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Acoustics, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 14 articles

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Article
Superdirective Robust Algorithms’ Comparison for Linear Arrays
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 707-718; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030038 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Frequency-invariant beam patterns are often required by systems using an array of sensors to process broadband signals. In some experimental conditions (small devices for underwater acoustic communication), the array spatial aperture is shorter than the involved wavelengths. In these conditions, superdirective beamforming is [...] Read more.
Frequency-invariant beam patterns are often required by systems using an array of sensors to process broadband signals. In some experimental conditions (small devices for underwater acoustic communication), the array spatial aperture is shorter than the involved wavelengths. In these conditions, superdirective beamforming is essential for an efficient system. We present a comparison between two methods that deal with a data-independent beamformer based on a filter-and-sum structure. Both methods (the first one numerical, the second one analytic) formulate a mathematical convex minimization problem, in which the variables to be optimized are the filters coefficients or frequency responses. The goal of the optimization is to obtain a frequency invariant superdirective beamforming with a tunable tradeoff between directivity and frequency-invariance. We compare pros and cons of both methods measured through quantitative metrics to wrap up conclusions and further proposed investigations. Full article
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Article
Identification of Noise Sources in a Realistic Turbofan Rotor Using Large Eddy Simulation
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 691-706; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030037 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Large Eddy Simulation is performed using the NASA Source Diagnostic Test turbofan at approach conditions (62% of the design speed). The simulation is performed in a periodic domain containing one fan blade (rotor-alone configuration). The aerodynamic and acoustic results are compared with experimental [...] Read more.
Large Eddy Simulation is performed using the NASA Source Diagnostic Test turbofan at approach conditions (62% of the design speed). The simulation is performed in a periodic domain containing one fan blade (rotor-alone configuration). The aerodynamic and acoustic results are compared with experimental data. The dilatation field and the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) are employed to reveal the noise sources around the rotor. The trailing-edge radiation is effective starting from 50% of span. The strongest DMD modes come from the tip region. Two major noise contributors are shown, the first being the tip noise and the second being the trailing-edge noise. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings’ (FWH) analogy is used to compute the far-field noise from the solid surface of the blade. The analogy is computed for the full blade, for its tip region (outer 20% of span) and for lower 80% of span to see the contribution of the latter. The acoustics spectrum below 6 kHz is dominated by the tip part (tip noise), whereas the rest of the blade (trailing-edge noise) contributes more beyond that frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Article
Tonal-Noise Assessment of Quadrotor-Type UAV Using Source-Mode Expansions
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 674-690; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030036 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The present work deals with the modeling of the aerodynamic sound generated by the propellers of small-size drones, taking into account the effects of horizontal forward flight with negative pitch and of installation on supporting struts. Analytical aeroacoustic formulations are used, dedicated to [...] Read more.
The present work deals with the modeling of the aerodynamic sound generated by the propellers of small-size drones, taking into account the effects of horizontal forward flight with negative pitch and of installation on supporting struts. Analytical aeroacoustic formulations are used, dedicated to the loading noise. The fluctuating lift forces on the blades are expanded as circular distributions of acoustic dipoles, the radiated field of which is calculated by using the free-space Green’s function. This provides descriptions of the sound field, valid in the entire space. The stationary mean-flow distortions responsible for the lift fluctuations and at the origin of the sound are estimated from existing numerical flow simulations and from ad hoc models. Installation and forward-flight effects are found to generate much more sound than the steady loading on the blades associated with thrust. Therefore, the models are believed reliable fast-running tools that could be used for preliminary low-noise design through repeated parametric calculations, or for noise-impact estimates corresponding to prescribed urban traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Article
Derivation of Lighthill’s Eighth Power Law of an Aeroacoustic Quadrupole in Acoustic Spacetime
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 666-673; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030035 - 08 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Acoustic spacetime is a four-dimensional manifold analogue to the relativistic spacetime with the reference speed of light replaced by the speed of sound. It has been established primarily for the indirect studies of relativistic phenomena by means of their better understood acoustic analogues. [...] Read more.
Acoustic spacetime is a four-dimensional manifold analogue to the relativistic spacetime with the reference speed of light replaced by the speed of sound. It has been established primarily for the indirect studies of relativistic phenomena by means of their better understood acoustic analogues. More recently, it has also been used for the analytical treatment of sound propagation in various uniform and non-uniform flows of the background fluid. In this paper the analogy is extended and utilized to derive Lighthill’s eight power law for sound generation of an aeroacoustic quadrupole. Adding to the existing analogue theory, propagating sound waves are described in terms of a weak perturbation of the background acoustic spacetime metric. The obtained result proves that the acoustic analogy can be extended to cover both weak perturbation of the fluid due to the sound waves and certain sound generation mechanisms, at least in incompressible low Mach number flows. Full article
Article
Audio Feedback for Device-Supported Balance Training: Parameter Mapping and Influencing Factors
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 650-665; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030034 - 29 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Recent studies suggest that real-time auditory feedback is an effective method to facilitate motor learning. The evaluation of the parameter mapping (sound-to-movement mapping) is a crucial, yet frequently neglected step in the development of audio feedback. We therefore conducted two experiments to evaluate [...] Read more.
Recent studies suggest that real-time auditory feedback is an effective method to facilitate motor learning. The evaluation of the parameter mapping (sound-to-movement mapping) is a crucial, yet frequently neglected step in the development of audio feedback. We therefore conducted two experiments to evaluate audio parameters with target finding exercises designed for balance training. In the first experiment with ten participants, five different audio parameters were evaluated on the X-axis (mediolateral movement). Following that, in a larger experiment with twenty participants in a two-dimensional plane (mediolateral and anterior-posterior movement), a basic and synthetic audio model was compared to a more complex audio model with musical characteristics. Participants were able to orient themselves and find the targets with the audio models. In the one-dimensional condition of experiment one, percussion sounds and synthetic sound wavering were the overall most effective audio parameters. In experiment two, the synthetic model was more effective and better evaluated by the participants. In general, basic sounds were more helpful than complex (musical) sound models. Musical abilities and age were correlated with certain exercise scores. Audio feedback is a promising approach for balance training and should be evaluated with patients. Preliminary evaluation of the respective parameter mapping is highly advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Soundscape: Integrating Sound, Experience and Architecture)
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Article
ACAT1 Benchmark of RANS-Informed Analytical Methods for Fan Broadband Noise Prediction: Part II—Influence of the Acoustic Models
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 617-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030033 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
A benchmark dedicated to RANS-informed analytical methods for the prediction of turbofan rotor–stator interaction broadband noise was organised within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. The second part of this benchmark focuses on the impact of the acoustic models. Twelve different approaches [...] Read more.
A benchmark dedicated to RANS-informed analytical methods for the prediction of turbofan rotor–stator interaction broadband noise was organised within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. The second part of this benchmark focuses on the impact of the acoustic models. Twelve different approaches implemented in seven different acoustic solvers are compared. Some of the methods resort to the acoustic analogy, while some use a direct approach bypassing the calculation of a source term. Due to differing application objectives, the studied methods vary in terms of complexity to represent the turbulence, to calculate the acoustic response of the stator and to model the boundary and flow conditions for the generation and propagation of the acoustic waves. This diversity of approaches constitutes the unique quality of this work. The overall agreement of the predicted sound power spectra is satisfactory. While the comparison between the models show significant deviations at low frequency, the power levels vary within an interval of ±3 dB at mid and high frequencies. The trends predicted by increasing the rotor speed are similar for almost all models. However, most predicted levels are some decibels lower than the experimental results. This comparison is not completely fair—particularly at low frequency—because of the presence of noise sources in the experimental results, which were not considered in the simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Communication
The Effect of Deviation Due to the Manufacturing Accuracy in the Parameters of an MPP on Its Acoustic Properties: Trial Production of MPPs of Different Hole Shapes Using 3D Printing
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 605-616; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030032 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
In this study, we discuss the effect of the manufacturing accuracy of a microperforated panel (MPP) produced by 3D printers on acoustic properties through measured and calculated results as a pilot study. The manufacturing costs of MPPs have long been one of their [...] Read more.
In this study, we discuss the effect of the manufacturing accuracy of a microperforated panel (MPP) produced by 3D printers on acoustic properties through measured and calculated results as a pilot study. The manufacturing costs of MPPs have long been one of their shortcomings; however, with recent developments in the manufacturing process, low-cost MPPs are now available. In a further attempt at reducing the cost, 3D printing techniques have recently been considered. Cases of trial production of MPPs manufactured by 3D printing have been reported. When introducing such new techniques, despite the conventional microdrill procedure, manufacturing accuracy can often become an issue. However, there are few studies reporting the effect of manufacturing accuracy on the acoustic properties in the case of 3D-printed MPPs. Considering this situation, in this pilot study, we attempted to produce MPPs with circular and rectangular perforations using a consumer 3D printer of the additive manufacturing type. The hole sizes of the specimens were measured, and the accuracy was evaluated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient and specific impedance were measured using an impedance tube. The measured results were compared with the theoretical values using Guo’s model. Through these basic studies, the MPPs produced by an additive manufacturing 3D printer demonstrated good sound absorption performance; however, due to the large deviations of parameters, the agreement with the theoretical values was not good, which suggests that it is difficult to predict the acoustic properties of MPPs made by a consumer-grade additive manufacturing 3D printer. Full article
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Article
Application of Waveguide Invariant Theory to Analysis of Interference Phenomenon in Deep Ocean
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 595-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030031 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
When a hydrophone is deployed under the critical depth in deep ocean, the interference pattern will be complex and variable. The waveguide invariant is no longer constant and is treated as a distribution. The interference pattern is impacted by refracted and surface reflected [...] Read more.
When a hydrophone is deployed under the critical depth in deep ocean, the interference pattern will be complex and variable. The waveguide invariant is no longer constant and is treated as a distribution. The interference pattern is impacted by refracted and surface reflected (RSR) modes, as well as surface reflected and bottom reflected (SRBR) modes together. This phenomenon is illustrated by numerical simulation and explained by the waveguide invariant theory in this paper. The theory demonstrates: (1) The interference pattern in zone-b corresponds to the waveguide invariant βRSR that varies quickly and leads to the slope change, which is contributed by RSR modes whose phase velocity is less than the sound velocity at seafloor; (2) The interference pattern in zone-a1 and zone-c1 is corresponding to the βSRBRWS that is the approximately 0.7 and leads to the stable slope, which is contributed by SRBR modes whose phase velocity is between the sound velocity at seafloor and sediment velocity; (3) The interference pattern in zone-a2 and zone-c2 is corresponding to the βSRBRSH which hardly varies at low frequency but varies fiercely with source frequency increasing, so the striations are complex with high frequency, which is contributed by SRBR modes whose phase speed is between sediment speed and half space speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics)
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Article
Applicability of Aeroacoustic Scaling Laws of Leading Edge Serrations for Rotating Applications
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 579-594; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030030 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The dominant aeroacoustic mechanisms of serrated leading edges, subjected to highly turbulent inflow conditions, can be compressed to spanwise decorrelation effects as well as effects of destructive interference. For single aerofoils, the resulting broadband noise reduction is known to follow spectral scaling laws. [...] Read more.
The dominant aeroacoustic mechanisms of serrated leading edges, subjected to highly turbulent inflow conditions, can be compressed to spanwise decorrelation effects as well as effects of destructive interference. For single aerofoils, the resulting broadband noise reduction is known to follow spectral scaling laws. However, transferring serrated leading edges to rotating machinery, results in noise radiation patterns of significantly increased complexity, impeding to allocate the observed noise reduction to the underlying physical mechanisms. The current study aims at concatenating the scaling laws for stationary aerofoil and rotating-blade application and thus at providing valuable information on the aeroacoustic transferability of leading edge serrations. For the pursued approach, low-pressure axial fans are designed, obtaining identical serrated fan blade geometries than previously analyzed single aerofoils, hence allowing for direct comparison. Highly similar spectral noise reduction patterns are obtained for the broadband noise reduction of the serrated rotors, generally confirming the transferability and showing a scaling with the geometrical parameters of the serrations as well as the inflow conditions. Continuative analysis of the total noise reduction, however, constrains the applicability of the scaling laws to a specific operating range of the rotors and motivates for a devaluation of the scaling coefficients regarding additional rotor-specific effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Article
ACAT1 Benchmark of RANS-Informed Analytical Methods for Fan Broadband Noise Prediction—Part I—Influence of the RANS Simulation
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 539-578; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030029 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
A benchmark of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-informed analytical methods, which are attractive for predicting fan broadband noise, was conducted within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. This paper discusses the first part of the benchmark, which investigates the influence of the RANS inputs. [...] Read more.
A benchmark of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-informed analytical methods, which are attractive for predicting fan broadband noise, was conducted within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. This paper discusses the first part of the benchmark, which investigates the influence of the RANS inputs. Its companion paper focuses on the influence of the applied acoustic models on predicted fan broadband noise levels. While similar benchmarking activities were conducted in the past, this benchmark is unique due to its large and diverse data set involving members from more than ten institutions. In this work, the authors analyze RANS solutions performed at approach conditions for the ACAT1 fan. The RANS solutions were obtained using different CFD codes, mesh resolutions, and computational settings. The flow, turbulence, and resulting fan broadband noise predictions are analyzed to pinpoint critical influencing parameters related to the RANS inputs. Experimental data are used for comparison. It is shown that when turbomachinery experts perform RANS simulations using the same geometry and the same operating conditions, the most crucial choices in terms of predicted fan broadband noise are the type of turbulence model and applied turbulence model extensions. Chosen mesh resolutions, CFD solvers, and other computational settings are less critical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Article
Numerical Investigation of Influence of Entropy Wave on the Acoustic and Wall Heat Transfer Characteristics of a High-Pressure Turbine Guide Vane
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 524-538; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030028 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
As an indirect noise source generated in the combustion chamber, entropy waves are widely prevalent in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. In the present work, the influence of entropy waves on the downstream flow field of a turbine guide vane is investigated. The [...] Read more.
As an indirect noise source generated in the combustion chamber, entropy waves are widely prevalent in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. In the present work, the influence of entropy waves on the downstream flow field of a turbine guide vane is investigated. The work is mainly based on a well-known experimental configuration called LS89. Two different turbulence models are used in the simulations which are the standard k-ω model and the scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) model. In order to handle the potential transition issue, Menter’s ð-Reθ transition model is coupled with both models. The baseline cases are first simulated with the two different turbulence models without any incoming perturbation. Then one forced case with an entropy wave train set at the turbine inlet at a given frequency and amplitude is simulated. Results show that the downstream maximum Mach number is rising from 0.98 to 1.16, because the entropy waves increase the local temperature of the flow field; also, the torque of the vane varies as the entropy waves go through, the magnitude of the oscillation is 7% of the unforced case. For the wall (both suction and pressure side of the vane) heat transfer, the entropy waves make the maximum heat transfer coefficient nearly twice as the large at the leading edge, while the minimum heat transfer coefficient stays at a low level. As for the averaged normalized heat transfer coefficient, a maximum difference of 30% appears between the baseline case and the forced case. Besides, during the transmission process of entropy waves, the local pressure fluctuates with the wake vortex shedding. The oscillation magnitude of the pressure wave at the throat is found to be enhanced due to the inlet entropy wave by applying the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) method. Moreover, the transmission coefficient of the entropy waves, and the reflection and transmission coefficients of acoustic waves are calculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Article
The Effect on Room Acoustical Parameters Using a Combination of Absorbers and Diffusers—An Experimental Study in a Classroom
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 505-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030027 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Several room acoustic parameters have to be considered in ordinary public rooms, such as offices and classrooms, in order to present the actual conditions, thus increasing demands on the acoustic treatment. The most common acoustical treatment in ordinary rooms is a suspended absorbent [...] Read more.
Several room acoustic parameters have to be considered in ordinary public rooms, such as offices and classrooms, in order to present the actual conditions, thus increasing demands on the acoustic treatment. The most common acoustical treatment in ordinary rooms is a suspended absorbent ceiling. Due to the non-uniform distribution of the absorbent material, the classical diffuse field assumption is not fulfilled in such cases. Further, the sound scattering effect of non-absorbing objects such as furniture are considerable in these types of rooms. Even the directional characteristic of the sound scattering objects are of importance. The sound decay curve in rooms with absorbent ceilings often demonstrate a double slope. Thus, it is not possible to use reverberation time as room parameter as a representative standalone acoustic measure. An evaluation that captures the true room acoustical conditions therefore needs supplementary parameters. The aim of this experimental study is to show how various acoustical treatments affect reverberation time T20, speech clarity C50 and sound strength G. The experiment was performed in a mock-up of a classroom. The results demonstrated how absorbers, diffusers and scattering objects influence room acoustical parameters. It is shown that to some extent the parameters can be adjusted individually by using different treatments or combination of treatments. This allows for the fine-tuning of the acoustical conditions, in order to fulfill the requirements for achieving a high-quality sound environment. Full article
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Article
Climate Change, Security, Sensors
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 474-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030026 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
A concise threefold illustration is given: (i) of climate change on the gigayear (Ga) time scale through the nanosecond (nsec) time scale, (ii) of the role of the performance of solid materials, concerning both manmade and natural structures with [...] Read more.
A concise threefold illustration is given: (i) of climate change on the gigayear (Ga) time scale through the nanosecond (nsec) time scale, (ii) of the role of the performance of solid materials, concerning both manmade and natural structures with reference to security, and (iii) of the exploitation of the electrostatic energy of the atmospheric electrical circuit—which is an enormous reservoir of natural “clean” energy. Several unfortunate misunderstandings are highlighted that bias the present generally agreed beliefs. The typical natural pace of the Earth’s “electrocardiogram”, ~27.4 Ma, is such that, at present, for the first time humankind must challenge an Earth’s “heartbeat”. A correct use of sensors is needed to get an efficient monitoring of the ongoing climate change. Both anthropic and natural drivers are to be considered. A brief reminder is given about sensors that ought to monitor solid materials—with application (i) to every kind of machinery, building, viaduct or bridge, vehicle, aircraft, rocket, etc. and (ii) for a correct (and unprecedented) monitoring of the electric field at ground, which is the prerequisite for the exploitation of the electrostatic energy of the atmosphere. In every case, a systemic approach is always needed. Every specialized investigation often misses the true physics of phenomena. The resulting great complication can be tackled by means of suitable approximate and “simple” models, which always have to be correctly tested. The impact on the biosphere is manifested as a steady regeneration of microorganisms at the deep ocean floors, supplied by endogenous CH4. Microorganisms are thus the beginning of an ever rejuvenating food chain. The natural climate change implies a permanent evolution of living forms. On the longer time-scale, a permanent cycle occurs of species extinction and/or generation. In addition, owing to such a process, some living forms are likely to also exist underground on other planetary objects. That is, life ought to be a ubiquitous intrinsic endogenic feature of matter in the universe, while life’s survival, evolution and/or extinction, ought to depend on the available hosting environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Noise)
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Article
Improved Room Acoustics Quality in Meeting Rooms: Investigation on the Optimal Configurations of Sound-Absorptive and Sound-Diffusive Panels
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 451-473; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030025 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
This work deals with the improvement of the room acoustic quality of two medium sized meeting rooms through the investigation of the optimal placement of absorption and diffusive panels on the walls and ceiling. Acoustic measurements have been carried out in the existing [...] Read more.
This work deals with the improvement of the room acoustic quality of two medium sized meeting rooms through the investigation of the optimal placement of absorption and diffusive panels on the walls and ceiling. Acoustic measurements have been carried out in the existing untreated rooms with ODEON 13 room acoustics measurement and prediction software, and the Adobe Audition plugins Aurora. Simulations of different combinations of sound absorption and diffusion treatments have been carried out with the updated version of the software, ODEON 15. The panels were positioned in the meeting rooms following the guidelines of the DIN 18041 standard and the scientific literature. The results advise the application of absorptive materials on the ceiling or around the borders, creating a reflective middle area, and on the upper part of one the lateral walls, including the rear wall. Configurations with diffusers do not generally bring significant improvements. The Speech Transmission Index (STI) is a less sensitive parameter for the different acoustic scenarios, compared to Reverberation Time (T) and Clarity (C50). The research also outlined a design workflow, useful to successfully design meeting rooms and rooms for speech in general, which allows to determine the optimal number and location of acoustic panels and to minimize the costs. Full article
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