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Eng, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Filter fabrics are often used in the separation of particle-loaded suspensions. Particularly with low concentrations and fine particles, filtration via a fabric is advantageous. During the filtration process, the throughput unavoidably decreases. This can be attributed to the interaction of particles with the tissues, resulting in different pressure losses. Broad knowledge of this interaction is rare and, therefore, for practically any novel filtration task, preliminary tests with different tissue types are necessary to guarantee optimal filtration performance. For this purpose, different tissue-particle types are characterised and analysed for interaction. The aim is to expand the understanding of interacting resistance as a function of particle shape and the possibility of estimating initial filtrate flow for ultrafine filtration. View this paper
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18 pages, 6015 KiB  
Article
Elevated LNG Vapour Dispersion—Effects of Topography, Obstruction and Phase Change
by Felicia Tan, Vincent H. Y. Tam and Chris Savvides
Eng 2021, 2(2), 249-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020016 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
The dispersion of vapour of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally assumed to be from a liquid spill on the ground in hazard and risk analysis. However, this cold vapour could be discharged at height through cold venting. While there is similarity to [...] Read more.
The dispersion of vapour of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally assumed to be from a liquid spill on the ground in hazard and risk analysis. However, this cold vapour could be discharged at height through cold venting. While there is similarity to the situation where a heavier-than-air gas, e.g., CO2, is discharged through tall vent stacks, LNG vapour is cold and induces phase change of ambient moisture leading to changes in the thermodynamics as the vapour disperses. A recent unplanned cold venting of LNG vapour event due to failure of a pilot, provided valuable data for further analysis. This event was studied using CFD under steady-state conditions and incorporating the effect of thermodynamics due to phase change of atmospheric moisture. As the vast majority of processing plants do not reside on flat planes, the effect of surrounding topography was also investigated. This case study highlighted that integral dispersion model was not applicable as key assumptions used to derive the models were violated and suggested guidance and methodologies appropriate for modelling cold vent and flame out situations for elevated vents. Full article
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20 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Wave Attenuation Using a Hybrid of Polymer-Made Artificial Xbloc Wall and Mangrove Root Models
by Adam Ado Sabari, Ashley Richard Oates and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(2), 229-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020015 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3151
Abstract
Rising sea levels, strong wave currents and destructive human activities put coastal areas at risk of erosion and potential flooding. Several countermeasures have been introduced—both artificial and natural—to tackle the issue. This study investigated the effectiveness of the use of hybrid polymer-made artificial [...] Read more.
Rising sea levels, strong wave currents and destructive human activities put coastal areas at risk of erosion and potential flooding. Several countermeasures have been introduced—both artificial and natural—to tackle the issue. This study investigated the effectiveness of the use of hybrid polymer-made artificial Xbloc walls and mangrove root models for protection against water waves. One Xbloc wall was made up of three Xbloc units stacked on top of each other and joined together using water-resistant tape. The artificial models were designed using SolidWorks and AutoCAD software, 3D printed, laser cut and then superglued. The experiment was conducted at Nottingham Trent University Laboratory with a varying combination of single/multiple Xbloc walls and mangrove root models. The change in the wavelength, height, celerity and period was observed for six different model arrangements. The results revealed a successful decrease in the celerity, height and wavelength, as well as the elongation of the wave period (one cycle time). The hybrid arrangement of one Xbloc wall and two mangrove roots provided the best protection, reducing the wavelength, celerity and height by 5.50%, 26.46% and 58.97%, respectively, and also delaying the wave period by 28.34%. The lowest attenuation in the entire wave parameters stated was observed for the arrangement containing only one set of mangrove roots model. Therefore, the wave attenuation using the combined action of 3D printed polymer-made Xbloc walls and mangrove roots was better, because it facilitated the dissipation of wave energy to a greater degree compared to the use of only Xbloc walls or mangrove roots separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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2 pages, 964 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Gaspari et al. A Simplified Algorithm to Predict Indoor Microclimate in Case of Courtyard Covering. A Case Study for the Courtyard of Palazzo Poggi in Bologna. Eng 2020, 1, 222–239
by Jacopo Gaspari, Kristian Fabbri, Vincenzo Vodola, Giorgia Ferretti and Lorenzo Indio
Eng 2021, 2(2), 227-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020014 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 1969
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
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30 pages, 5966 KiB  
Review
Piezoresistive Sensing Approaches for Structural Health Monitoring of Polymer Composites—A Review
by Saad Nauman
Eng 2021, 2(2), 197-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020013 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4806
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an emerging paradigm of real-time in situ structural evaluation for the detection of damage and structural degradation. This is achieved while the structure is kept in-service as against traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques which require scheduled interventions while [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an emerging paradigm of real-time in situ structural evaluation for the detection of damage and structural degradation. This is achieved while the structure is kept in-service as against traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques which require scheduled interventions while the structure is kept offline. SHM offers great advantages over traditional regimens of condition monitoring (CM) by improving structural reliability and safety through timely detection of structural defects also known as “diagnosis”. Polymeric composite materials offer the unique opportunity of integrating different phases for designing self-sensing smart systems capable of self-diagnosis. Polymers are unique in the sense that they can be designed in various configurations as they generally have facile manufacturing procedures. Among other properties, piezoresistance is the one that can be detected in composites in real-time as a function of strain. Conductive polymers including intrinsic and extrinsic conductive polymers can be used to induce piezoresistivity in composites. Careful design procedures can be adopted to maximize the sensitivity of these piezoresistive composites in order to fully exploit the potential of this property for SHM. Various manufacturing/integration strategies can be employed to effectively use piezoresistance in composites for structural health monitoring. These include self-sensing in carbon fiber-reinforced composites, use of surface deposited/mounted sensing films and patterns, integration of filaments and yarns during reinforcement manufacturing or lay-up and impregnation of reinforcements with piezoresistive matrices. A comprehensive review of these techniques is presented with the view of their utility in the SHM of composites. A selection criterion for these techniques is also presented based on sensitivity, manufacturing method and detection capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE))
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16 pages, 4812 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Precoat Layer on the Filtration Properties and Regeneration Quality of Backwashing Filters
by Volker Bächle, Patrick Morsch, Marco Gleiß and Hermann Nirschl
Eng 2021, 2(2), 181-196; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020012 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3910
Abstract
For solid–liquid separation, filter meshes are still used across large areas today, as they offer a cost-effective alternative, for example, compared to membranes. However, particle interaction leads to a continuous blocking of the pores, which lowers the flow rate of the mesh and [...] Read more.
For solid–liquid separation, filter meshes are still used across large areas today, as they offer a cost-effective alternative, for example, compared to membranes. However, particle interaction leads to a continuous blocking of the pores, which lowers the flow rate of the mesh and reduces its lifetime. This can be remedied by filter aids. In precoat filtration, these provide an already fully formed filter cake on the fabric, which acts as a surface and depth filter. This prevents interaction of the particles to be separated with the mesh and thus increases the service life of the mesh. In this work, the influence of a precoat layer with different fibre lengths of cellulose on the filtration behavior is investigated. A satin with a pore size of 11 µm is used as the filter medium. The effects of the precoat layer on the filter media resistance, the filter cake resistance, the turbidity impact, and the regenerability of the fabrics are investigated. This study shows an overview of the suitability of various cellulose fibres based on different aspects as filter aids for particles in ultrafine filtration. Full article
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25 pages, 3805 KiB  
Article
A Critical Review of the Equivalent Stoichiometric Cloud Model Q9 in Gas Explosion Modelling
by Vincent H. Y. Tam, Felicia Tan and Chris Savvides
Eng 2021, 2(2), 156-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020011 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5673
Abstract
Q9 is widely used in industries handling flammable fluids and is central to explosion risk assessment (ERA). Q9 transforms complex flammable clouds from pressurised releases to simple cuboids with uniform stoichiometric concentration, drastically reducing the time and resources needed by ERAs. Q9 is [...] Read more.
Q9 is widely used in industries handling flammable fluids and is central to explosion risk assessment (ERA). Q9 transforms complex flammable clouds from pressurised releases to simple cuboids with uniform stoichiometric concentration, drastically reducing the time and resources needed by ERAs. Q9 is commonly believed in the industry to be conservative but two studies on Q9 gave conflicting conclusions. This efficacy issue is important as impacts of Q9 have real life consequences, such as inadequate engineering design and risk management, risk underestimation, etc. This paper reviews published data and described additional assessment on Q9 using the large-scale experimental dataset from Blast and Fire for Topside Structure joint industry (BFTSS) Phase 3B project which was designed to address this type of scenario. The results in this paper showed that Q9 systematically underpredicts this dataset. Following recognised model evaluation protocol would have avoided confusion and misinterpretation in previous studies. It is recommended that the modelling concept of Equivalent Stoichiometric Cloud behind Q9 should be put on a sound scientific footing. Meanwhile, Q9 should be used with caution; users should take full account of its bias and variance. Full article
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15 pages, 5501 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of an Environmentally Friendly Flood Risk Reduction Approach on the Oman Coastlines during the Gonu Tropical Cyclone (Case Study: The Coastline of Sur)
by Masoud Banan-Dallalian, Mehrdad Shokatian-Beiragh, Aliasghar Golshani, Alireza Mojtahedi, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(2), 141-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020010 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Tropical cyclones may be destructive in the coastal region, such as the Gonu tropical cyclone, which affected the Arabian Peninsula and parts of southern Iran in 2007. In this study, a coupled MIKE 21/3 HD/SW (hydrodynamic/spectral wave) model was used to simulate the [...] Read more.
Tropical cyclones may be destructive in the coastal region, such as the Gonu tropical cyclone, which affected the Arabian Peninsula and parts of southern Iran in 2007. In this study, a coupled MIKE 21/3 HD/SW (hydrodynamic/spectral wave) model was used to simulate the inland flooding inside the Sur port during the Gonu tropical cyclone. The MIKE 21 Cyclone Wind Generation (CWG) tool was utilized to generate the cyclone’s wind and pressure field. The required input data were obtained from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) and imported into the CWG tool. In this study, the wind and pressure fields were compared between the analytical vortex model and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data during the Gonu cyclone passage. Moreover, by developing a new model, artificial Mangroves’ effect on inland flooding was investigated. The results show that, contrary to the ECMWF data, the analytical vortex models well captured the storm event’s wind and pressure field. Furthermore, the flood hazard is calculated based on the inundation depth, flow velocity, and area’s vulnerability. The flood hazard map shows that 5% of the coast is at high-risk, 49% is at medium-risk, and 46% is at low-risk class in the Sur port. By applying Mangroves as flood risk reduction, the high-risk area is almost completely removed. However, medium and low-risk zones increase by 50% and 50%, respectively. This information could be helpful in disaster risk reduction and coastal management in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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15 pages, 7451 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Particles and Filter Fabric in Ultrafine Filtration
by Volker Bächle, Patrick Morsch, Bernd Fränkle, Marco Gleiß and Hermann Nirschl
Eng 2021, 2(2), 126-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020009 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3168
Abstract
Filter fabrics are frequently used in the separation of particle-laden process streams. Especially for low-concentration and fine particles in the micrometer range, separation on filter fabrics offers considerable advantages over alternative processes. In this process, the inflowing particles are prevented from flowing through [...] Read more.
Filter fabrics are frequently used in the separation of particle-laden process streams. Especially for low-concentration and fine particles in the micrometer range, separation on filter fabrics offers considerable advantages over alternative processes. In this process, the inflowing particles are prevented from flowing through the meshes of the fabric. This interaction results in the initial resistance of the filtration not corresponding to the pure water resistance of the filter fabric. Knowledge of this increase in resistance is rare, but it leads to a significant increase in flow resistance, and thus a strong reduction in the hydraulic load on the filter apparatus. Within the scope of this investigation, measurements for 30 filter fabrics and their interaction with 3 particle systems is presented and their effect on the flow behavior is discussed. The knowledge allows an improved design of filter apparatus by correcting the pure water resistance to the resistance with particle interaction and improve the performance of ultra-fine filtration process. Full article
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