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IoT, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Federated Learning (FL) is transforming Artificial Intelligence (AI) by enabling collaborative model training among multiple entities in a distributed fashion. With FL, sensitive data remain localized and only model parameters are exchanged with the server entrusted with the overall management of the training process. Despite wide applicability, FL requires AI practitioners to invest vast amounts of time manually configuring monitoring tools. To compensate, FedMon is introduced as a toolkit designed to ease the burden of FL monitoring by seamlessly integrating the probing interface with the FL deployment, automating metric extraction, providing a rich set of system, dataset, model, and experiment-level metrics, and providing the analytic means to assess trade-offs and compare different model training configurations. View this paper
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29 pages, 5577 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Impact of Controlled Ultraviolet Light Intensities on the Growth of Kale Using IoT-Based Systems
by Suttipong Klongdee, Paniti Netinant and Meennapa Rukhiran
IoT 2024, 5(2), 449-477; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020021 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Incorporating Internet of Things (IoT) technology into indoor kale cultivation holds significant promise for revolutionizing organic farming methodologies. While numerous studies have investigated the impact of environmental factors on kale growth in IoT-based smart agricultural systems, such as temperature, humidity, and nutrient levels, [...] Read more.
Incorporating Internet of Things (IoT) technology into indoor kale cultivation holds significant promise for revolutionizing organic farming methodologies. While numerous studies have investigated the impact of environmental factors on kale growth in IoT-based smart agricultural systems, such as temperature, humidity, and nutrient levels, indoor ultraviolet (UV) LED light’s operational efficiencies and advantages in organic farming still need to be explored. This study assessed the efficacy of 15 UV light-controlling indoor experiments in three distinct lighting groups: kale cultivated using conventional household LED lights, kale cultivated using specialized indoor UV lights designed for plant cultivation, and kale cultivated using hybrid household and LED grow lights. The real-time IoT-based monitoring of light, soil, humidity, and air conditions, as well as automated irrigation using a water droplet system, was employed throughout the experiment. The experimental setup for air conditioning maintained temperatures at a constant 26 degrees Celsius over the 45-day study period. The results revealed that a combination of daylight household lights and indoor 4000 K grow lights scored the highest, indicating optimal growth conditions. The second group exposed to warm white household and indoor grow red light exhibited slightly lower scores but larger leaf size than the third group grown under indoor grow red light, likely attributable to reduced light intensity or suboptimal nutrient levels. This study highlights the potential of indoor UV LED light farming to address challenges posed by urbanization and climate change, thereby contributing to efforts to mitigate agricultural carbon emissions and enhance food security in urban environments. This research contributes to positioning kale as a sustainable organic superfood by optimizing kale cultivation. Full article
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40 pages, 5216 KiB  
Review
Towards 6G Technology: Insights into Resource Management for Cloud RAN Deployment
by Sura F. Ismail and Dheyaa Jasim Kadhim
IoT 2024, 5(2), 409-448; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020020 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Rapid advancements in the development of smart terminals and infrastructure, coupled with a wide range of applications with complex requirements, are creating traffic demands that current networks may not be able to fully handle. Accordingly, the study of 6G networks deserves attention from [...] Read more.
Rapid advancements in the development of smart terminals and infrastructure, coupled with a wide range of applications with complex requirements, are creating traffic demands that current networks may not be able to fully handle. Accordingly, the study of 6G networks deserves attention from both industry and academia. Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged for application in the optimization and design process of new 6G networks. The developmental trend of 6G is towards effective resource management, along with the architectural improvement of the current network and hardware specifications. Cloud RAN (CRAN) is considered one of the major concepts in sixth- and fifth-generation wireless networks, being able to improve latency, capacity, and connectivity to huge numbers of devices. Besides bettering the current set-up in terms of setting the carriers’ network architecture and hardware specifications, among other potential enablers, the developmental trend of 6G also means that there must be effective resource management. As a result, this study covers a thorough analysis of resource management plans in CRAN, optimization, and AI taxonomy, and how AI integration might enhance existing resource management. Full article
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28 pages, 5240 KiB  
Article
Multi-Hospital Management: Combining Vital Signs IoT Data and the Elasticity Technique to Support Healthcare 4.0
by Gabriel Souto Fischer, Gabriel de Oliveira Ramos, Cristiano André da Costa, Antonio Marcos Alberti, Dalvan Griebler, Dhananjay Singh and Rodrigo da Rosa Righi
IoT 2024, 5(2), 381-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020019 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Smart cities can improve the quality of life of citizens by optimizing the utilization of resources. In an IoT-connected environment, people’s health can be constantly monitored, which can help identify medical problems before they become serious. However, overcrowded hospitals can lead to long [...] Read more.
Smart cities can improve the quality of life of citizens by optimizing the utilization of resources. In an IoT-connected environment, people’s health can be constantly monitored, which can help identify medical problems before they become serious. However, overcrowded hospitals can lead to long waiting times for patients to receive treatment. The literature presents alternatives to address this problem by adjusting care capacity to demand. However, there is still a need for a solution that can adjust human resources in multiple healthcare settings, which is the reality of cities. This work introduces HealCity, a smart-city-focused model that can monitor patients’ use of healthcare settings and adapt the allocation of health professionals to meet their needs. HealCity uses vital signs (IoT) data in prediction techniques to anticipate when the demand for a given environment will exceed its capacity and suggests actions to allocate health professionals accordingly. Additionally, we introduce the concept of multilevel proactive human resources elasticity in smart cities, thus managing human resources at different levels of a smart city. An algorithm is also devised to automatically manage and identify the appropriate hospital for a possible future patient. Furthermore, some IoT deployment considerations are presented based on a hardware implementation for the proposed model. HealCity was evaluated with four hospital settings and obtained promising results: Compared to hospitals with rigid professional allocations, it reduced waiting time for care by up to 87.62%. Full article
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25 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Investigating Radio Frequency Vulnerabilities in the Internet of Things (IoT)
by Eirini Anthi, Lowri Williams, Vasilis Ieropoulos and Theodoros Spyridopoulos
IoT 2024, 5(2), 356-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020018 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 882
Abstract
With the increase in the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the security threat they face has become more pervasive. Recent research has demonstrated that most IoT devices are insecure and vulnerable to a range of cyber attacks. The impact of such [...] Read more.
With the increase in the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the security threat they face has become more pervasive. Recent research has demonstrated that most IoT devices are insecure and vulnerable to a range of cyber attacks. The impact of such attacks can vary significantly, from affecting the service of the device itself to putting their owners and their personal information at risk. As a response to improving their security, the focus has been on attacks, specifically on the network layer. However, the importance and impact of other vulnerabilities, such as low-level Radio Frequency (RF) attacks, have been neglected. Such attacks are challenging to detect, and they can be deployed using non-expensive equipment and can cause significant damage. This paper explores security vulnerabilities that target RF communications on popular commercial IoT devices such as Wi-Fi, Zigbee, and 433 Mz. Using software-defined radio, a range of attacks were deployed against the devices, including jamming, replay attacks, packet manipulation, protocol reverse engineering, and harmonic frequency attacks. The results demonstrated that all devices used were susceptible to jamming attacks, and in some cases, they were rendered inoperable and required a hard reset to function correctly again. This finding highlights the lack of protection against both intentional and unintentional jamming. In addition, all devices demonstrated that they were susceptible to replay attacks, which highlights the need for more hardened security measures. Finally, this paper discusses proposals for defence mechanisms for enhancing the security of IoT devices against the aforementioned attacks. Full article
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24 pages, 990 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Transmissions for Batteryless Periodic Sensing
by Cheng-Sheng Peng and Chao Wang
IoT 2024, 5(2), 332-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020017 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Batteryless, self-sustaining embedded sensing devices are key enablers for scalable and long-term operations of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While advancements in both energy harvesting and intermittent computing have helped pave the way for building such batteryless IoT devices, a present challenge is [...] Read more.
Batteryless, self-sustaining embedded sensing devices are key enablers for scalable and long-term operations of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While advancements in both energy harvesting and intermittent computing have helped pave the way for building such batteryless IoT devices, a present challenge is a system design that can utilize intermittent energy to meet data requirements from IoT applications. In this paper, we take the requirement of periodic data sensing and describe the hardware and software of a batteryless IoT device with its model, design, implementation, and evaluation. A key finding is that, by estimating the non-linear hardware charging and discharging time, the device software can make scheduling decisions that both maintain the selected sensing period and improve transmission goodput. A hardware–software prototype was implemented using an MSP430 development board and LoRa radio communication technology. The proposed design was empirically compared with one that does not consider the non-linear hardware characteristics. The result of the experiments illustrated the nuances of the batteryless device design and implementation, and it demonstrated that the proposed design can cover a wider range of feasible sensing rates, which reduces the restriction on this parameter choice. It was further demonstrated that, under an intermittent supply of power, the proposed design could still keep the device functioning as required. Full article
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21 pages, 4414 KiB  
Article
Integration of IoT Technologies for Enhanced Monitoring and Control in Hybrid-Powered Desalination Systems: A Sustainable Approach to Freshwater Production
by Alaa M. Odeh and Isam Ishaq
IoT 2024, 5(2), 311-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020016 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
In the face of our rapidly expanding global population, the necessity of meeting the fundamental needs of every individual is more pressing than ever. Human survival depends upon access to water, making it a vital resource that demands novel solutions to ensure universal [...] Read more.
In the face of our rapidly expanding global population, the necessity of meeting the fundamental needs of every individual is more pressing than ever. Human survival depends upon access to water, making it a vital resource that demands novel solutions to ensure universal availability. Although our planet is abundant in water, 97.5% of it is saltwater, compelling nations to investigate ways to make it suitable for consumption. Seawater desalination is becoming increasingly vital for water sustainability. While seawater desalination offers a solution, existing methods often grapple with high energy consumption and maintaining consistent water quality. This paper proposes a novel hybrid water desalination system that addresses these limitations. Our system leverages solar energy, a readily available renewable resource, to power the desalination process, significantly improving its environmental footprint and operational efficiency. Additionally, we integrated a network of sensors and the Internet of Things (IoT) to enable the real-time monitoring of system performance and water quality. This allows for the immediate detection and improvement in any potential issues, ensuring the consistent production of clean drinking water. By combining solar energy with robust quality control via IoT, our hybrid desalination system offers a sustainable and reliable approach to meet the growing demand for freshwater. Full article
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21 pages, 2475 KiB  
Article
Addressing Vulnerabilities in CAN-FD: An Exploration and Security Enhancement Approach
by Naseeruddin Lodge, Nahush Tambe and Fareena Saqib
IoT 2024, 5(2), 290-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020015 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The rapid advancement of technology, alongside state-of-the-art techniques is at an all-time high. However, this unprecedented growth of technological prowess also brings forth potential threats, as oftentimes the security encompassing these technologies is imperfect. Particularly within the automobile industry, the recent strides in [...] Read more.
The rapid advancement of technology, alongside state-of-the-art techniques is at an all-time high. However, this unprecedented growth of technological prowess also brings forth potential threats, as oftentimes the security encompassing these technologies is imperfect. Particularly within the automobile industry, the recent strides in technology have brought about increased complexity. A notable flaw lies in the CAN-FD protocol, which lacks robust security measures, making it vulnerable to data theft, injection, replay, and flood data attacks. With the rising complexity of in-vehicular networks and the widespread adoption of CAN-FD, the imperative to safeguard the protocol has never been more crucial. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing in-vehicle communication protocol, CAN-FD. It explores existing security approaches designed to fortify CAN-FD, demonstrating multiple multi-layer solutions that leverage modern techniques including Physical Unclonable Function (PUF), Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC), Ethereum Blockchain, and Smart contracts. The paper highlights existing multi-layer security measures that offer minimal overhead, optimal performance, and robust security. Moreover, it identifies areas where these security measures fall short and discusses ongoing research along with suggestions for implementing software and hardware-level modifications. These proposed changes aim to streamline complexity, reduce overhead while ensuring forward compatibility. In essence, the methods outlined in this study are poised to excel in real-world applications, offering robust protection for the evolving landscape of in-vehicular communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Edge Computing Systems for IoT)
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19 pages, 8269 KiB  
Article
Development, Implementation and Evaluation of An Epidemic Communication System
by Naoki Yamada, Takefumi Hiraguri, Tomotaka Kimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Yoshihiro Takemura and Takahiro Matsuda
IoT 2024, 5(2), 271-289; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020014 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 800
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to discuss epidemic communication for drones to share information in flight and to develop a wireless system for implementation. Various theoretical studies have been conducted on epidemic communication, but their applications are not clear, so a system [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to discuss epidemic communication for drones to share information in flight and to develop a wireless system for implementation. Various theoretical studies have been conducted on epidemic communication, but their applications are not clear, so a system that assumes practical use is developed. As the main evaluation items, we analyzed the effect of communication interference between drones on the amount of data transmission, and furthermore, proposed an optimal transmission method depending on the flight speed. In these analysis results, we designed functions to be implemented in drones, developed wireless devices, and confirmed their operation through demonstration tests using actual drones. Based on the results of this research, we succeeded in identifying issues to be addressed in order to implement the system on drones and in developing an epidemic communication system based on the results of demonstration experiments, thereby contributing to the realization of inter-drone communication in the future. Full article
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21 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Smart Agriculture Drone for Crop Spraying Using Image-Processing and Machine Learning Techniques: Experimental Validation
by Edward Singh, Aashutosh Pratap, Utkal Mehta and Sheikh Izzal Azid
IoT 2024, 5(2), 250-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020013 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Smart agricultural drones for crop spraying are becoming popular worldwide. Research institutions, commercial companies, and government agencies are investigating and promoting the use of technologies in the agricultural industry. This study presents a smart agriculture drone integrated with Internet of Things technologies that [...] Read more.
Smart agricultural drones for crop spraying are becoming popular worldwide. Research institutions, commercial companies, and government agencies are investigating and promoting the use of technologies in the agricultural industry. This study presents a smart agriculture drone integrated with Internet of Things technologies that use machine learning techniques such as TensorFlow Lite with an EfficientDetLite1 model to identify objects from a custom dataset trained on three crop classes, namely, pineapple, papaya, and cabbage species, achieving an inference time of 91 ms. The system’s operation is characterised by its adaptability, offering two spray modes, with spray modes A and B corresponding to a 100% spray capacity and a 50% spray capacity based on real-time data, embodying the potential of Internet of Things for real-time monitoring and autonomous decision-making. The drone is operated with an X500 development kit and has a payload of 1.5 kg with a flight time of 25 min, travelling at a velocity of 7.5 m/s at a height of 2.5 m. The drone system aims to improve sustainable farming practices by optimising pesticide application and improving crop health monitoring. Full article
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23 pages, 1384 KiB  
Article
FedMon: A Federated Learning Monitoring Toolkit
by Moysis Symeonides, Demetris Trihinas and Fotis Nikolaidis
IoT 2024, 5(2), 227-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020012 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Federated learning (FL) is rapidly shaping into a key enabler for large-scale Artificial Intelligence (AI) where models are trained in a distributed fashion by several clients without sharing local and possibly sensitive data. For edge computing, sharing the computational load across multiple clients [...] Read more.
Federated learning (FL) is rapidly shaping into a key enabler for large-scale Artificial Intelligence (AI) where models are trained in a distributed fashion by several clients without sharing local and possibly sensitive data. For edge computing, sharing the computational load across multiple clients is ideal, especially when the underlying IoT and edge nodes encompass limited resource capacity. Despite its wide applicability, monitoring FL deployments comes with significant challenges. AI practitioners are required to invest a vast amount of time (and labor) in manually configuring state-of-the-art monitoring tools. This entails addressing the unique characteristics of the FL training process, including the extraction of FL-specific and system-level metrics, aligning metrics to training rounds, pinpointing performance inefficiencies, and comparing current to previous deployments. This work introduces FedMon, a toolkit designed to ease the burden of monitoring FL deployments by seamlessly integrating the probing interface with the FL deployment, automating the metric extraction, providing a rich set of system, dataset, model, and experiment-level metrics, and providing the analytic means to assess trade-offs and compare different model and training configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Edge Computing Systems for IoT)
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15 pages, 1126 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Automatic Modulation Recognition for IoT Applications Using Transformers
by Narges Rashvand, Kenneth Witham, Gabriel Maldonado, Vinit Katariya, Nishanth Marer Prabhu, Gunar Schirner and Hamed Tabkhi
IoT 2024, 5(2), 212-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020011 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Automatic modulation recognition (AMR) is vital for accurately identifying modulation types within incoming signals, a critical task for optimizing operations within edge devices in IoT ecosystems. This paper presents an innovative approach that leverages Transformer networks, initially designed for natural language processing, to [...] Read more.
Automatic modulation recognition (AMR) is vital for accurately identifying modulation types within incoming signals, a critical task for optimizing operations within edge devices in IoT ecosystems. This paper presents an innovative approach that leverages Transformer networks, initially designed for natural language processing, to address the challenges of efficient AMR. Our Transformer network architecture is designed with the mindset of real-time edge computing on IoT devices. Four tokenization techniques are proposed and explored for creating proper embeddings of RF signals, specifically focusing on overcoming the limitations related to the model size often encountered in IoT scenarios. Extensive experiments reveal that our proposed method outperformed advanced deep learning techniques, achieving the highest recognition accuracy. Notably, our model achieved an accuracy of 65.75 on the RML2016 and 65.80 on the CSPB.ML.2018+ dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Edge Computing Systems for IoT)
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25 pages, 9966 KiB  
Article
Development of a Multi-Radio Device for Dry Container Monitoring and Tracking
by Mariano Falcitelli, Misal, Sandro Noto and Paolo Pagano
IoT 2024, 5(2), 187-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot5020010 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Maritime shipping companies have identified continuous tracking of intermodal containers as a key tool for increasing shipment reliability and generating important economies of scale. Equipping all dry containers with an Internet-connected tracking device is a need in the global shipping market that is [...] Read more.
Maritime shipping companies have identified continuous tracking of intermodal containers as a key tool for increasing shipment reliability and generating important economies of scale. Equipping all dry containers with an Internet-connected tracking device is a need in the global shipping market that is still waiting to be met. This paper presents the methods and tools to build and test a prototype of a Container Tracking Device (CTD) that integrates NB-IoT, BLE Mesh telecommunication and low-power consumption technologies for the massive deployment of the IoT. The work was carried out as part of a project to build the so-called “5G Global Tracking System”, enabling several different logistic applications relying on massive IoT, M2M standard platforms, as well as satellite networks to collect data from dry containers when the vessel is in open sea. Starting from a preliminary phase, in which state-of-the-art technologies, research approaches, industrial initiatives and developing standards were investigated, a prototype version of the CTD has been designed, verified and developed as the first fundamental step for subsequent industrial engineering. The results of specific tests are shown: after verifying that the firmware is capable of handling the various functions of the device, a special focus is devoted to the power consumption measurements of the CTD to size the battery pack. Full article
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