Special Issue "Wind Turbine Noise"

A special issue of Acoustics (ISSN 2624-599X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Gino Iannace
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Industrial Design, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Borgo San Lorenzo, 81031 Aversa (Ce), Italy
Interests: vibration and damping; green materials; room acoustics; acoustic measurements; archaeological acoustics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Mr. Steven Cooper
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Acoustic Group Pty Ltd,Sydney, Australia
Interests: helicopter noise; wind turbine noise; subjective assessment of noise

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The energy produced by the wind has been exploited by people since ancient times to make systems work, draw water, and turn millstones. The first windmills were built in the Middle East around 600 AD, subsequently spreading to the countries of northern Europe in the Middle Ages. The first wind towers built for the industrial development of the transformation of wind energy into electricity were built in the United States in the 1950s and spread rapidly during the 1970s following the energy crises. Wind energy is a renewable energy source to produce electricity, while also limiting the use of fossil fuels and reducing the effects of atmospheric pollution. It is, therefore, a rapidly growing market. In 1996, global wind power accounted for around 6,100 MW; in 2001, it was 24,000 MW; while in 2017, it was about 540,000 MW. The areas with the most significant growth are Asia (with China and India), Europe (with France, Spain, and Germany), and the United States. The environmental impact caused by the construction of wind farms involves land use, visual impact, electromagnetic, and the presence of moving shadows due to the projection of rotating blades. However, the problem that creates the greatest disturbance/level of complaint due to wind turbines is the acoustic impact and sleep disturbance. The operation of the wind turbines generates a noise that is perceived as an annoyance by the local population living in the surrounding areas.

This Special Issue will discuss the effects of wind turbine noise and the latest research in identifying the basis of cause/impacts attributed to community.

Prof. Gino Iannace
Mr. Steven Cooper
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Acoustics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wind energy
  • Aeroacoustics
  • Noise generation
  • Noise measurements
  • Outdoor noise propagation
  • Wind turbine noise simulation
  • Effect of the wind turbine noise on people and the environment
  • Wind turbines noise control
  • Regulations and limits on wind turbine noise effects in different countries

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change, Security, Sensors
Acoustics 2020, 2(3), 474-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2030026 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
A concise threefold illustration is given: (i) of climate change on the gigayear (Ga) time scale through the nanosecond (nsec) time scale, (ii) of the role of the performance of solid materials, concerning both manmade and natural structures with [...] Read more.
A concise threefold illustration is given: (i) of climate change on the gigayear (Ga) time scale through the nanosecond (nsec) time scale, (ii) of the role of the performance of solid materials, concerning both manmade and natural structures with reference to security, and (iii) of the exploitation of the electrostatic energy of the atmospheric electrical circuit—which is an enormous reservoir of natural “clean” energy. Several unfortunate misunderstandings are highlighted that bias the present generally agreed beliefs. The typical natural pace of the Earth’s “electrocardiogram”, ~27.4 Ma, is such that, at present, for the first time humankind must challenge an Earth’s “heartbeat”. A correct use of sensors is needed to get an efficient monitoring of the ongoing climate change. Both anthropic and natural drivers are to be considered. A brief reminder is given about sensors that ought to monitor solid materials—with application (i) to every kind of machinery, building, viaduct or bridge, vehicle, aircraft, rocket, etc. and (ii) for a correct (and unprecedented) monitoring of the electric field at ground, which is the prerequisite for the exploitation of the electrostatic energy of the atmosphere. In every case, a systemic approach is always needed. Every specialized investigation often misses the true physics of phenomena. The resulting great complication can be tackled by means of suitable approximate and “simple” models, which always have to be correctly tested. The impact on the biosphere is manifested as a steady regeneration of microorganisms at the deep ocean floors, supplied by endogenous CH4. Microorganisms are thus the beginning of an ever rejuvenating food chain. The natural climate change implies a permanent evolution of living forms. On the longer time-scale, a permanent cycle occurs of species extinction and/or generation. In addition, owing to such a process, some living forms are likely to also exist underground on other planetary objects. That is, life ought to be a ubiquitous intrinsic endogenic feature of matter in the universe, while life’s survival, evolution and/or extinction, ought to depend on the available hosting environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Noise)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigations on Low Frequency Noises of On-Shore Wind Turbines
Acoustics 2020, 2(2), 343-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2020020 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 2087
Abstract
The expansion of renewable energy usage is one of the major social tasks in Europe and therefore requires acceptance and support from the population. In the case of onshore wind turbines, the complaints of local residents are often interpreted as infrasound disturbances conceivably [...] Read more.
The expansion of renewable energy usage is one of the major social tasks in Europe and therefore requires acceptance and support from the population. In the case of onshore wind turbines, the complaints of local residents are often interpreted as infrasound disturbances conceivably caused by wind turbine operation. To improve the acceptance for wind energy projects, national standards and regulations need to incorporate such low frequency effects. This contribution presents long-term acoustic measurement data of low frequency noise recorded directly near wind turbines (emission) and inside of residential buildings (immission) with the objectives to identify the signal characteristics and main influential parameters. Different locations (wind farm and individual turbine), wind conditions, and time ranges are evaluated. It is shown that various frequency content below 150 Hz (harmonics of blade passing frequency, etc.) is connected to the rotation of the rotor blade and the operation of the generator. Furthermore, stable atmospheric conditions are determined to be of high importance for the transmission of the characteristic signals. For future research, this work also serves as an example for low frequency sound pressure data during operation and shutdown of wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Noise)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Wind Turbine Noise Research
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 171-206; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010013 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
This review is focussed on large-scale, horizontal-axis upwind turbines. Vertical-axis turbines are not considered here as they are not sufficiently efficient to be deployed in the commercial generation of electricity. Recent developments in horizontal-axis wind turbine noise research are summarised and topics that [...] Read more.
This review is focussed on large-scale, horizontal-axis upwind turbines. Vertical-axis turbines are not considered here as they are not sufficiently efficient to be deployed in the commercial generation of electricity. Recent developments in horizontal-axis wind turbine noise research are summarised and topics that are pertinent to the problem, but are yet to be investigated, are explored and suggestions for future research are offered. The major portion of recent and current research on wind turbine noise generation, propagation and its effects on people and animals is being undertaken by groups in Europe, UK, USA, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Considerable progress has been made in understanding wind turbine noise generation and propagation as well as the effect of wind farm noise on people, birds and animals. However, much remains to be done to answer many of the questions for which answers are still uncertain. In addition to community concerns about the effect of wind farm noise on people and how best to regulate wind farm noise and check installed wind farms for compliance, there is considerable interest from turbine manufacturers in developing quieter rotors, with the intention of allowing wind farm installations to be closer to populated areas. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recent and current wind farm noise research work and the research questions that remain to be addressed or are in the process of being addressed. Topics that are the subject of on-going research are discussed briefly and references to recent and current work are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Noise)

Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note
Determination of Acoustic Compliance of Wind Farms
Acoustics 2020, 2(2), 416-450; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2020024 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1555
Abstract
An issue exists around the world of wind farms that comply with permit conditions giving rise to noise complaints. Approval limits are normally expressed in A-weighted levels (dB(A)) external to residential receivers. The distance from the wind farm to residential receivers can result [...] Read more.
An issue exists around the world of wind farms that comply with permit conditions giving rise to noise complaints. Approval limits are normally expressed in A-weighted levels (dB(A)) external to residential receivers. The distance from the wind farm to residential receivers can result in difficulty in establishing the dB(A) contribution of the wind farm, as the overall noise includes background noise that can provide masking of the wind turbine noise. The determination of the ambient background at a receiver location (without the influence of the wind farm) presents challenges, as the background level varies with the wind and different seasons throughout the year. On-off testing of wind farms does not normally occur at high wind farm output and limits this approach for acoustic compliance testing of a wind farm. The use of a regression analysis method developed more than 20 years ago is questioned. Anomalies with respect to compliance procedures and the regression method of analysis based on real-world experience are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Noise)
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