Special Issue "Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines"

A special issue of Acoustics (ISSN 2624-599X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Kazuyoshi Miyagawa

Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: Fluid Machinery; Fluid Engineering; Cavitation; Flow Induced Vibration
Prof. Dr. Stéphane Moreau
Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K2R1, Canada
Interests: aeroacoustics; noise control; modeling and numerical analysis in acoustics; flows and shock waves; turbomachinery; fan noise and turbulence
Prof. Michel Roger
Website
Guest Editor
Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France
Interests: Analytical model for the tonal noise of open rotors; Airfoil broadband noise reduction techniques; Aerodynamic, aeroacoustic and aeroelastic fan optimization; Analytical & numerical methods for fan broadband noise modeling; Fan aeroacoustic characterization
Dr. Arthur Favrel
Website
Guest Editor
Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: Hydropower; turbomachines; hydraulic turbines; cavitation; flow instabilities; hydro-acoustic

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 18th edition of the International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC) brings together researchers in dynamics of rotating machinery and related disciplines to discuss and exchange their latest exciting research developments and to build new networks and collaborations.


The Special Issue Aeroacoustics of turbomachines of ISROMAC 18 is aimed at making a point on recent advances in rotating blade aeroacoustics, which includes: (1) aerodynamic noise prediction strategies based on analytical and/or numerical methods; (2) experimental studies dedicated to the characterization of aerodynamic noise sources; (3) physical understanding and the connection with unsteady flows in turbomachines.


The topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Hybrid methods in Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) for blade/vane rows
  • Tonal interaction noise in turbomachinery stages
  • Turbomachinery broadband noise
  • Broadband noise of loaded airfoils, basic studies
  • Acoustic signature of off design conditions (surge, rotating stall, dynamic stall
  • Advanced experimental techniques for noise source characterization
  • Sound transmission in turbomachinery ducts
  • Aerodynamic and acoustic installation effects
  • Wind turbine noise
  • Drones and urban air mobility

Prof. Kazuyoshi Miyagawa
Prof. Stéphane Moreau
Prof. Michel Roger
Dr. Arthur Favrel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulation of Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics in a Centrifugal Fan
Acoustics 2020, 2(4), 735-752; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2040040 - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Due to the fact that legal and market requirements are becoming stricter, fan noise reduction, in addition to energy efficiency, represent a challenge for fan product designers. Most experimental studies are associated with trial-and-error approaches. Therefore, numerical methods are mostly preferable. However, the [...] Read more.
Due to the fact that legal and market requirements are becoming stricter, fan noise reduction, in addition to energy efficiency, represent a challenge for fan product designers. Most experimental studies are associated with trial-and-error approaches. Therefore, numerical methods are mostly preferable. However, the quantitative prediction of the noise emitted by radial fans via numerical simulations remains challenging. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new approach that promises a direct calculation of the aerodynamics coupled with the aeroacoustics. This article presents an LBM simulation of a centrifugal fan using the commercial Lattice Boltzmann Code SIMULIA PowerFLOW of Dassault Systèmes. The simulation model includes both the fan impeller and the spiral housing. In accordance with the experimental setup, the fan was mounted in a test bench to analyze four different operating points. The results of the LBM simulation were validated by experimental measurements. Flow information in terms of pressure rise and efficiency of the centrifugal fan as a function of the flow rate are in a good agreement. Considering the acoustic spectra and the blade passing frequency, the simulation was able to precisely predict the noise of the centrifugal fan. The simulation results are also used to visualize the flow and acoustic field inside of the fan to detect noise-generating flow features. By evaluating the filtered pressure fluctuation in the fluid volume and on the wall, four main noise sources of the centrifugal fan can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Noise Sources in a Realistic Turbofan Rotor Using Large Eddy Simulation
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 691-706; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030037 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
Large Eddy Simulation is performed using the NASA Source Diagnostic Test turbofan at approach conditions (62% of the design speed). The simulation is performed in a periodic domain containing one fan blade (rotor-alone configuration). The aerodynamic and acoustic results are compared with experimental [...] Read more.
Large Eddy Simulation is performed using the NASA Source Diagnostic Test turbofan at approach conditions (62% of the design speed). The simulation is performed in a periodic domain containing one fan blade (rotor-alone configuration). The aerodynamic and acoustic results are compared with experimental data. The dilatation field and the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) are employed to reveal the noise sources around the rotor. The trailing-edge radiation is effective starting from 50% of span. The strongest DMD modes come from the tip region. Two major noise contributors are shown, the first being the tip noise and the second being the trailing-edge noise. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings’ (FWH) analogy is used to compute the far-field noise from the solid surface of the blade. The analogy is computed for the full blade, for its tip region (outer 20% of span) and for lower 80% of span to see the contribution of the latter. The acoustics spectrum below 6 kHz is dominated by the tip part (tip noise), whereas the rest of the blade (trailing-edge noise) contributes more beyond that frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Tonal-Noise Assessment of Quadrotor-Type UAV Using Source-Mode Expansions
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 674-690; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030036 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
The present work deals with the modeling of the aerodynamic sound generated by the propellers of small-size drones, taking into account the effects of horizontal forward flight with negative pitch and of installation on supporting struts. Analytical aeroacoustic formulations are used, dedicated to [...] Read more.
The present work deals with the modeling of the aerodynamic sound generated by the propellers of small-size drones, taking into account the effects of horizontal forward flight with negative pitch and of installation on supporting struts. Analytical aeroacoustic formulations are used, dedicated to the loading noise. The fluctuating lift forces on the blades are expanded as circular distributions of acoustic dipoles, the radiated field of which is calculated by using the free-space Green’s function. This provides descriptions of the sound field, valid in the entire space. The stationary mean-flow distortions responsible for the lift fluctuations and at the origin of the sound are estimated from existing numerical flow simulations and from ad hoc models. Installation and forward-flight effects are found to generate much more sound than the steady loading on the blades associated with thrust. Therefore, the models are believed reliable fast-running tools that could be used for preliminary low-noise design through repeated parametric calculations, or for noise-impact estimates corresponding to prescribed urban traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessArticle
ACAT1 Benchmark of RANS-Informed Analytical Methods for Fan Broadband Noise Prediction: Part II—Influence of the Acoustic Models
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 617-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030033 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
A benchmark dedicated to RANS-informed analytical methods for the prediction of turbofan rotor–stator interaction broadband noise was organised within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. The second part of this benchmark focuses on the impact of the acoustic models. Twelve different approaches [...] Read more.
A benchmark dedicated to RANS-informed analytical methods for the prediction of turbofan rotor–stator interaction broadband noise was organised within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. The second part of this benchmark focuses on the impact of the acoustic models. Twelve different approaches implemented in seven different acoustic solvers are compared. Some of the methods resort to the acoustic analogy, while some use a direct approach bypassing the calculation of a source term. Due to differing application objectives, the studied methods vary in terms of complexity to represent the turbulence, to calculate the acoustic response of the stator and to model the boundary and flow conditions for the generation and propagation of the acoustic waves. This diversity of approaches constitutes the unique quality of this work. The overall agreement of the predicted sound power spectra is satisfactory. While the comparison between the models show significant deviations at low frequency, the power levels vary within an interval of ±3 dB at mid and high frequencies. The trends predicted by increasing the rotor speed are similar for almost all models. However, most predicted levels are some decibels lower than the experimental results. This comparison is not completely fair—particularly at low frequency—because of the presence of noise sources in the experimental results, which were not considered in the simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Applicability of Aeroacoustic Scaling Laws of Leading Edge Serrations for Rotating Applications
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 579-594; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030030 - 23 Jul 2020
Abstract
The dominant aeroacoustic mechanisms of serrated leading edges, subjected to highly turbulent inflow conditions, can be compressed to spanwise decorrelation effects as well as effects of destructive interference. For single aerofoils, the resulting broadband noise reduction is known to follow spectral scaling laws. [...] Read more.
The dominant aeroacoustic mechanisms of serrated leading edges, subjected to highly turbulent inflow conditions, can be compressed to spanwise decorrelation effects as well as effects of destructive interference. For single aerofoils, the resulting broadband noise reduction is known to follow spectral scaling laws. However, transferring serrated leading edges to rotating machinery, results in noise radiation patterns of significantly increased complexity, impeding to allocate the observed noise reduction to the underlying physical mechanisms. The current study aims at concatenating the scaling laws for stationary aerofoil and rotating-blade application and thus at providing valuable information on the aeroacoustic transferability of leading edge serrations. For the pursued approach, low-pressure axial fans are designed, obtaining identical serrated fan blade geometries than previously analyzed single aerofoils, hence allowing for direct comparison. Highly similar spectral noise reduction patterns are obtained for the broadband noise reduction of the serrated rotors, generally confirming the transferability and showing a scaling with the geometrical parameters of the serrations as well as the inflow conditions. Continuative analysis of the total noise reduction, however, constrains the applicability of the scaling laws to a specific operating range of the rotors and motivates for a devaluation of the scaling coefficients regarding additional rotor-specific effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessArticle
ACAT1 Benchmark of RANS-Informed Analytical Methods for Fan Broadband Noise Prediction—Part I—Influence of the RANS Simulation
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 539-578; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030029 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A benchmark of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-informed analytical methods, which are attractive for predicting fan broadband noise, was conducted within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. This paper discusses the first part of the benchmark, which investigates the influence of the RANS inputs. [...] Read more.
A benchmark of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-informed analytical methods, which are attractive for predicting fan broadband noise, was conducted within the framework of the European project TurboNoiseBB. This paper discusses the first part of the benchmark, which investigates the influence of the RANS inputs. Its companion paper focuses on the influence of the applied acoustic models on predicted fan broadband noise levels. While similar benchmarking activities were conducted in the past, this benchmark is unique due to its large and diverse data set involving members from more than ten institutions. In this work, the authors analyze RANS solutions performed at approach conditions for the ACAT1 fan. The RANS solutions were obtained using different CFD codes, mesh resolutions, and computational settings. The flow, turbulence, and resulting fan broadband noise predictions are analyzed to pinpoint critical influencing parameters related to the RANS inputs. Experimental data are used for comparison. It is shown that when turbomachinery experts perform RANS simulations using the same geometry and the same operating conditions, the most crucial choices in terms of predicted fan broadband noise are the type of turbulence model and applied turbulence model extensions. Chosen mesh resolutions, CFD solvers, and other computational settings are less critical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Influence of Entropy Wave on the Acoustic and Wall Heat Transfer Characteristics of a High-Pressure Turbine Guide Vane
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 524-538; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030028 - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
As an indirect noise source generated in the combustion chamber, entropy waves are widely prevalent in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. In the present work, the influence of entropy waves on the downstream flow field of a turbine guide vane is investigated. The [...] Read more.
As an indirect noise source generated in the combustion chamber, entropy waves are widely prevalent in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. In the present work, the influence of entropy waves on the downstream flow field of a turbine guide vane is investigated. The work is mainly based on a well-known experimental configuration called LS89. Two different turbulence models are used in the simulations which are the standard k-ω model and the scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) model. In order to handle the potential transition issue, Menter’s ð-Reθ transition model is coupled with both models. The baseline cases are first simulated with the two different turbulence models without any incoming perturbation. Then one forced case with an entropy wave train set at the turbine inlet at a given frequency and amplitude is simulated. Results show that the downstream maximum Mach number is rising from 0.98 to 1.16, because the entropy waves increase the local temperature of the flow field; also, the torque of the vane varies as the entropy waves go through, the magnitude of the oscillation is 7% of the unforced case. For the wall (both suction and pressure side of the vane) heat transfer, the entropy waves make the maximum heat transfer coefficient nearly twice as the large at the leading edge, while the minimum heat transfer coefficient stays at a low level. As for the averaged normalized heat transfer coefficient, a maximum difference of 30% appears between the baseline case and the forced case. Besides, during the transmission process of entropy waves, the local pressure fluctuates with the wake vortex shedding. The oscillation magnitude of the pressure wave at the throat is found to be enhanced due to the inlet entropy wave by applying the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) method. Moreover, the transmission coefficient of the entropy waves, and the reflection and transmission coefficients of acoustic waves are calculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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