The present work deals with the modeling of the aerodynamic sound generated by the propellers of small-size drones, taking into account the effects of horizontal forward flight with negative pitch and of installation on supporting struts. Analytical aeroacoustic formulations are used, dedicated to the loading noise. The fluctuating lift forces on the blades are expanded as circular distributions of acoustic dipoles, the radiated field of which is calculated by using the free-space Green’s function. This provides descriptions of the sound field, valid in the entire space. The stationary mean-flow distortions responsible for the lift fluctuations and at the origin of the sound are estimated from existing numerical flow simulations and from ad hoc models. Installation and forward-flight effects are found to generate much more sound than the steady loading on the blades associated with thrust. Therefore, the models are believed reliable fast-running tools that could be used for preliminary low-noise design through repeated parametric calculations, or for noise-impact estimates corresponding to prescribed urban traffic.
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