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Encyclopedia, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 9 articles

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10 pages, 3924 KiB  
Review
Soil as a Source of Fungi Pathogenic for Public Health
by Isabella Grishkan
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1163-1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030075 (registering DOI) - 25 Jul 2024
Abstract
Soil is an environment for huge diversity of fungi, which fulfill various tasks and support the maintaining of soil health. At the same time, varieties of soil fungal species, which produce numerous airborne spores and a range of mycotoxins, are known to be [...] Read more.
Soil is an environment for huge diversity of fungi, which fulfill various tasks and support the maintaining of soil health. At the same time, varieties of soil fungal species, which produce numerous airborne spores and a range of mycotoxins, are known to be pathogenic for human health. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge on soil fungi causing public health problems, including dermatoses, allergies, pulmonary diseases, wound infections, infections of the central nervous system, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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16 pages, 296 KiB  
Entry
Ethical Issues in Researching Higher Education Teaching and Learning
by Jennie Golding and Amanda Ince
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1147-1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030074 - 17 Jul 2024
Viewed by 371
Definition
Higher education here is taken to be education beyond school level: often at an institution (a university) that has degree-awarding powers, though some programmes may lead to a diploma, certificate or other award or qualification. Nomenclature around “research” in the associated teaching and [...] Read more.
Higher education here is taken to be education beyond school level: often at an institution (a university) that has degree-awarding powers, though some programmes may lead to a diploma, certificate or other award or qualification. Nomenclature around “research” in the associated teaching and learning is contested: professional enquiry, scholarship of teaching and learning, pedagogical research… are some of the terms used. Authors discuss and distinguish such terms. An ethical issue is a circumstance in which a moral conflict arises or is implicit and should be resolved in a morally acceptable way. These include privacy, informed consent, insider research and power relationships within higher education research; there are also fluid challenges around the use of digital contributions. Authors present a narrative exegesis of work in the associated areas, which authors argue will be of use to universities promoting such research, and of particular interest to two groups of academics wishing to systematically develop their practice in ways that contribute to the field: those on teaching-only contracts, who would also demonstrate their research credentials; and researchers from non-education-cognate fields. Authors identify directions for further work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
13 pages, 1507 KiB  
Entry
Revisiting Lorenz’s Error Growth Models: Insights and Applications
by Bo-Wen Shen
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1134-1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030073 - 14 Jul 2024
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Definition
This entry examines Lorenz’s error growth models with quadratic and cubic hypotheses, highlighting their mathematical connections to the non-dissipative Lorenz 1963 model. The quadratic error growth model is the logistic ordinary differential equation (ODE) with a quadratic nonlinear term, while the cubic model [...] Read more.
This entry examines Lorenz’s error growth models with quadratic and cubic hypotheses, highlighting their mathematical connections to the non-dissipative Lorenz 1963 model. The quadratic error growth model is the logistic ordinary differential equation (ODE) with a quadratic nonlinear term, while the cubic model is derived by replacing the quadratic term with a cubic one. A variable transformation shows that the cubic model can be converted to the same form as the logistic ODE. The relationship between the continuous logistic ODE and its discrete version, the logistic map, illustrates chaotic behaviors, demonstrating computational chaos with large time steps. A variant of the logistic ODE is proposed to show how finite predictability horizons can be determined, emphasizing the continuous dependence on initial conditions (CDIC) related to stable and unstable asymptotic values. This review also presents the mathematical relationship between the logistic ODE and the non-dissipative Lorenz 1963 model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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17 pages, 6033 KiB  
Entry
A Process Synthesis and Intensification Framework
by Jesús Rafael Alcántara Avila, Cristopher Antonio Villegas Uribe, Josué Julián Herrera Velázquez and Julián Cabrera Ruiz
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1117-1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030072 - 3 Jul 2024
Viewed by 768
Definition
This Process Synthesis and Intensification (PS+I) framework uses a low-aggregation superstructure to solve the synthesis problem, and its solution is interpreted and translated into a task-integrated intensified process. Then, the process is post-optimized to find a better balance between operation and [...] Read more.
This Process Synthesis and Intensification (PS+I) framework uses a low-aggregation superstructure to solve the synthesis problem, and its solution is interpreted and translated into a task-integrated intensified process. Then, the process is post-optimized to find a better balance between operation and equipment costs. The solution leads to novel and counterintuitive intensified processes with low cost and energy requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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17 pages, 555 KiB  
Entry
The Emergence of Neuroleadership in the Knowledge Economy
by Constantin Bratianu and Roxana-Maria Staneiu
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1100-1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030071 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 649
Definition
“The Emergence of Neuroleadership in the Knowledge Economy” explores the field of neuroleadership in today’s constantly changing economy, highlighting the transition from traditional leadership to neuroleadership. Neuroleadership renders itself as a novel approach to the leadership theory, which brings together insights from neuroscience, [...] Read more.
“The Emergence of Neuroleadership in the Knowledge Economy” explores the field of neuroleadership in today’s constantly changing economy, highlighting the transition from traditional leadership to neuroleadership. Neuroleadership renders itself as a novel approach to the leadership theory, which brings together insights from neuroscience, psychology, and leadership studies. It emphasizes understanding the workings of the brain and human behavior in order to drive leadership effectiveness, at individual, team, and organizational levels. Additionally, the knowledge economy is characterized by the significant role of knowledge and intellectual capital when it comes to driving economic growth and organizational development. It highlights the creation, dissemination, and sharing of knowledge as important pillars for productivity and competitive advantage, shaping industries and transforming leadership traditional models. Through an extensive literature review and by employing the Dulewicz and Higgs leadership model, the authors showcase what are the intellectual, managerial, and emotional competencies that make neuroleadership the next natural step in leading teams and organizations. This article proposes a comparative matrix between traditional leaders and neuroleaders, and highlights a novel framework for better understanding neuroleadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Knowledge Management in Encyclopedia)
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9 pages, 205 KiB  
Entry
Audit Partner Characteristics and Their Impacts on Audit Quality: Evidence from around the World
by Linting Jiang, Janean Rundo, Linna Shi and Nan Zhou
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1091-1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030070 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 539
Definition
Public company audits are not homogenous. Varying audit partner attributes, including gender, age, location, and expertise, play important roles in explaining audit outcome disparities. The extant literature underscores the influence of firm-level and office-level differences, in areas such as size, culture, and industry [...] Read more.
Public company audits are not homogenous. Varying audit partner attributes, including gender, age, location, and expertise, play important roles in explaining audit outcome disparities. The extant literature underscores the influence of firm-level and office-level differences, in areas such as size, culture, and industry expertise, in shaping audit outcomes. Commonwealth countries, such as the U.K., Australia, New Zealand, and Continental European countries, along with Asian economic entities, mandate the disclosure of audit partner names. Consequently, significant research efforts have been devoted to investigating the impact of audit partner characteristics on audit outcomes in these jurisdictions. With the adoption of Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) Rule 3211, mandating disclosure of audit engagement partner details for U.S.-registered public accounting firms on Form AP, there has been a surge in U.S. firm research exploring the significance of audit partner characteristics on audit outcomes in recent years. This paper outlines research that considers audit partner attributes’ influence on audit partner selection and audit quality across different economic entities. This entry contributes by synthesizing findings from recent research across diverse economic contexts, including the recently available insights from U.S.-based audits. The analysis of this entry not only provides insights into the current state of audit partner research but also delineates avenues for future research on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
18 pages, 16632 KiB  
Entry
Japanese Prefabricated Housing Manufacturers
by Hing-Wah Chau, Elmira Jamei, Nitin Muttil and Masa Noguchi
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1073-1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030069 - 30 Jun 2024
Viewed by 615
Definition
Japanese prefabricated housing manufacturers have gained international recognition for their innovative approaches to the whole design process, ranging from initial design to innovative cutting-edge technologies, state-of-the-art automated production lines, meticulous workmanship, and mass customisation. In this entry, three manufacturers (Daiwa House, Sekisui House, [...] Read more.
Japanese prefabricated housing manufacturers have gained international recognition for their innovative approaches to the whole design process, ranging from initial design to innovative cutting-edge technologies, state-of-the-art automated production lines, meticulous workmanship, and mass customisation. In this entry, three manufacturers (Daiwa House, Sekisui House, and Misawa Homes) were selected as case studies for close examination. By studying these leading companies, researchers and industry professionals can gain valuable insights into best practices, challenges, and innovations within the Japanese prefabricated housing sector. The research methods involved a desktop study of available information on websites, articles, and reports, as well as undertaking two study tours on residential sustainable design in Japan in 2022 and 2023. These three manufacturers were discussed and compared with respect to their development trajectories, design customisation, research capabilities and technological advancements, sustainable initiatives and procurement, as well as their after-sale services. They have demonstrated their adaptability and flexibility in response to natural disasters and the transformation of the needs in society. They are all keen on reducing the environmental impacts of their work towards zero carbon emissions and a sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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11 pages, 399 KiB  
Entry
Phosphatidyl Inositol 4-Kinases
by Ravinder Kumar and Piyush Kumar
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1062-1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030068 - 29 Jun 2024
Viewed by 767
Definition
In recent decades, phosphoinositides (or PIs) have emerged as essential signaling molecules. Despite their low cellular abundance, PIs are found to be involved in various cellular processes, including cell migration, vesicular trafficking, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, autophagy, aging, apoptosis, and cell [...] Read more.
In recent decades, phosphoinositides (or PIs) have emerged as essential signaling molecules. Despite their low cellular abundance, PIs are found to be involved in various cellular processes, including cell migration, vesicular trafficking, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, autophagy, aging, apoptosis, and cell signaling. Recent studies have shown that aberrant activity of either lipid kinases or phosphatases leads to various medical implications like cancer, diabetes, and microbial infections, suggesting an essential role for these lipid molecules and enzymes in their metabolism. This entry focused on one of the critical enzymes involved in phosphoinositide metabolism: phosphatidyl inositol 4-kinase (PI4-Kinase). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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18 pages, 1253 KiB  
Entry
Tethered Swimming: Historical Notes and Future Prospects
by Pedro Morouço, Dina Tavares and Hugo Plácido Silva
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(3), 1044-1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4030067 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 707
Definition
Swimming coaches know that a swimmer’s assessment must be specific and ecological. Thus, it is critical to select and employ adequate methodologies. The tethered swimming method can be useful and valid, in addition to being simple to apply. Regular use of this methodology [...] Read more.
Swimming coaches know that a swimmer’s assessment must be specific and ecological. Thus, it is critical to select and employ adequate methodologies. The tethered swimming method can be useful and valid, in addition to being simple to apply. Regular use of this methodology can give coaches tools to intervene with their swimmers and increase performance. The main objective of this manuscript was to analyze the potential for measuring the propulsive forces exerted in water as a biomechanical tool for evaluating and training competitive swimmers. The key results demonstrated that this methodology allows (i) the assessment of upper limb bilateral kinetic asymmetries; (ii) the evaluation of the contribution of the upper and lower limb actions, inferring about the (un)balance between strength and coordination; (iii) the examination of the relationship between the intracyclic variations in speed and force; (iv) the evaluation of the effective application of force to the speed of high-level swimmers. Furthermore, this manuscript suggests advances using mathematical modeling and artificial intelligence (AI) that will provide significant insights into swimming performances. AI developments will promote its integration into sports optimization, and swimming will be no exception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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