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CivilEng, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 9 articles

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19 pages, 3399 KiB  
Review
The Use of Waste Ceramic in Concrete: A Review
by Zahraa Jwaida, Anmar Dulaimi and Luís Filipe Almeida Bernardo
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 482-500; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020024 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Waste ceramic is produced from different sources and, if not reused, is often disposed of in landfills, contributing to the pressure on landfill capacity and potentially releasing toxins into the surrounding environment as ceramics break down over time. The waste can easily be [...] Read more.
Waste ceramic is produced from different sources and, if not reused, is often disposed of in landfills, contributing to the pressure on landfill capacity and potentially releasing toxins into the surrounding environment as ceramics break down over time. The waste can easily be crushed to the required sizes, which has interested many researchers. It has been used as a replacement for concrete constituents, including cement and aggregates. This offers a promising avenue for reducing the environmental impact and promoting sustainable construction practices by reducing the amount of energy consumed and resources required for concrete production, as well as the amount of waste being sent to landfills. This paper aims to provide a review of the use of waste ceramic in concrete. In essence, the paper is divided into several sections. The first section highlights the current environmental issues associated with concrete production and waste disposal. The second section deals with ceramics, its raw materials, production steps, and the different types of waste ceramic used in concrete. A literature review of the use of waste ceramic in concrete was included in the third section. The study reports different research on the use of waste ceramic and its impacts on the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in CivilEng)
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21 pages, 4406 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Sand for Sustainable Construction Performance and Environmental Benefits
by Saurabh Singh, Suraj Kumar Singh, Mohamed Mahgoub, Shahnawaz Ahmed Mir, Shruti Kanga, Sujeet Kumar, Pankaj Kumar and Gowhar Meraj
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 461-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020023 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
This research investigates the potential of utilizing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and recycled sand (RS), derived from crushed concrete cubes, as sustainable alternatives in construction materials. The study comprehensively evaluates the properties of RCA and RS, focusing on workability, impact resistance, abrasion resistance, [...] Read more.
This research investigates the potential of utilizing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and recycled sand (RS), derived from crushed concrete cubes, as sustainable alternatives in construction materials. The study comprehensively evaluates the properties of RCA and RS, focusing on workability, impact resistance, abrasion resistance, and compressive strength to determine their viability as substitute construction materials. A notable finding is RS’s enhanced fire and heat resistance when used as a fine aggregate in mortar blends, mixed with cement and Sinicon PP in a 3:1 ratio. The experimental analysis included thorough assessments of uniformity, durability, and curing time, alongside Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for structural examination. Results show that RCA has an Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) of 5.76% and a Los Angeles Abrasion Value (LAA) of 21.78%, demonstrating excellent strength of the recycled aggregates. The mortar mix was also prepared using recycled sand, cement, and Sinicon PP, and its stability was confirmed through soundness tests, which resulted in a 0.53 mm expansion and a satisfactory consistency level of 44%. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) tests also indicated high-quality concrete formation using RCA and RS. SEM imaging corroborated this by revealing a bond between the cement paste and the aggregates. Incorporating RS and RCA in concrete mixtures impressively yielded a compressive strength of 26.22 N/mm2 in M20-grade concrete. The study concludes that using RCA and RS waste materials in the construction sector underlines that sustainable practices can be integrated without compromising material quality. This approach aligns with sustainable development goals and fosters a more environmentally friendly construction industry. Full article
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26 pages, 4287 KiB  
Systematic Review
Strength and Durability Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) Binders: A Systematic Review
by Desire Runganga, Felix Okonta and Innocent Musonda
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 435-460; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020022 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
South Africa is endowed with a wealth of coal-fired power stations that can produce extremely high volumes of fly ash per year exceeding 34 million tonnes. The use of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) binders in the construction sector has the capacity to significantly [...] Read more.
South Africa is endowed with a wealth of coal-fired power stations that can produce extremely high volumes of fly ash per year exceeding 34 million tonnes. The use of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) binders in the construction sector has the capacity to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with traditional cement production and offset the carbon footprint of Eskom. The excessive production of fly ash by Eskom warrants the need for developing ultra-high-volume fly ash binders (UHVFA, fly ash/binder > 60 wt%). Nonetheless, fly ash (FA) replacement of cement is still largely limited to 35% regardless of more ambitious research indicating the potential to surpass 60%. In view of the urgent need for South Africa to offset and reduce its carbon footprint, this work reviews and summarises the literature on the performance of HVFA binders with a focus on two specific areas: (i) strength and (ii) durability. On HVFA binder strength, the focus is drawn on work that analysed the compressive strength, flexural strength, and split tensile strength. This review focuses on the extant literature analysing the durability of HVFA binders using various tests, including sorptivity, resistivity, permeability, tortuosity, rapid chloride penetration tests, resistance to sulphate attack, and microstructural analysis. As the FA content increases towards optima, i.e., 50–80%, the most indicative composite characteristics of the strength and durability properties are UCS (30–90 MPa) and permeability (low). This review reveals the leading methodologies, instrumentation, findings, challenges, and contradictions. Full article
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15 pages, 11625 KiB  
Article
Non-Linear Dynamics of Simple Elastic Systems Undergoing Friction-Ruled Stick–Slip Motions
by Riccardo Barsotti, Stefano Bennati and Giovanni Migliaccio
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 420-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020021 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The stick–slip phenomenon is a jerking motion that can occur while two objects slide over each other with friction. There are several situations in which this phenomenon can be observed: between the slabs of the friction dampers used to mitigate vibrations in buildings, [...] Read more.
The stick–slip phenomenon is a jerking motion that can occur while two objects slide over each other with friction. There are several situations in which this phenomenon can be observed: between the slabs of the friction dampers used to mitigate vibrations in buildings, as well as between the components of the base isolation systems used for seismic protection. The systems of this kind are usually designed to work in a smooth and flawless manner, but under particular conditions undesired jerking motions may develop, yielding complex dynamic behavior even when only a few degrees of freedom are involved. A simplified approach to the problems of this kind leads to the mechanical model of a rigid block connected elastically to a rigid support and at the same time with friction to a second rigid support, both the supports having a prescribed motion. Despite the apparent simplicity of this model, it is very useful for studying important features of the non-linear dynamics of many physical systems. In this work, after a suitable formulation of the problem, the equations of motion are solved analytically in the sticking and sliding phases, and the influence of the main parameters of the system on its dynamics and limit cycles is investigated and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue "Stability of Structures", in Memory of Prof. Marcello Pignataro)
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25 pages, 10396 KiB  
Article
Seismic Response of RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with FRP ROPES, Using 3D Finite Element: Verification with Real Scale Tests
by Emmanouil Golias, Paul Touratzidis and Chris G. Karayannis
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 395-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020020 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
A 3D-finite element analysis within the numerical program ABAQUS is adopted in order to simulate the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam-column joints and beam-column joints strengthened with CFRP ropes. The suitability of the adopted approach is investigated herein. For this purpose, experimental [...] Read more.
A 3D-finite element analysis within the numerical program ABAQUS is adopted in order to simulate the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam-column joints and beam-column joints strengthened with CFRP ropes. The suitability of the adopted approach is investigated herein. For this purpose, experimental and numerical cyclic tests were performed. The experiments include four reinforced concrete (RC) joints with the same ratio of shear closed-stirrup reinforcement and two different volumetric ratios of longitudinal steel reinforcing bars. Two joints were tested as-built, and the other two were strengthened with CFRP ropes. The ropes were applied as Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforcement, forming an X-shape around the joint body and further as flexural reinforcement at the top and bottom of the beam. The purpose of the externally mounted CFRP ropes is to allow the development of higher values of concrete principal stresses inside the joint core, compared with the specimens without ropes, and also to reduce the developing shear deformation in the joint. From the results, it is concluded that X-shaped ropes reduced the shear deformation in the joint body remarkably, especially in high drifts. Further, as a result of the comparisons between the yielded outcome from the attempted nonlinear analysis and the observed response from the tests, it is deduced that the adopted method sufficiently describes the whole behavior of the RC beam-column connections. In particular, comparisons between experimental and numerical results of principal stresses developing in the joint body of all examined specimens, along with similar comparisons of force displacement envelopes and shear deformations of the joint body, confirmed the adequacy of the applied finite element approach for the investigation of the use of CFRP-ropes as an efficient and easy-to-apply strengthening technique. The findings also reveal that the connections that have been strengthened with the FRP ropes demonstrated improved performance, and the crack system preserved its load capacity during the reversal loading tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in CivilEng)
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17 pages, 7220 KiB  
Article
Railroad Infrastructure Management: A Novel Tool for Automatic Interpretation of GPR Imaging to Minimize Human Intervention in Railroad Inspection
by Ammar Alzarrad, Caleb Wise, Arka Chattopadhyay, Sudipta Chowdhury, Abby Cisko and Jeremy Beasley
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 378-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020019 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Regular monitoring and inspection of military railroad tracks are necessary to ensure the safe transportation of military freight. Manual railroad inspection has drawbacks and limitations that can impact accuracy and efficiency. This study introduces a novel tool designed to automate Ground Penetrating Radar [...] Read more.
Regular monitoring and inspection of military railroad tracks are necessary to ensure the safe transportation of military freight. Manual railroad inspection has drawbacks and limitations that can impact accuracy and efficiency. This study introduces a novel tool designed to automate Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) imaging interpretation for railroad ballast condition assessment, aiming to reduce human intervention in inspections. The tool uses advanced signal processing techniques, such as the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and Wavelet Transform (WT), to quantify ballast fouling levels accurately, enhancing maintenance and safety protocols for railroad tracks. Validation through comprehensive testing, including two case studies, demonstrates the tool’s superior efficacy over traditional manual inspection methods. This research represents a pivotal step towards more efficient and reliable infrastructure management, ensuring critical railroad systems’ safety and operational integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in CivilEng)
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35 pages, 17295 KiB  
Article
Energy-Based Design of Buckling-Restrained Steel Braced Frames for Concurrent Occurrences of Earthquake and Wind
by Taonian Shan and Eric M. Lui
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 343-377; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020018 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
This paper describes the development of a dual hazard spectrum for use in the dynamic analysis of steel frames subject to the combined effects of earthquakes and wind. The proposed spectrum is obtained by combining the power spectra of earthquakes and wind using [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development of a dual hazard spectrum for use in the dynamic analysis of steel frames subject to the combined effects of earthquakes and wind. The proposed spectrum is obtained by combining the power spectra of earthquakes and wind using the square root of the sum of squares (SRSS) combination method. An equivalent time excitation function is then computed using an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) and serves as input for the dynamic analysis. Using time-history analysis on the OpenSees platform, the dynamic responses expressed in terms of peak and residual inter-story and roof drifts for two multistory steel frames located in two US cities (Los Angeles and Charleston) are obtained to demonstrate that designing these buildings based on just one hazard may not be adequate. For frames that are considered under-designed, an energy-based design procedure that uses buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) to dissipate the excess energy imparted to these frames is proposed so they will satisfy the FEMA 356 recommended drift limits for the performance levels of immediate occupancy and life safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in CivilEng)
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16 pages, 4479 KiB  
Review
Modeling Techniques, Seismic Performance, and the Application of Rocking Shallow Foundations: A Review
by Musab Aied Qissab Al-Janabi, Duaa Al-Jeznawi and Luís Filipe Almeida Bernardo
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 327-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020017 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The intriguing rocking behavior of foundations has attracted the attention of both researchers and professionals, owing to its beneficial characteristics such as energy absorption and self-adjusting capability. This paper offers a thorough examination of various modeling techniques, seismic performance evaluation methods, and the [...] Read more.
The intriguing rocking behavior of foundations has attracted the attention of both researchers and professionals, owing to its beneficial characteristics such as energy absorption and self-adjusting capability. This paper offers a thorough examination of various modeling techniques, seismic performance evaluation methods, and the practical application of innovative rocking shallow foundations. While conventional fixed-base designs can absorb seismic energy, they often suffer from lasting damage due to residual deformation. In contrast, rocking foundation structures facilitate controlled rocking movements by loosening the connection between the structure and the foundation, thereby enhancing overall stability. Historical studies dating back to the 19th century demonstrate the effectiveness of rocking foundations in reducing seismic impact and ductility demands, leading to cost savings. Furthermore, this paper extends its focus to contemporary considerations, exploring modern modeling techniques, seismic performance assessments, and practical applications for rocking shallow foundations. By highlighting their role in improving structural resilience, this study investigates seismic hazard analysis, geological factors, and site-specific conditions influencing foundation behavior. It covers essential aspects such as dynamic responses and modeling methodologies, drawing insights from real-world case studies. Through a comprehensive review of both numerical and experimental investigations, the article provides a synthesis of current knowledge and identifies avenues for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structural and Earthquake Engineering)
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20 pages, 12870 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Nature of Cement on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Soil Concretes from Sandy Clay and Laterite
by Alain Kamdem, Emmanuel Elat, Javad Eslami, Jean Chills Amba, Moussa Sali, Michel Mbessa and Albert Noumowé
CivilEng 2024, 5(2), 307-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng5020016 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Soil concrete is a material produced by mixing the soil at the site with a hydraulic binder. This paper aims to study the influence of the nature of binder on the physical and mechanical properties of soil concrete. For the mixtures, three types [...] Read more.
Soil concrete is a material produced by mixing the soil at the site with a hydraulic binder. This paper aims to study the influence of the nature of binder on the physical and mechanical properties of soil concrete. For the mixtures, three types of soil were chosen and studied: sandy clay with a granular class of 0/5 (SA5), laterite with a granular class of 0/5 (LA5), and laterite with a granular class of 0/10 (LA10). Three different cements were used: CEM I 52.5, CEM II 42.5, and CEM III 32.5, with cement contents of 150 and 250 kg/m3. The soil concretes were designed for a constant spread of 32–33 cm measured on a mini-slump. The results showed that LA5-based soil concrete has a higher water content of about 8.8% more than SA5 and LA10-based soil concretes. For all the mixtures, the lowest porosity values were obtained with CEM III 32.5, followed by CEM I 52.5, and finally CEM II 42.5. For the three types of cement and the same soil granular size, the compressive strength, static, and dynamic modulus of SA5-based soil concretes are higher than LA5. It was noted that the mechanical properties of soil concretes made with CEM III 32.5 are higher than those made with CEM I 52.5 and CEM II 42.5. Regardless of the type of cement used, the mechanical properties obtained on LA10-based soil concrete are higher than those on LA5-based soil concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in CivilEng)
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