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Volume 2, CIWC-2 2020

Mater. Proc., 2021, IEC2M 2021

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals

Online | 22 February–07 March 2021

Volume Editor:

Professor Eric D.van Hullebusch, Conference Chair

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals (IEC2M) took place online from 22 February to 7 March 2021. We received many excellent contributions, covering the exciting and [...] Read more.
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Research

Proceedings
Niobium Oxide and Tantalum Oxide Micro- and Nanostructures Grown Using Material Recovered from Mining Tailings
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09235 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Niobium and tantalum-based oxides were recovered from mining tailings. These oxides were used as starting material for growing micro- and nanostructures by the evaporation method. The morphology and crystal structure of the final oxides were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and [...] Read more.
Niobium and tantalum-based oxides were recovered from mining tailings. These oxides were used as starting material for growing micro- and nanostructures by the evaporation method. The morphology and crystal structure of the final oxides were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After the thermal treatment, microrods of both oxides were obtained, which presented exotic stoichiometries Nb22O54 and K6Ta10.8O30, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Ni-Based Coatings for Oil and Gas Industry Fabricated by Cold Gas Spraying
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09388 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 181
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the study of nickel-based coatings fabricated by cold gas spraying. In this study, compositions based on Ni, Ni–Cu, Ni–Zn, and Ni–Al2O3/TiC coatings applied to low-alloyed steel bases were investigated. The composition, type of [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the study of nickel-based coatings fabricated by cold gas spraying. In this study, compositions based on Ni, Ni–Cu, Ni–Zn, and Ni–Al2O3/TiC coatings applied to low-alloyed steel bases were investigated. The composition, type of powder (mechanical mix or mechanically alloying), and thickness varied to choose the optimal characteristics for recovery, repair procedures, and specific applications in the oil and gas industry media. The second phase was added to Ni-based coatings to increase corrosion and wear resistance. Pure nickel coatings were also studied as a benchmark. Corrosion resistance was studied by means of electrochemical testing and autoclave testing in simulated oilfield conditions. Hydroabrasive resistance was studied using a unique testing bench. Scanning electron microscopy mappings, microhardness testing, and adhesion testing were used to correlate the results of the tests with the structure, continuity, and porosity of the studied coatings. It was shown that applying mechanical alloying of the powder did not lead to an effective increase of corrosion and hydroabrasive resistance. All the studied coating specimens have a sufficiently high adhesion. Ni–Zn coating has the lowest corrosion resistance and high hydroabrasive resistance. Ni–Cu coatings have high corrosion and the lowest hydroabrasive resistance. Al2O3/TiC additives give ambiguous results in the studied properties. A thickness of 40–60 microns provides sufficient performance of the studied coatings. Thus, varying chemical composition and thickness of coatings allows for obtaining the optimal qualities of Ni-based coatings made by cold gas spraying for use in the oil and gas industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Aluminum Foams as Permanent Cores in Casting
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09253 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Their low density and high specific stiffness and impact energy/vibration absorption ability make Al-based metal foams promising materials in applications for which a light weight and energy/vibration absorption abilities are crucial. In view of these properties, Al-based foams can be extremely interesting as [...] Read more.
Their low density and high specific stiffness and impact energy/vibration absorption ability make Al-based metal foams promising materials in applications for which a light weight and energy/vibration absorption abilities are crucial. In view of these properties, Al-based foams can be extremely interesting as cores in cast components in order to improve their performances and simplify their whole technological process. However, both in the scientific literature and in technological application, this topic is still poorly explored. In the present work, Al-based metal foams (Cymat foams and Havel metal foams in the form of rectangular bars) are used in a gravity casting experiment of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy (EN AB-46400). The foams were fully characterized before and after insertion in casting. Porosity, cell wall and external skin thickness, microstructure, infiltration degree, and the quality of the interface between the foam core and the dense cast shell, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The analyses evidenced that a continuous and thick external skin protect the foam from infiltration by molten metal, preserving the initial porosity and insert shape. A detailed analysis of the foam’s external skin highlights that the composition of this external skin is crucial for the obtaining of a good joining between the molten metal and the Al foam core. In fact, the presence of Mg oxides on the foam surface prevents bonding, and maintains a gap between the core and the shell. This point opens up the opportunity to design innovative surface modifications for this external skin as promising strategies for the optimization of cast components with a foam core. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Quantitative Description of the Microstructure of Duplex Stainless Steels Using Selective Etching
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09387 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 197
Abstract
: The properties of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) depend on the ferrite–austenite ratio and on the contents of secondary phases. Therefore, it is necessary to control the volume fractions, morphologies, and distribution patterns of all phases. The phases in the samples were identified [...] Read more.
: The properties of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) depend on the ferrite–austenite ratio and on the contents of secondary phases. Therefore, it is necessary to control the volume fractions, morphologies, and distribution patterns of all phases. The phases in the samples were identified using thermodynamic modeling and scanning electron microscopy. Investigated specimens were obtained after different heat treatments, such as solution annealing and quenching from 1050 to 1250 °C to obtain different amounts of ferrite and annealing at 850 °C to precipitate the σ-phase. Therefore, a metallographic technique for assessing the phases in DSSs based on selective etching and subsequent analysis according to ASTM E 1245 was developed. It was shown that the developed method of quantitative analysis based on selective etching and metallographic assessment according to ASTM E 1245 allows obtaining much more accurate results compared to the proposed ASTM E 562 method, which correlates well with the XRD quantitative phase analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Influence of Structural Heterogeneity of High-Strength OCTG Tubes on Sulfide Corrosion Cracking Resistance
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09386 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
High-strength oil country tubular goods (OCTG) like C110, according to standard API 5CT (yield strength at least 758 MPa), are subject to requirements in terms of mechanical and corrosion properties. In this work, we studied the influence of seamless tubes microstructure with a 177.8 [...] Read more.
High-strength oil country tubular goods (OCTG) like C110, according to standard API 5CT (yield strength at least 758 MPa), are subject to requirements in terms of mechanical and corrosion properties. In this work, we studied the influence of seamless tubes microstructure with a 177.8 mm diameter and 10.36 mm wall thickness of class С110 high-strength steel to sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC) and sulfide stress corrosion cracking with low strain rates (SSRT). Tubes were obtained from continuous billets by screw piercing with preliminary quenching and tempering. It was established that cracking during the tests always begins from the inner surface of the tube. Rough segregation bands were found on the inner tube surface, which occupies about a third of the thickness. It is shown that the SSRT assessment technique allows to estimate the threshold value of the resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Effect of Initial Microstructure on Soft Annealing of a Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09246 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 108
Abstract
A low-carbon bainitic tool steel exhibiting high hardness after hot rolling typically has poor machinability. To soften this type of steel and to accelerate the soft annealing process, an austenitizing step was designed based on thermodynamic calculations of phase stability and introduced prior [...] Read more.
A low-carbon bainitic tool steel exhibiting high hardness after hot rolling typically has poor machinability. To soften this type of steel and to accelerate the soft annealing process, an austenitizing step was designed based on thermodynamic calculations of phase stability and introduced prior to the annealing step. Different initial microstructures were prepared by three austenitizing temperatures (680 °C, 850 °C, 1000 °C) and three cooling methods (water quenching, oil quenching, and air cooling). The effect of initial microstructure on microstructures and hardness was studied. Softening equations, a function of annealing temperature and time, were established for different initial microstructures, and the relationships between annealing temperature, annealing time, activation energy, and hardness were explored. The predicted hardness was consistent with the measured values. Martensitic structure has a low activation energy for diffusion and a higher softening rate compared to that of the bainitic structure. In addition, the higher the carbide content in the bainitic structure, the smaller the activation energy tended to be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Recycling-Oriented Design of the Al-Zn-Mg-Ca Alloys
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09250 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Approaches to the design of recycling-tolerant Al-Zn-Mg alloys were formulated to be achieved via combined Ca, Fe, and Si, and appropriate solidification conditions and heat treatment. A CalPhaD calculation and experimental study were employed for analysis of the Al-8%Zn-3%Mg alloy doped with 1–2%Ca, [...] Read more.
Approaches to the design of recycling-tolerant Al-Zn-Mg alloys were formulated to be achieved via combined Ca, Fe, and Si, and appropriate solidification conditions and heat treatment. A CalPhaD calculation and experimental study were employed for analysis of the Al-8%Zn-3%Mg alloy doped with 1–2%Ca, 0.5%Fe, and 0.5%Si. The Al-8%Zn-3%Mg-1%Ca-0.5%Fe-0.5%Si (AlZnMg1CaFeSi) alloy was preliminarily found to be promising since it showed a high equilibrium solidus, and an as-cast structure including curved phases (Al), Al3Fe, Al2CaSi2, Al10CaFe2, and (Al, Zn)4Ca; favouring a further spheroidization response during a two-step annealing at 450 °C, 3 h + 520 °C, 3 h. Furthermore, the alloy showed an excellent age-hardening response (195 HV, T6), which did not yield the values of the base alloy and outperformed the values of the other experimental counterparts. Regarding feasibility, 80% reduction hot rolling was successfully conducted, as well as a brief comparison with commercial 6063 impurity-tolerant alloys. As it showed qualitatively similar structural patterns and Fe and Si alloying opportunities, the AlZnMg1CaFeSi alloy may serve as a sustainable basis for the further development of high-strength aluminum alloys tailored for manufacture from scrap materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Bubble Behavior on Horizontal and Vertical Carbon Anode Surfaces in Cryolite Melt Applying a See-Through Cell
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09238 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 106
Abstract
Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt has been studied by visual observation using a see-through cell. The bubble phenomena studied have included growth, coalescence, and detachment during electrolysis. Two different anode designs were tested, an anode with a [...] Read more.
Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt has been studied by visual observation using a see-through cell. The bubble phenomena studied have included growth, coalescence, and detachment during electrolysis. Two different anode designs were tested, an anode with a horizontal facing-downwards surface and an anode with a vertical surface. At the horizontal anode, it was found that one large bubble was formed by the growth and coalescence of smaller bubbles, and finally, the large bubble detached periodically. For the vertical anode surface, many smaller bubbles were formed and detached randomly. The bubble diameter was decreasing with increasing current density for both anodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Derivation of Appropriate Conditions for Additive Manufacturing Technology Using Hot-Wire Laser Method
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09244 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 118
Abstract
The aim of this research was to develop a high-efficiency and high-material-use additive manufacturing technology using the hot-wire laser method. In this study, the optimization of process conditions using a combination of a high-power diode laser with a relatively large rectangular laser spot [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to develop a high-efficiency and high-material-use additive manufacturing technology using the hot-wire laser method. In this study, the optimization of process conditions using a combination of a high-power diode laser with a relatively large rectangular laser spot and a hot-wire system was investigated. The effects of process parameters such as laser power, process speed, and wire feeding rate (wire feeding speed/process speed) on a bead appearance and cross-sectional characteristics (e.g., effective width, effective height, maximum height, and near net shape rate) were studied in detail. The process phenomena during the multi-layer deposition were investigated by in situ observation via a high-speed camera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Recent Advances in Digital Image Analysis Applied to Metal Forming
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09249 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 86
Abstract
Digital image analysis is used, among other things, to see how an object’s surface changes over time. This technology can be applied to metal forming. A complete literature review of the recent advances in the application of such image analysis to metal forming [...] Read more.
Digital image analysis is used, among other things, to see how an object’s surface changes over time. This technology can be applied to metal forming. A complete literature review of the recent advances in the application of such image analysis to metal forming processes is presented. We analyze how researchers apply the technique to different tests (tensile, bending, or fatigue tests), observing the advantages it presents compared to conventional methods, as well as the advances that have been made regarding the methodology used throughout the last years, including an analysis of the different existing patterns and their application procedures. We found that the image analysis has great applicability and that, in addition, the data obtained through it have high reliability when compared with numerical results. In the paper, the advantages of using Digital Image analysis applied to metals characterization are reviewed, and some examples of using this technique are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Methodology for the Identification of Nucleation Sites in Aluminum Alloy by Use of Misorientatation Mapping
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09251 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 88
Abstract
The fabrication of semi-finished hot and cold rolled sheets includes a complex evolution of both microstructure and texture to meet the demanded mechanical properties and suitable formability characteristics. The desired mechanical properties along with the optimum grain size can be obtained through the [...] Read more.
The fabrication of semi-finished hot and cold rolled sheets includes a complex evolution of both microstructure and texture to meet the demanded mechanical properties and suitable formability characteristics. The desired mechanical properties along with the optimum grain size can be obtained through the control of both recovery and recrystallization processes. This work examines the effect of recovery and recrystallization on the resulting crystallographic texture and on the local plastic deformation. A processing approach for EBSD-KAM (Electron Back Scatter Diffraction—Kernel average misorientation) evaluation is suggested with the purpose of effectively evaluating all the possible misorientation angles in-between the grains and of observing the recovery phenomenon from a different point of view. The results showed that although texture components did not alternate significantly during recovery, the fraction of sub-grain boundaries was increased indicating the completion of recovery at the selected temperature exhibited a maximum value of 90%. The initiation of recrystallization was illustrated by a different aspect, underlying newly formed grains and points which exhibited high misorientation angle, critical for the evolution of the recrystallization process and texture evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Impact of Strain Aging Kinetics on the Failure of Thin Steel Wire Ropes
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09243 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 77
Abstract
Under quasi-static loading an irregular failure mode of high-strength thin-carbon steel cords were observed after low temperature thermal aging. Character and kinetics of damage in such wire ropes highly depend on the plastic elongation of the steel wires, which is significantly modified by [...] Read more.
Under quasi-static loading an irregular failure mode of high-strength thin-carbon steel cords were observed after low temperature thermal aging. Character and kinetics of damage in such wire ropes highly depend on the plastic elongation of the steel wires, which is significantly modified by the strain aging effect. In this paper, the static strain aging effect on heavily drawn high-carbon steel wires and their cords is experimentally studied in the 100–200 °C temperature range. Quantitative analysis of the affected strength and strain parameters is given. Kinetics of the aging process is discussed, and based on this, the macroscopic failure mechanism is fundamentally explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Investigation on Viscosity of CaO-Al2O3 Based Mould Fluxes for the Continuous Casting of High-Al Steels
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09261 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 169
Abstract
In this study, the viscosity of CaO-Al2O3 based mould fluxes with the addition of B2O3 and the effects of increasing the lime/alumina ratio have been observed through IPT (Inclined Plate Test). Additionally, FactSage software, Riboud and Urbain [...] Read more.
In this study, the viscosity of CaO-Al2O3 based mould fluxes with the addition of B2O3 and the effects of increasing the lime/alumina ratio have been observed through IPT (Inclined Plate Test). Additionally, FactSage software, Riboud and Urbain models were used to calculate the viscosity of the mould fluxes. The experimental results show that the viscosity of the mould fluxes decreases dramatically with a change in the lime/alumina ratio from 1 to 1.5. They also show that with an increase in the lime/alumina ratio ranging from 1.5 to 2.5, the viscosity slightly decreases, then when the lime/alumina ratio is over 2.5, the viscosity becomes stable. However, the addition of B2O3 decreases the viscosity of the mould fluxes at a lime/alumina ratio of 1.2, 3.3 and 5.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Reliability Design of Mechanical Systems Such as Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Stresses
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09257 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 142
Abstract
This paper suggests parametric accelerated life testing (ALT) as a systematic reliability technique to generate the reliability quantitative (RQ) specification such as mission cycle for identifying design flaws in mechanical systems as exerting the accelerated load, defined as the reverse of stress ratio, [...] Read more.
This paper suggests parametric accelerated life testing (ALT) as a systematic reliability technique to generate the reliability quantitative (RQ) specification such as mission cycle for identifying design flaws in mechanical systems as exerting the accelerated load, defined as the reverse of stress ratio, R. Parametric ALT therefore is a procedure to improve the fatigue for mechanical products subjected to repetitive loading. It includes: (1) a system BX lifetime shaped on the parametric ALT plan; (2) a fatigue failure and design; (3) tailored ALTs with alternatives; and (4) an assessment of whether the design(s) of the product attains the targeted BX lifetime. A BX life ideas, a life-stress model, and a sample size formulation for parametric ALT are proposed. A reciprocating compressor in a domestic refrigerator is utilized to explain this methodology. The compressor was subjected to repetitive impact loading due to the pressure difference between condenser and evaporator, which results in the compressor field failure. To analyze and conduct parametric ALTs, as mass/energy balance was utilized on the vapor-compression refrigerating cycle, a simple pressure loading of the compressor in operating the refrigerator was investigated. At the first ALT, the compressor was locked due to the fractured suction reed valve made of Sandvik 20C carbon steel (1 C, 0.25 Si, 0.45 Mn). The dominant failure modes of the suction reed valve in the parametric ALTs were established to be very close to that of the fractured product from the marketplace. The root cause of the fatigue failure of the suction reed valve was an amount of overlap between the suction reed valve and the valve plate in combination of repeated pressure loading in the compressor. To supply sufficient mechanical strength, the design faults were altered by the trespan dimensions tumbling process, a ball peening and brushing process for the valve plate. At the second ALT, a compressor was locked due to the intrusion between the crankshaft and the thrust washer. The corrective action plan was to give heat treat the surface of crankshaft made of cast iron (0.45 C, 0.25 Si, 0.8 Mn, 0.03 P). After these alternations, there were no issues at the third ALT. The lifetime of the compressor was ensured to have B1 life 10 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Effect of Cyclic Close Die Forging on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti–5Al–3Mo–1.5V Alloy
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09304 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 140
Abstract
The goal of this work was to study the effects of cyclic close die forging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Al–3Mo–1.5V alloy, which was produced in Vietnam. The factors considered include the deformation temperature (Td), at 850 °C, 900 [...] Read more.
The goal of this work was to study the effects of cyclic close die forging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Al–3Mo–1.5V alloy, which was produced in Vietnam. The factors considered include the deformation temperature (Td), at 850 °C, 900 °C, and 950 °C, and the number of cycles performed while forging in closed die (n)— 3, 6, and 9 times. The responses measured were average grain diameter (dtb) and tensile stress (σb). The results indicate that the smallest average grain size of 1 μm could be obtained at Td = 900 °C, n = 9 times and the tensile stresses were enhanced. The experimental results we obtained also suggest that the microstructure of Ti–5Al–3Mo–1.5V alloy is accordant for superplastic deformation. The superplastic forming of this alloy can show maximum elongation of 1000% or more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Leaching Kinetics of Selenium, Tellurium and Silver from Copper Anode Slime by Sulfuric Acid Leaching in the Presence of Manganese(IV) Oxide and Graphite
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09233 - 06 Feb 2021
Viewed by 110
Abstract
Sulfuric acid leaching of copper anode slime (CAS) in the presence of manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) and graphite was investigated for Se, Te and Ag recovery. The study reveals that the leaching of Se, Te and Ag was facilitated by the galvanic [...] Read more.
Sulfuric acid leaching of copper anode slime (CAS) in the presence of manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) and graphite was investigated for Se, Te and Ag recovery. The study reveals that the leaching of Se, Te and Ag was facilitated by the galvanic interaction with MnO2, and graphite played the role of a catalyst. The leaching process could yield 81.9% Se, 90.8% Te, and 80.7% Ag leaching efficiency when the conditions were maintained as 500 rpm, 2.0 M H2SO4, 0.8/0.8/1 MnO2/graphite/CAS, and 90 °C temperature. The kinetic study showed that Se leaching followed the surface chemical reaction at all the tested temperature range (25–90 °C) with the activation energy of 27.7 kJ/mol. Te and Ag leaching at temperature 25–50 °C followed the mixed and surface chemical reaction models, respectively, and changed to fit the diffusion and mixed control models, respectively, in the temperature range 60–90 °C with the corresponding activation energy of 17.8 and 12.2 kJ/mol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Research on the Friction Properties of DP600 Stainless Steel as a Function of Bending Angle and Pin Diameter
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09248 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 136
Abstract
The rapid evolution of materials and manufacturing processes, driven by global competition and new safety and environmental regulations has had an impact on automotive structures (Body In White; BIW) manufacturing. The need for lighter vehicles, with more equipment, that are safer and eco-friendly [...] Read more.
The rapid evolution of materials and manufacturing processes, driven by global competition and new safety and environmental regulations has had an impact on automotive structures (Body In White; BIW) manufacturing. The need for lighter vehicles, with more equipment, that are safer and eco-friendly at the same time, relates to the entire life cycle of the car. Car and steelmakers agree that weight reduction is possible, and the solution involves the use of new advanced high-strength steels. Thinner and stronger materials lead to higher demands on stamping, the most used manufacturing in BIW parts. The use of advanced high-strength steels raises new challenges, especially concerning the lubrication between the die and the sheet. To study the lubrication conditions of the stamping process, a sheet metal forming a simulator was developed. The simulator consists of two cylinders that pull the strip of steel and a pin in between. The angle between the cylinders can be adjusted from 0 to 90 degrees, which allows analysis of the effect of the stamping angle. The pull force and velocity can be set and measured, and the peripheric pin velocity, the strain, and the strain velocity can be measured as well. In this work, the tribological properties of Dual-Phase 600 stainless steel using different processing conditions have been analyzed. To this end, a factorial experiments design with twelve parameters that compare the behavior of different angles and diameters was run. The results showed that the friction coefficient increases by increasing the bending angle and decreases with pin diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
The Multifunctional Roles of Chitosan in the Formation of Flower-Shaped Palladium Nanoparticles
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09256 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The chemical and physical routes are usually used to synthesize metal nanoparticles. However, the harmful effects on the environment and human health has turned scientists into finding greener methods. We have developed the novel green method for the synthesis of flower Pd nanoparticles [...] Read more.
The chemical and physical routes are usually used to synthesize metal nanoparticles. However, the harmful effects on the environment and human health has turned scientists into finding greener methods. We have developed the novel green method for the synthesis of flower Pd nanoparticles based on the chitosan (CS) polymer. In this method, CS can work as a stabilizer, a shape-directing agent, and a size-controllable agent for the synthesis of these nanoparticles. This study provides pioneer evidence about the multifunctional roles of natural polymers in the preparation of metal nanoparticles. Deep and extensive studies should be conducted to explore the great benefits of natural polymers in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Electromagnetic Processing during Directional Solidification of Particle-Strengthened Aluminum Alloys for Additive Manufacturing
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09255 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 124
Abstract
The rise of metal additive manufacturing technology has increased the demand for high-performance alloys such as metal matrix composites (MMCs). The metallurgical production of MMCs remains a challenge. The nano-powder of dielectric particles does not mix well into the liquid metal because of [...] Read more.
The rise of metal additive manufacturing technology has increased the demand for high-performance alloys such as metal matrix composites (MMCs). The metallurgical production of MMCs remains a challenge. The nano-powder of dielectric particles does not mix well into the liquid metal because of several reasons. On a macroscopic level, the powder is rejected by the molten metal through buoyancy and surface tension forces. On a microscopic level, the particles are held together by Van der Waals forces forming particle agglomerates. Our research strategy is to address these issues separately in two steps. We are investigating an electromagnetically assisted MMC casting method for the production of particle-strengthened, directionally solidified aluminum alloys. In the first step, nanoparticles are mixed into melt while it is in a semi-solid state by efficient permanent magnet stirrers. Then, the alloy is subjected to ultrasound treatment for fine particle dispersion. Semi-continuous casting of MMC is used to obtain material for additive manufacturing process. Material is cast in 6–20 mm rods by a direct chill casting method and can be made into wire with the application of wire-feed additive manufacturing. We investigate the possibility of improving Al alloy SiC composite material properties by applying electromagnetic interactions during solidification. Electric current and a moderate static magnetic field (0.1–0.5 T) creates melt convection in mushy zone. Such interaction enhances heat and mass transfer near the solidification interface and hinders the re-agglomeration of the added particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Microstructural and Thermomechanical Simulation of the Additive Manufacturing Process in 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09237 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Additive manufacturing of an AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was studied via an integrated thermomechanical and microstructural modelling approach. A finite element technique was employed to evaluate the temperature evolution due to successive material deposition. Heat transfer simulations provided the temperature field history, [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing of an AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was studied via an integrated thermomechanical and microstructural modelling approach. A finite element technique was employed to evaluate the temperature evolution due to successive material deposition. Heat transfer simulations provided the temperature field history, required to determine the microstructural evolution. Thermodynamic and kinetic simulations were employed to calculate temporal and spatial distribution of phases and alloying elements upon solidification and subsequent thermal cycling. The ensuing microstructural properties could be provided as an input for a mechanical finite element analysis to calculate, based on local mechanical properties, the residual stresses and distortions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Work-Hardening Behavior of Cold Rolled EUROFER97 Steel for Nuclear Fusion Applications
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09242 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 121
Abstract
The reduced activation martensitic steel EUROFER97 is recognized in Europe as the reference steel for structural applications in future nuclear fusion reactors. Usually, EUROFER97 steel plates are manufactured by hot rolling and successive heat treatments: (1) austenitization at 980 °C for 30 min, [...] Read more.
The reduced activation martensitic steel EUROFER97 is recognized in Europe as the reference steel for structural applications in future nuclear fusion reactors. Usually, EUROFER97 steel plates are manufactured by hot rolling and successive heat treatments: (1) austenitization at 980 °C for 30 min, (2) air cooling, and (3) tempering at 760 °C for 90 min. Recently, thermo-mechanical treatments have been investigated by us with the scope to improve the mechanical properties, namely, to strengthen the steel without reducing its ductility. The experiments involve cold rolling with three reduction rates (30%, 40%, 50%) and, for each of them, heat treatments at different temperatures in the range from 550 °C to 750 °C. The mechanical and microstructural characterization of the samples after successive stages of the process is now underway and present work reports some preliminary results. The characteristics of the samples after cold rolling have been examined by means of hardness tests, metallography, and X-ray diffraction measurements, and work-hardening is discussed in terms of dislocation density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Defect Reduction in Ferritic Stainless Steels through Modelling Plastic Deformation and Metallurgical Evolution
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09236 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Steel products made of ferritic steel can show some defects, such as jagged edges, following the hot rolling process. Aiming to identify the origin of this type of defect in order to help their reduction, an in-depth study has been carried out considering [...] Read more.
Steel products made of ferritic steel can show some defects, such as jagged edges, following the hot rolling process. Aiming to identify the origin of this type of defect in order to help their reduction, an in-depth study has been carried out considering the hot rolling conditions of flat bars made of EN 1.4512 steel. A wide number of references to austenitic stainless steel can be found in literature: almost all the semi-empirical models describing the microstructural evolution during hot deformation refer to austenitic stainless steel. In this work, a comprehensive model for recrystallization and grain growth of the ferritic stainless steel grade EN 1.4512 is proposed, enriching the literature and works regarding ferritic stainless steels. Thermomechanical and metallurgical models have been implemented. The microstructural evolution and the damage of the material were calculated through the coupling of metallurgical and damage models. In the thermomechanical simulations of the roughing passes, three granulometry levels (PFGS) and three heating furnace temperatures were considered. The ferritic grain evolution metallurgical model was obtained by introducing apposite equations. The results highlight that the defect could be produced by process conditions that spark abnormal heating and consequently uncontrolled growth of the grains. The work-hardened grains undergo elongation during hot deformation without recrystallizing. Those grains “squeeze” the surrounding recrystallized grains towards the edges. Thus, on the edges occurs a series of cracks that macroscopically manifest themselves as jagged edges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Extraction of Iron from Russian Red Mud by a Carbothermic Reduction and Magnetic Separation Process
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09247 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Red mud is a hazardous waste of alumina production. Currently, the total accumulated amount of red mud is over 4 billion tons. The promising method of red mud processing is a carbothermic reduction of iron at 1000–1400 °C into metallic form followed by [...] Read more.
Red mud is a hazardous waste of alumina production. Currently, the total accumulated amount of red mud is over 4 billion tons. The promising method of red mud processing is a carbothermic reduction of iron at 1000–1400 °C into metallic form followed by magnetic separation. In this study, the mechanism of carbothermic solid-phase reduction of red mud was investigated. Based on the experimental data, the two-step mechanism of the first rapid stage of the process was proposed, which leads to almost full iron reduction. The estimated value of activation energy has indicated that solid-phase diffusion is a rate-controlling step for this stage. However, an almost full reduction is necessary, but insufficient factor for successful magnetic separation. The second crucial factor of the process is enlargement of iron grain size, which leads to gangue-grain release during grinding and increases efficiency of the magnetic separation. The prediction model of iron grain growth process during the carbothermic reduction process was suggested. The calculation of average size of iron grains formed during the reduction process that was performed according to the assumption of diffusion-controlled process showed their correlation with experimental data. Various methods were proposed to promote the process of iron grain growth during carbothermic reduction of red mud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Predictive Tools for in-Line Isothermal Extrusion of 6xxx Aluminum Alloys
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09239 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 136
Abstract
During the last fifty years, the metal forming of aluminum alloys advanced significantly, leading to a more competitive market on which production rate and overall quality are kept as high as possible. Within the aluminum industries, extrusion plays an important role, since many [...] Read more.
During the last fifty years, the metal forming of aluminum alloys advanced significantly, leading to a more competitive market on which production rate and overall quality are kept as high as possible. Within the aluminum industries, extrusion plays an important role, since many industrial products with structural or even aesthetic functions are realized with this technology. Especially in the automotive industry, the use of aluminum alloys is growing very fast, since it permits a considerable weight loss and thus a reduction of the emission. Nevertheless, the stringent quality standards required don’t allow the use of extruded aluminum alloys produced for common building applications. An important parameter that can be used as an index of the quality of the extruded product is the emergent temperature: if the temperature at the exit of the press is kept constant within a certain limit, products with homogeneous properties and high-quality surface are obtained and the so called “isothermal extrusion” is achieved. As extrusion industries are spread all over the world with different levels of automation and control, a universal but simple on-line tool for determining the best process condition to achieve isothermal extrusion is of particular interest. The aim of this work is to implement this model, which allows evaluation of the thermal gradient which has to be imposed on the billet. Several experiments have been carried out on an industrial extrusion press, and the outer temperature was recorded and compared with the simulated one to demonstrate the model consistency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Abstract
Numerical and Analytical Analysis of the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Notched and Un-Notched 316 L (N) Austenitic Stainless-Steel Samples at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09329 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Smooth and notched mechanical components made of metals frequently experience repeated cyclic loads at different temperatures. Thus, low cycle fatigue (LCF) is considered the dominant failure mode for these components. Stainless steel (SS) is the most widely selected material by engineers owing to [...] Read more.
Smooth and notched mechanical components made of metals frequently experience repeated cyclic loads at different temperatures. Thus, low cycle fatigue (LCF) is considered the dominant failure mode for these components. Stainless steel (SS) is the most widely selected material by engineers owing to its outstanding mechanical and LCF and anti-corrosion properties. Moreover, a reliable estimation of the fatigue life is essential in order to preserve people’s safety in industries. In the present study, an evaluation of some of the commonly known low cycle fatigue life methodologies are performed for notched and un-notched samples made of 316L (N) SS at ambient and higher temperatures. For the notched samples, the elastic–plastic strains were firstly determined and then the fatigue lives were estimated for constant nominal strain amplitudes, varying from ±0.4% to ±0.8%. A comparison between the calculated fatigue lives and those obtained experimentally from the literature was made. Overall, some of the widely used fatigue life prediction methods for smooth specimens have resulted in unsafe estimations for applied strain amplitudes ranging from ±0.3% to ±1.0%, and those of the notched specimens were generally found to give strongly conservative predictions. To overcome this problem, attempts were made to suggest new parameters that can precisely assess the lifetimes of smooth samples, and a new equation was suggested for notched samples under both room and high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Hot Stamping Research Scenarios from the Last Decade
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09245 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Hot stamping technology has shown a significant scientific yield in the last decade. The research activity in that field has spread across several disciplines such as materials science, mechanics, process engineering, instrumentation, physics, or part-tool design engineering. Some recent publications have gathered this [...] Read more.
Hot stamping technology has shown a significant scientific yield in the last decade. The research activity in that field has spread across several disciplines such as materials science, mechanics, process engineering, instrumentation, physics, or part-tool design engineering. Some recent publications have gathered this richness in the format of scientific reviews. This work is aimed to draw a picture of this scientific production in bibliometric terms, which are complementary to the existing reviews. The literature is, in this case, approached from different angles: geographical, collaborative, disseminative, and keyword-based. The first one leads to mapping the share of each region worldwide in advance of the hot stamping technology in terms of scientific production volume. The second angle allows identifying the most productive networks that have been established between institutions and the most influential agents in the field. The third one ranks the most influential journals and events based on citation rates, which indicates where to publish in order to achieve the highest impact. Finally, the fourth approach targets to infer research trends from assessing the keywords employed in the published scientific literature. Altogether, the results show a scenario with Asia as the major player both in volume and networking success, CHS2 as the most relevant event, and exploring alternatives to the conventional AlSi coated 22MnB5 hot stamping as a subject rising of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Determination of the Reaction Rate Controlling Resistance of Goethite Iron Ore Reduction Using CO/CO2 Gases from Wood Charcoal
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09373 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 139
Abstract
In the present work, an attempt is made to use non-contact charcoal in the reduction of run-off mine goethite ore at heating temperatures above 570 °C. The reduction mechanism was adopted, following Levenspiel’s relations for the shrinking core model at different stages of [...] Read more.
In the present work, an attempt is made to use non-contact charcoal in the reduction of run-off mine goethite ore at heating temperatures above 570 °C. The reduction mechanism was adopted, following Levenspiel’s relations for the shrinking core model at different stages of reduction. The non-contact charcoal reduction approach is adopted to maximize the benefit of using CO/CO2 gases from charcoal for reduction without the need for beneficiation and concentration. The rate-controlling steps for the reduction kinetics of average particle sizes 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm at 570, 700, 800, 900, and 1000 °C were studied after heat treatment of the ore-wood charcoal at a total reduction time of 40 min using activated carbon reactor. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses were done to investigate the spectrometric phase change and metallic components of the ore sample after reduction, respectively. The average percentage of the metallic iron content (56.6, 60.8, and 61.7%) and degree of metallization (91.62, 75.96, and 93.6%) are achieved from the SEM/EDX analysis of the reduced ore sample at reduction temperatures of 570, 800, and 1000 °C, respectively. The results indicate the tendency for high carbon deposit at the wustite stage of the reduction process at the lowest of temperature 570oC and the residence time of at 10 min. This study demonstrates that diffusion through the ash layer is the controlling resistance of the overall reduction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Feasibility Study of Ferromagnetic Cores Fabrication by Additive Manufacturing Process
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09241 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Currently, the commercial production of ferromagnetic cores involves staking thin sheets of soft magnetic material, alternating with dielectric material to reduce the eddy current losses. High silicon FeSi steels show excellent soft magnetic properties. Anyway, their workability decreases Si content increases thus imposing [...] Read more.
Currently, the commercial production of ferromagnetic cores involves staking thin sheets of soft magnetic material, alternating with dielectric material to reduce the eddy current losses. High silicon FeSi steels show excellent soft magnetic properties. Anyway, their workability decreases Si content increases thus imposing a technological limit in the production of thin sheets up to 3.5–4% Si. The additive manufacturing (AM) process based on laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) offers the possibility to redesign the magnetic components, compared to conventional design, allowing to act on the chemical composition of magnetic materials and on the geometry of the components. In the case of FeSi alloys, the additive technology allows to overcome the limit of Si content opening new perspectives for the production of ferromagnetic cores with high magnetic performance. In this work the feasibility study on the production of FeSi magnetic steel components by L-PBF technology is reported. Two variants of FeSi steels, with Si content of 3.0 wt.% and 6.5 wt.%, were considered. The effect of process parameters on the densification of manufactured parts was investigated. The best operating window has been identified for both steel chemical compositions, in terms of laser scan speed and power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Optimization of Process Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ADC12 Alloy Aptomat Contact Fabricated by Thixoextrusion
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09240 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The mechanical properties of thixoextrusion components can be improved by controllable processing parameters such as the solid fraction of alloy, holding time, punch velocity, heat treatment and die temperature. In this study, the effects of thixoforming parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of thixoextrusion components can be improved by controllable processing parameters such as the solid fraction of alloy, holding time, punch velocity, heat treatment and die temperature. In this study, the effects of thixoforming parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of thixoextrusion ADC12 alloy Aptomat Contact are studied. ADC12 has excellent castability with high fluidity and low shrinkage rate, so it is widely used in industry, especially in automotive and motorcycle engine part casting. It is a near eutectic alloy with high strength and low ductility (1%). The optimization parameters mechanical properties were investigated by changing the punch velocity, specimen temperature and holding time. The results also indicated optimal value at punch velocity (15 mm/s), specimen temperature (560 °C) and holding time (5 min) which was changed microstructure from eutectic dendrite to globular grain, increasing the ductility (3.3%) of this alloy during the semi-solid forming process while the remaining mechanical properties lead to an increase in the quality of finished parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
Proceedings
Understanding Hot Cracking of Steels during Rapid Solidification: An ICME Approach
Mater. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IEC2M-09254 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 63
Abstract
Cracking is a major problem for several types of steels during additive manufacturing. Non-equilibrium kinetics of rapid solidification and solid–solid phase transformations are critical in determining the cracking susceptibility. Previous studies correlate the hot cracking susceptibility to the solidification sequence, and therefore composition, [...] Read more.
Cracking is a major problem for several types of steels during additive manufacturing. Non-equilibrium kinetics of rapid solidification and solid–solid phase transformations are critical in determining the cracking susceptibility. Previous studies correlate the hot cracking susceptibility to the solidification sequence, and therefore composition, empirically. In this study, an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is used to provide a more mechanistic and quantitative understanding of the hot cracking susceptibility of a number of steels in relation to the peritectic reaction and evolution of δ-ferrite during solidification. The application of ICME and hot cracking susceptibility predictions to alloy design for additive manufacturing is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals)
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