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Future Pharmacol., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

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25 pages, 1509 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Pharmacotherapy of Glaucoma
by Shalini Virani and Parveen Rewri
Future Pharmacol. 2024, 4(2), 395-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/futurepharmacol4020022 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Progressive loss of retinal ganglionic cells (RGC) causes degeneration of optic nerve axons, which leads to blindness in glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important, treatable risk factor. Currently, the management of glaucoma is centred on reducing the IOP, and drugs [...] Read more.
Progressive loss of retinal ganglionic cells (RGC) causes degeneration of optic nerve axons, which leads to blindness in glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important, treatable risk factor. Currently, the management of glaucoma is centred on reducing the IOP, and drugs in the form of topical drops are the first line of management. Drugs reduce IOP either by suppressing aqueous humour secretion or improving the aqueous humour outflow. Newer drugs added during the past three decades to the armamentarium of glaucoma treatment have targeted the aqueous outflow. With an evolving understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucoma, the role of 24-h IOP control and other IOP-independent risk factors affecting ocular blood flow and RGC toxicity is also being actively studied in clinical and pre-clinical models of glaucoma. The role of available drugs in controlling IOP over 24 h is being evaluated. Improvement of ocular blood flow and neuroprotection are seen as potential drug targets for preventing the loss of RGC. In this article, we review the pharmacotherapy of glaucoma based on current therapeutic principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Future Pharmacology 2024)
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15 pages, 1657 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Silico Biological Evaluation of the Essential Oil from Syzigium cumini Leaves as a Source of Novel Antifungal and Trichomonacidal Agents
by José Thyálisson da Costa Silva, Fabio Caboclo Moreira, José Jailson Lima Bezerra, Naiza Saraiva Farias, Aparecida Vitória Silva Menêses, Andressa Guilhermino dos Santos, Mariana dos Santos Santana, Maria Elenilda Paulino da Silva, Victor Juno Alencar Fonseca, Adrielle Rodrigues Costa, Saulo Almeida Menezes, Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga, Tiana Tasca, Cícera Datiane de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho and José Weverton Almeida-Bezerra
Future Pharmacol. 2024, 4(2), 380-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/futurepharmacol4020021 - 1 May 2024
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Abstract
As microbes develop resistance to various drugs, the treatment of infections becomes increasingly challenging, leading to prolonged illness, heightened severity of infections, elevated mortality rates, and increased healthcare costs. Essential oils are lipophilic and volatile mixtures of compounds that have gained attention in [...] Read more.
As microbes develop resistance to various drugs, the treatment of infections becomes increasingly challenging, leading to prolonged illness, heightened severity of infections, elevated mortality rates, and increased healthcare costs. Essential oils are lipophilic and volatile mixtures of compounds that have gained attention in research for novel antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the present study evaluated the essential oil of Syzygium cumini leaves (EOSC) in order to prospect its antifungal and trichomonacidal activities. The essential oil from the leaves was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the serial microdilution method. Additionally, the potential of the EOSC as an enhancer of fluconazole (FCZ) action was tested at subinhibitory concentrations. To assess anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity, concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 500 μg/mL of EOSC were tested. Finally, the SwissADME platform was employed to analyze the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the major component of EOSC. The GC-MS analysis identified 94.24% of the components of EOSC, with α-pinene (51.11%) and nerol (8.25%) as major constituents. EOSC exhibited low antifungal activity against the evaluated Candida strains. However, the combination of EOSC and FCZ reduced the IC50 against Candida krusei from 45.29 to 0.30 μg/mL. EOSC also demonstrated significant activity against T. vaginalis (IC50 = 88.2 μg/mL). In silico prediction with α-pinene showed low toxic action and important physicochemical aspects for drug production. The essential oil of Syzygium cumini emerges as a promising candidate for the discovery of molecules with potential antifungal and anti-Trichomonas vaginalis applications. Full article
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28 pages, 1753 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology-Driven Therapeutic Innovations in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Focus on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
by Antea Krsek and Lara Baticic
Future Pharmacol. 2024, 4(2), 352-379; https://doi.org/10.3390/futurepharmacol4020020 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Neurodegenerative disorders entail a progressive loss of neurons in cerebral and peripheral tissues, coupled with the aggregation of proteins exhibiting altered physicochemical properties. Crucial to these conditions is the gradual degradation of the central nervous system, manifesting as impairments in mobility, aberrant behaviors, [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative disorders entail a progressive loss of neurons in cerebral and peripheral tissues, coupled with the aggregation of proteins exhibiting altered physicochemical properties. Crucial to these conditions is the gradual degradation of the central nervous system, manifesting as impairments in mobility, aberrant behaviors, and cognitive deficits. Mechanisms such as proteotoxic stress, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and programmed cell death contribute to the ongoing dysfunction and demise of neurons. Presently, neurodegenerative diseases lack definitive cures, and available therapies primarily offer palliative relief. The integration of nanotechnology into medical practices has significantly augmented both treatment efficacy and diagnostic capabilities. Nanoparticles, capable of traversing the blood–brain barrier, hold considerable potential for diagnosing and treating brain pathologies. By combining gene therapy with nanotechnology, the therapeutic effectiveness against neurodegenerative diseases can be substantially enhanced. Recent advancements in nano-biomaterial-based methodologies have fortified existing approaches to neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation therapies. NSC-targeting technologies offer a promising, potentially safe method for treating neurodegenerative diseases. This review endeavors to summarize current insights and perspectives on nanotechnology-driven therapeutic innovations in neurodegenerative disorders, with a particular emphasis on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Future Pharmacology 2024)
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16 pages, 2686 KiB  
Review
Ocular Drug Delivery into the Eyes Using Drug-Releasing Soft Contact Lens
by Toshihiko Tashima
Future Pharmacol. 2024, 4(2), 336-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/futurepharmacol4020019 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The impact of visual impairment, such as blindness, on quality of life is immeasurable. However, effective ocular drug delivery into the eyes has not yet been established, primarily due to the impermeability imposed by the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) based on the tight junctions [...] Read more.
The impact of visual impairment, such as blindness, on quality of life is immeasurable. However, effective ocular drug delivery into the eyes has not yet been established, primarily due to the impermeability imposed by the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) based on the tight junctions and efflux transporters at the endothelium or the epithelium in oral or intravenous administration, as well as the dilution with tear fluid and excretion through the nasolacrimal duct in eye drop administration. Furthermore, intravitreous injections induce pain and fear in patients. Unmet medical needs persist in ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, innovative non-invasive administration methods should be developed. Drug-releasing soft contact lenses (DR-SCLs) affixed to the eye’s surface can continuously and locally deliver their loaded drugs to the eyes. The use of DR-SCLs is expected to greatly enhance the bioavailability and patient adherence to the drug regimen. It is known that several solute carrier (SLC) transporters are expressed in various parts of the eyes, including the cornea, the ciliary body, and the bulbar conjunctiva. Carrier-mediated transport through SLC transporters may occur in addition to passive diffusion. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded into DR-SCLs, offering various intelligent approaches based on modifications to induce receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis or to control the loaded drug release within this delivery system. In this perspective review, I discuss the implementation and potential of DR-SCL-mediated ocular drug delivery, particularly focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds because of their fine distribution in living body, ease of handling, and ease of manufacturing. Full article
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19 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling of UGT Substrate Drugs Lamotrigine and Raltegravir during Pregnancy
by Monika Berezowska, Paola Coppola, Venkatesh Pilla Reddy and Pradeep Sharma
Future Pharmacol. 2024, 4(2), 317-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/futurepharmacol4020018 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes that can significantly impact the disposition of drugs. To further the insight into how pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of drugs at different stages, clinical studies can be simulated using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic modelling. PBPK modelling of [...] Read more.
Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes that can significantly impact the disposition of drugs. To further the insight into how pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of drugs at different stages, clinical studies can be simulated using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic modelling. PBPK modelling of drugs metabolised by Phase I enzymes (CYPs) in pregnant population models had been reported in the past, while its use in Phase II (UGTs) is not known. In this study, based on the results of a recent meta-analysis, lamotrigine (UGT1A4) and raltegravir (UGT1A1) were selected as candidate drugs, and pregnancy-specific models were developed for both using the Simcyp v.21 simulator. A middle-out strategy was used where previously published drug parameters were adapted from a minimal to a full PBPK model to allow their application for the pregnancy population models using Simcyp PBPK software. Adapted models were successfully validated against observed clinical data both qualitatively (visual overlay of plasma concentrations on graphs) and quantitatively (calculating the predicted/observed ratios for AUC, Cmax and CL as well as statistical analysis using model prediction power metrics). They were then applied to predict the PKs of both drugs in pregnancy population models. The temporal changes in maternal enzymatic activities during gestation were modelled based on in vitro data reported in literature and default relationships encoded in the Simcyp platform for UGT1A1 and UGT1A4, respectively. Our study demonstrates the successful development and validation of a PBPK model for LTG and RTG in pregnancy population models. Future work with additional UGT1A4 substrate drugs using the proposed changes in UGT1A4 activity may enable validating the pregnancy population model and its subsequent use for the prospective prediction of PK. Full article
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