cement. The hydration process reported in this paper was found to be monitored from as low as 10 min to longer than 365 days. Other studies conducted experiments by using NMR, especially during the 1980s. These studies employed variations in methodologies and frequencies, making data comparison difficult. Additionally, different spectrometers and NMR concepts, as well as operating characteristics, were used. Therefore, it is challenging to reconcile results from previous NMR studies on cement. Other significant hurdles are different cement types, water/cement ratio, and curing conditions. One notable observation is that there has not been any comprehensive laboratory work related to NMR on oilfield cement types, including porosity and hydration. Two recent studies have presented NMR measurements on class G and class H cements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Multidisciplinary)
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