Next Issue
Volume 5, September
Previous Issue
Volume 5, March
 
 

Acoustics, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Typically, background noise of different types and levels is present during the measurement of the impulse response in spaces. The two methods that are most frequently used in practice for the measurement of the impulse response are the exponential sine sweep (ESS) and the maximum length sequence (MLS). The estimation of the impact of background noise (white noise, tonal noise) on the acoustic parameters (e.g., T30, EDT, C80, and D50) for ESS and MLS measurements can be assessed by introducing artificial background noise (with varying levels), employing an external sound source and comparing the results with measurements without the addition of artificial background noise. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 5318 KiB  
Article
The Bell-Shaped Opera Houses Realised by Antonio Galli Bibiena: Acoustic Comparison between the Communal Theatre of Bologna and the Scientific Theatre of Mantua
by Antonella Bevilacqua and Lamberto Tronchin
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 586-600; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020036 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Many acoustic studies have been carried out in the Italian theatres built during the 17th and 18th centuries. Along with the development of technology, acoustic measurements become increasingly more accurate, able to capture the faithful acoustic conditions of these cultural heritage buildings that [...] Read more.
Many acoustic studies have been carried out in the Italian theatres built during the 17th and 18th centuries. Along with the development of technology, acoustic measurements become increasingly more accurate, able to capture the faithful acoustic conditions of these cultural heritage buildings that are considered icons for representing the house of sound. Although considered controversial for their innovative geometry and shape, the plan layouts proposed by the architect Antonio Galli Bibiena for the theatres placed in Bologna and Mantua were remarkable and appreciated by the audience given the florid artistical program run over the seasons. Site were undertaken in order to analyse the acoustic response of the main halls. From the recorded impulse response, both monoaural and binaural acoustic parameters were compared between the two theatres, where the analysis separately considered the stalls and balconies. The historical background of the selected theatres was detailed to understand the acoustic behaviour of the main halls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Materials and Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2764 KiB  
Article
Limitations of Curl and Directional Filters in Elastography
by Kevin J. Parker
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 575-585; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020035 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
In the approaches to elastography, two mathematical operations have been frequently applied to improve the final estimate of shear wave speed and shear modulus of tissues. The vector curl operator can separate out the transverse component of a complicated displacement field, and directional [...] Read more.
In the approaches to elastography, two mathematical operations have been frequently applied to improve the final estimate of shear wave speed and shear modulus of tissues. The vector curl operator can separate out the transverse component of a complicated displacement field, and directional filters can separate distinct orientations of wave propagation. However, there are practical limitations that can prevent the intended improvement in elastography estimates. Some simple configurations of wavefields relevant to elastography are examined against theoretical models within the semi-infinite elastic medium and guided waves in a bounded medium. The Miller–Pursey solutions in simplified form are examined for the semi-infinite medium and the Lamb wave symmetric form is considered for the guided wave structure. In both cases, we examine simple but practical wave combinations that can prevent the curl and directional filter operations from directly providing an improved measure of shear wave speed and shear modulus. Additional factors including signal-to-noise and the support of filters also restrict the applicability of these strategies for improving elastographic measures. Thus, some implementations of shear wave excitations applied to the body and to bounded structures within the body are shown to involve waves that are not easily resolved by the vector curl operator and directional filters. These limitations may be overcome by more advanced strategies or simple improvements in baseline parameters including the size of the region of interest and the number of shear waves propagated within. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Ultrasound Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Effects of Varying Levels of Background Noise on Room Acoustic Parameters, Measured with ESS and MLS Methods
by Nikolaos M. Papadakis, Smaro Antoniadou and Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 563-574; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020034 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Typically, background noise of different types and levels is present during the measurement of the impulse response in spaces. The two methods that are, in practice, most frequently used in the measurement of the impulse response, are the exponential sine sweep (ESS), and [...] Read more.
Typically, background noise of different types and levels is present during the measurement of the impulse response in spaces. The two methods that are, in practice, most frequently used in the measurement of the impulse response, are the exponential sine sweep (ESS), and the maximum length sequence (MLS). This study’s objective was to estimate the impact of background noise (white noise, tonal noise) on the acoustic parameters (T30, EDT, C80, and D50) for ESS and MLS measurements, by introducing artificial background noise, employing an external sound source. For this purpose, measurements were performed with varying levels of external noise (in steps of 2 dB), and the effect was assessed, using the relative error compared to measurements without artificial background noise. According to the findings for white noise (as background noise), in the case of T30 and EDT, the difference between the two methods, as well as the relative error, for the initial levels of added background noise, was small. However, for higher levels of added background noise, there was a sharp increase in the relative error, which was greater for the ESS method, both for T30 and EDT. Regarding C80 and D50, while initially the differences between the ESS and MLS methods were small, cumulatively, as the background noise increased, the relative error increased for both methods, with the ESS method showing the largest error. In the case of tonal noise (as background noise), the results were consistent with those observed in the case of white noise. The study’s findings contribute to a better understanding of the ESS and MLS methods, and suggest the expected relative error of acoustic parameters when various types and levels of background noise are present. Additionally, the study suggests, based on background noise and level, the optimum method to conduct impulse response measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise Control for Healthy and Enhanced Acoustic Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3866 KiB  
Article
An Acoustic Simulation Method of the Japanese Vowels /i/ and /u/ by Using the Boundary Element Method
by Mami Shiraishi, Katsuaki Mishima, Masahiro Takekawa, Masaaki Mori and Hirotsugu Umeda
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 553-562; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020033 - 6 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1719
Abstract
This study aimed to establish and verify the validity of an acoustic simulation method during sustained phonation of the Japanese vowels /i/ and /u/. The study participants were six healthy adults. First, vocal tract models were constructed based on computed tomography (CT) data, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to establish and verify the validity of an acoustic simulation method during sustained phonation of the Japanese vowels /i/ and /u/. The study participants were six healthy adults. First, vocal tract models were constructed based on computed tomography (CT) data, such as the range from the frontal sinus to the glottis, during sustained phonation of /i/ and /u/. To imitate the trachea, after being virtually extended by 12 cm, cylindrical shapes were then added to the vocal tract models between the tracheal bifurcation and the lower part of the glottis. Next, the boundary element method and the Kirchhoff–Helmholtz integral equation were used for discretization and to represent the wave equation for sound propagation, respectively. As a result, the relative discrimination thresholds of the vowel formant frequencies for /i/ and /u/ against actual voice were 1.1–10.2% and 0.4–9.3% for the first formant and 3.9–7.5% and 5.0–12.5% for the second formant, respectively. In the vocal tract model with nasal coupling, a pole–zero pair was observed at around 500 Hz, and for both /i/ and /u/, a pole–zero pair was observed at around 1000 Hz regardless of the presence or absence of nasal coupling. Therefore, the boundary element method, which produces solutions by analysis of boundary problems rather than three-dimensional aspects, was thought to be effective for simulating the Japanese vowels /i/ and /u/ with high validity for the vocal tract models encompassing a wide range, from the frontal sinuses to the trachea, constructed from CT data obtained during sustained phonation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4785 KiB  
Article
IIR Cascaded-Resonator-Based Complex Filter Banks
by Miodrag D. Kušljević, Vladimir V. Vujičić, Josif J. Tomić and Predrag D. Poljak
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 535-552; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020032 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
The use of a filter bank of IIR filters for the spectral decomposition and analysis of signals has been popular for many years. As such, a new filter-bank resonator-based structure, representing an extremely hardware-efficient structure, has received a good deal of attention. Recently, [...] Read more.
The use of a filter bank of IIR filters for the spectral decomposition and analysis of signals has been popular for many years. As such, a new filter-bank resonator-based structure, representing an extremely hardware-efficient structure, has received a good deal of attention. Recently, multiple-resonator (MR)-based and general cascaded-resonator (CR)-based filters have been proposed. In comparison to single-resonator-based analyzers, analyzers with a higher multiplicity of resonators in the cascade provide lower side lobes and a higher attenuation in stopbands. In previous works, it was shown that the CR-based filter bank with infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, which is numerically more efficient than one with finite impulse response (FIR) filters, is suitable for dynamic harmonic analysis. This paper uses the same approach to design complex digital filter banks. In the previous case, the optimization task referred to the frequency responses of harmonic filters. In this work, the harmonic filters of the mother filter bank are reshaped so that the frequency response of the sum (or difference, depending on the parity of the number of resonators in the cascade) of two adjacent harmonic filters is optimized. This way, an online adaptive filter base can be obtained. The bandwidth of the filters in the designed filter bank can be simply changed online by adding or omitting the output signals of the corresponding harmonics of the mother filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics (2nd Edition))
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Automatic CHIEF Point Selection for Finite Element–Boundary Element Acoustic Backscattering
by Petr Krysl and Ahmad T. Abawi
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 522-534; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020031 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Computing the backscattering of harmonic acoustic waves from underwater elastic targets of arbitrary shapes is a challenging problem of considerable practical significance. The finite element method is well suited for the discretization of the target, while the boundary element method addresses the radiation [...] Read more.
Computing the backscattering of harmonic acoustic waves from underwater elastic targets of arbitrary shapes is a challenging problem of considerable practical significance. The finite element method is well suited for the discretization of the target, while the boundary element method addresses the radiation boundary condition at infinity. A disadvantage of the boundary integral method is that it yields non-unique solutions at certain wavenumbers. This failure is associated with the existence of eigensolutions of the Helmholtz equation in the interior of the complement of the fluid domain (acoustic modes). The combined Helmholtz integral equation formulation (CHIEF) credited to Schenk is employed to combine the surface Helmholtz boundary integral with equations of the interior Helmholtz relation written down at selected points within the cavity of the scatterer (i.e., in the complement of the fluid domain).The difficulty associated with this approach has always been the lack of guidance on the necessary number of interior points and on their locations. The solution to this problem proposed here is to compute the acoustic modes using the finite element method to complement of the fluid domain and to identify locations of the peaks.This novel approach aids the decision as to how many points should be employed and where they should be located. Our numerical experiments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed automatic selection of the CHIEF points’ numbers and locations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2954 KiB  
Article
Interference of Echo-Signals from Two Buried Spherical Targets
by Natalie S. Grigorieva, Fiodor F. Legusha, Dmitry V. Nikushchenko and Kirill S. Safronov
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 509-521; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020030 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1734
Abstract
A numerically efficient technique is presented for computing the backscattered fields from two spherical targets embedded in an underwater sediment. The bottom is assumed to be a homogeneous liquid attenuating half-space. The transmitter/receiver is located in a homogeneous water half-space. The distances between [...] Read more.
A numerically efficient technique is presented for computing the backscattered fields from two spherical targets embedded in an underwater sediment. The bottom is assumed to be a homogeneous liquid attenuating half-space. The transmitter/receiver is located in a homogeneous water half-space. The distances between the transmitter/receiver and objects of interest are supposed to be large compared to the acoustic wavelengths in water and seabed. In simulations, the spherical scatterers of the same radius are assumed to be acoustically rigid. The interactions between two spheres are not taken into account because of the strong attenuation in the bottom. The scattering from one sphere in a wide frequency range is determined using the Hackman and Sammelmann’s general approach. The arising scattering coefficients of the sphere are evaluated using the steepest descent method. The obtained asymptotic expressions for the scattering coefficients essentially allowed to decrease a number of summands in the formula for the form-function of the backscattered acoustic field. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 4682 KiB  
Article
Key Factors That Influence the Frequency Range of Measured Leak Noise in Buried Plastic Water Pipes: Theory and Experiment
by Oscar Scussel, Michael J. Brennan, Fabrício Cézar L. de Almeida, Mauricio K. Iwanaga, Jennifer M. Muggleton, Phillip F. Joseph and Yan Gao
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 490-508; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020029 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
The frequency range of the leak noise in buried water pipes, measured using acoustic correlators, depends significantly on the type of pipe and its location as well as the type of sensors used. Having a rough idea of this frequency range can be [...] Read more.
The frequency range of the leak noise in buried water pipes, measured using acoustic correlators, depends significantly on the type of pipe and its location as well as the type of sensors used. Having a rough idea of this frequency range can be beneficial for operators prior to conducting tests; however, there is currently no method of predicting it except through practical experience, and no model-based approach yet exists. This issue is addressed in the present paper by using a concise and relatively simple analytical model of the water-pipe–soil system combined with the sensors’ frequency response. The influence of the various physical parameters of the system, such as the pipe and soil properties and the sensor type, on the cross-power spectral density (CPSD) of leak noise signals and, furthermore, the frequency range are investigated. The main factors that affect the bandwidth are the distance between the sensors, wave speed of the predominantly fluid-borne wave in the pipe and the attenuation of this wave. It is shown that the external medium has a profound effect on the propagation and, in turn, on the bandwidth. The approach to predicting this bandwidth is validated using experimental data from three different test sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1250 KiB  
Article
Experimental Methodology to Characterize the Noise Paths in a Horizontal-Axis Washing Machine
by Cristian Albero and Beatriz Sánchez-Tabuenca
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 476-489; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020028 - 9 May 2023
Viewed by 2267
Abstract
In this paper, an experimental methodology to characterize the noise paths in a washing machine with a horizontal axis was developed. The noise paths considered in this research were the noise that escapes through holes, the non-resonant path through the panels, and the [...] Read more.
In this paper, an experimental methodology to characterize the noise paths in a washing machine with a horizontal axis was developed. The noise paths considered in this research were the noise that escapes through holes, the non-resonant path through the panels, and the noise radiated by the panels of the cabinet. The characterization method was based on several sound intensity measurements on the outside panels of the washing machine. In addition to these measurements, characterization of the radiation factor was performed by applying a method that relates intensity and vibration measurements while the structure of the washing machine is excited using a shaker. Applying the methodology to a washing machine, the main transmission path of the noise along the frequency domain where this home appliance has its highest values was identified. This methodology can provide the manufacturer with a guide to improve the acoustic performance of washing machines by applying noise control solutions in the noise path depending on the frequency domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3433 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Radiation of a Beam Subjected to Transverse Load
by Ante Skoblar, Goranka Štimac Rončević, Domagoj Lanc and Sanjin Braut
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 462-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020027 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 1776
Abstract
In this paper, the dynamic response of a Euler–Bernoulli beam subjected to transverse harmonic forces is calculated. The method of separation of variables combined with the mode shape superposition method, which includes the determination of eigenvalues, is used to define the velocity field [...] Read more.
In this paper, the dynamic response of a Euler–Bernoulli beam subjected to transverse harmonic forces is calculated. The method of separation of variables combined with the mode shape superposition method, which includes the determination of eigenvalues, is used to define the velocity field of the beam surface. The Rayleigh integral was used to calculate the sound radiation and the beam was placed in an infinite baffle. Additional actuators are introduced in order to minimize the sound radiation, or, more specifically, the total sound power level of the vibrating beam, and their optimal position and force amplitude are determined; the conclusions were drawn from the optimization results. This paper proposes a method for faster determination of the optimal actuator parameters in order to achieve the minimum total sound power level. The validity of the obtained results is demonstrated with examples, whose solutions are compared to the results in the published literature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 640 KiB  
Review
Implication of Altered Acoustic Active Space for Cetacean Species That Result from Soundscape Changes and Noise Additions
by Rianna Burnham and David Duffus
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 444-461; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020026 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Organisms use multi-modal, scale-dependent, sensory information to decipher their surroundings. This can include, for example, recognizing the presence of con- or heterospecifics, including a predatory threat, the presence and abundance of prey, or navigational cues to travel between breeding or feeding areas. Here [...] Read more.
Organisms use multi-modal, scale-dependent, sensory information to decipher their surroundings. This can include, for example, recognizing the presence of con- or heterospecifics, including a predatory threat, the presence and abundance of prey, or navigational cues to travel between breeding or feeding areas. Here we advocate for the use of the concept of active space to understand the extent to which an individual might be sending and receiving habitat information, describing this as the active component of their niche space. We present the use of active space as a means to understand ecological interactions, giving focus to those species whose active space is acoustically defined, in particular, cetacean species. We show how the application of estimates of active space, and changes in extent, can help better understand the potential disturbance effects of changes in the soundscape, and be a useful metric to estimate possible adverse effects even when stress responses, or behavioral or calling modifications are not obvious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects on Wildlife from Changing Soundscapes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4774 KiB  
Article
An Assessment of Persistent Acoustic Monitoring of a Nuclear Reactor during Full Power Generation
by Edna S. Cárdenas, Samuel K. Takazawa, Milton A. Garcés, David L. Chichester, Riley D. Hunley and Chris D. Young
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 429-443; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020025 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Persistent low-frequency (<180 Hz) acoustic detection took place within the boundaries of Oak Ridge National Laboratory to monitor full power operations of the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Three acoustic sensors were installed at distances of 69, 101, and 914 m from the northeast [...] Read more.
Persistent low-frequency (<180 Hz) acoustic detection took place within the boundaries of Oak Ridge National Laboratory to monitor full power operations of the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Three acoustic sensors were installed at distances of 69, 101, and 914 m from the northeast corner of the cooling towers to monitor and assess four reactor power generation cycles. Features were extracted from power spectral density calculations where data were collected during reactor on and off operations. Diverse spectral features were present during full reactor power, including a 21.4 Hz fundamental frequency and ascending harmonics. Using bandpass filters, these related frequencies were isolated and summed, and the root mean square energy was calculated. The method of isolating and summing characteristic features provided a significant improvement in identifying acoustic behavior related to reactor power when the raw signals were obscured by noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Position and Review Papers in Acoustics Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4539 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Distributed Speed Feedback Control of Turbulent Boundary Layer Excitation Curved Plates Radiation Noise
by Dapeng Wei, Bilong Liu and Ludi Kang
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 414-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020024 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1751
Abstract
The control of decentralized velocity feedback on curved aircraft plates under turbulent boundary layer excitations is numerically investigated in this paper. Sixteen active control units are set on the plate to reduce the vibration and sound radiation of the plate. The computational results [...] Read more.
The control of decentralized velocity feedback on curved aircraft plates under turbulent boundary layer excitations is numerically investigated in this paper. Sixteen active control units are set on the plate to reduce the vibration and sound radiation of the plate. The computational results from the two methods are compared to verify the accuracy of the numerical model. The plate kinetic energy and the radiated sound power under turbulent boundary layer and control unit excitations are analyzed. The influences of control unit distribution, plate thickness and curvature on radiated sound are discussed. Unlike a flat plate, the control of the lower-order high radiation modes of a curved plate under TBL excitations is critical since these modes predominate the sound radiations. The control of these modes, however, is sensitive to the ratio of the stiffness associated with the membrane tensions to the stiffness associated with the bending forces. This ratio implies that the plate curvature and the thickness play an important role in the control effect. When the plate is thinner and the radius is smaller, the control is less effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Control of Sound and Vibration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 11769 KiB  
Article
Reviving the Low-Frequency Response of a Rupestrian Church by Means of FDTD Simulation
by Francesco Martellotta, Stefania Liuzzi and Chiara Rubino
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 396-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020023 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
Rupestrian churches are spaces obtained from excavation of soft rocks that are frequently found in many Mediterranean countries. In the present paper the church dedicated to Saints Andrew and Procopius, located close to the city of Monopoli in Apulia (Italy) is studied. On-site [...] Read more.
Rupestrian churches are spaces obtained from excavation of soft rocks that are frequently found in many Mediterranean countries. In the present paper the church dedicated to Saints Andrew and Procopius, located close to the city of Monopoli in Apulia (Italy) is studied. On-site acoustical measures were made, obtaining a detailed description of the acoustics in the current state pointing out, thanks to a combination of analysis techniques, the presence of significant modal behavior in the low frequencies, causing reverberation time to be about 2 s, four times longer than in the other bands, as well as being strongly dependent on source and receiver position (with variations of about 1 s when source is moved outside the chancel). However, as the church is characterized by significant degradation of surfaces and large amounts of debris cover the floor, the original acoustic conditions can be expected to somewhat differ. Acoustical modelling can be very helpful in grasping the original conditions, but given the small dimensions of the space, conventional geometrical acoustic prediction methods cannot be applied to simulate the low-frequency behavior. Thus, the present paper proposes an application of finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) computation to simulate the low-frequency behavior and analyze a possible reconstruction of the original state. Results showed that a very good agreement was obtained between predictions and measurements, both in terms of resonance frequencies and reverberation times that differed by less than 5%. Modal response strongly affected the acoustical conditions also in the hypothetical reconstruction of the original state, although the sound field proved to be more uniform than in the current state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 610 KiB  
Review
A Review of Finite Element Methods for Room Acoustics
by Albert G. Prinn
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 367-395; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020022 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6023
Abstract
Accurate predictions of the wave-dominated region of an acoustic field in a room can be generated using wave-based computational methods. One such method is the finite element method (FEM). With presently available computing power and advanced numerical techniques, it is possible to obtain [...] Read more.
Accurate predictions of the wave-dominated region of an acoustic field in a room can be generated using wave-based computational methods. One such method is the finite element method (FEM). With presently available computing power and advanced numerical techniques, it is possible to obtain FEM predictions of sound fields in rooms with complicated geometries and complex boundary conditions in realistic time frames. The FEM has been continuously developed since its inception and attempts to provide solutions in real time using finite element-based methods are beginning to appear in the literature; these developments are especially interesting for auralization and virtual acoustics applications. To support these efforts, and provide a resource for neophytes, the use of the FEM for room acoustics is reviewed in this article. A history is presented alongside examples of the method’s derivation, implementation, and solutions. The current challenges and state-of-the-art are also presented, and it is found that the most recent contributions to the field make use of one or a mixture of the following: the finite element-based discontinuous Galerkin method, extended reaction boundary conditions written in the frequency domain but solved in the time domain, and the solution of large-scale models using parallel processing and graphics processing units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Materials and Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

0 pages, 2011 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Noise Inside Neonatal Incubators under Free-Field Conditions
by Francisco Fernández-Zacarías, Juan Luis Beira-Jiménez, Virginia Puyana-Romero and Ricardo Hernández-Molina
Acoustics 2023, 5(2), 354-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5020021 - 26 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2278
Abstract
The study aims to diagnose the sound pressure levels inside incubators in a controlled environment under free-field conditions. The tests were carried out in a semi-anechoic room under the standard UNE-EN ISO 3745:2012/A1:2018 in three different operating states: off, on, and on with [...] Read more.
The study aims to diagnose the sound pressure levels inside incubators in a controlled environment under free-field conditions. The tests were carried out in a semi-anechoic room under the standard UNE-EN ISO 3745:2012/A1:2018 in three different operating states: off, on, and on with a temperature alarm triggered. Sound pressure levels were analyzed in three different models of incubators, both inside and outside. The main noise indices analyzed were the corrected equivalent continuous level (LKeq) and the equivalent continuous level (Leq) in third-octave bands. The results obtained under normal operating conditions showed variations among the different incubators, with overall values between 48.8 and 56.3 dBA. The influence of the alarm considerably worsened these data. The values obtained showed that premature newborns are exposed to noise levels above international recommendations. All incubators tested showed the presence of tonal components, both outside and inside the incubator cabin, and, in some cases, low-frequency components, but no impulsivity components were observed in any case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop