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Acoustics, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
A High-Frequency Model of a Rectilinear Beam with a T-Shaped Cross Section
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 726-748; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030043 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
This paper derives an analytical model of a straight beam with a T-shaped cross section for use in the high-frequency range, defined here as approximately 1 to 35 kHz. The web, the right part of the flange, and the left part of the [...] Read more.
This paper derives an analytical model of a straight beam with a T-shaped cross section for use in the high-frequency range, defined here as approximately 1 to 35 kHz. The web, the right part of the flange, and the left part of the flange of the T-beam are modeled independently with two-dimensional elasticity equations for the in-plane motion and Mindlin flexural plate equation for the out-of-plane motion. The differential equations are solved with unknown wave propagation coefficients multiplied by circular spatial domain functions. These algebraic equations are then solved to yield the wave propagation coefficients and thus produce a solution to the displacement field in all three directions. An example problem is formulated and compared with solutions from fully elastic finite element modeling, a previously derived analytical model, and Timoshenko beam theory. It is shown that the accurate frequency range of this new model is significantly higher than that of the analytical model and the Timoshenko beam model, and, in the frequency range up to 35 kHz, the results compare very favorably to those from finite element analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Scheme for Single-Channel Speech Dereverberation
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 711-725; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030042 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
This paper presents a novel scheme for speech dereverberation. The core of our method is a two-stage single-channel speech enhancement scheme. Degraded speech obtains a sparser representation of the linear prediction residual in the first stage of our proposed scheme by applying orthogonal [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel scheme for speech dereverberation. The core of our method is a two-stage single-channel speech enhancement scheme. Degraded speech obtains a sparser representation of the linear prediction residual in the first stage of our proposed scheme by applying orthogonal matching pursuit on overcomplete bases, trained by the K-SVD algorithm. Our method includes an estimation of reverberation and mixing time from a recorded hand clap or a simulated room impulse response, which are used to create a time-domain envelope. Late reverberation is suppressed at the second stage by estimating its energy from the previous envelope and removed with spectral subtraction. Further speech enhancement is applied on minimizing the background noise, based on optimal smoothing and minimum statistics. Experimental results indicate favorable quality, compared to two state-of-the-art methods, especially in real reverberant environments with increased reverberation and background noise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Proscenium of Opera Houses as a Disappeared Intangible Heritage: A Virtual Reconstruction of the 1840s Original Design of the Alighieri Theatre in Ravenna
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 694-710; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030041 - 01 Sep 2019
Viewed by 299
Abstract
In a Historical Opera House (HOH), the proscenium is the foreground part of the stage. Until the end of the 19th Century, it was extended through the cavea, being the orchestra placed at the same level of the stalls, without an orchestra pit. [...] Read more.
In a Historical Opera House (HOH), the proscenium is the foreground part of the stage. Until the end of the 19th Century, it was extended through the cavea, being the orchestra placed at the same level of the stalls, without an orchestra pit. Soloists often moved in the proscenium when they sung, in order to increase the strength of the voice and the intelligibility of the text. The Alighieri theatre in Ravenna, designed by the Meduna brothers, the former designers of Venice’s “La Fenice” theater, is chosen as a case study. During a refurbishment in 1928, the proscenium of the stage was removed in order to open the orchestra pit, which was not considered in the original design. The original design and the present one are compared by using numerical simulations. Acoustic measurements of the opera house and vibro-acoustic measurements on a wooden stage help to reach a proper calibration of both models. Results are discussed by means of ISO 3382 criteria: the proscenium increases the sound strength of the soloists but reduces the intelligibility of the text. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Auditorium Acoustics
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030040 - 28 Aug 2019
Viewed by 220
Abstract
This Special Issue on the subject of Auditorium Acoustics follows an international conference which was held at the new Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg in October, 2018 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditorium Acoustics)
Open AccessArticle
Sound Archaeology: A Study of the Acoustics of Three World Heritage Sites, Spanish Prehistoric Painted Caves, Stonehenge, and Paphos Theatre
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 661-692; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030039 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 765
Abstract
This paper explores the acoustics of three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: five caves in Spain that feature prehistoric paintings that are up to 40,000 years old; Stonehenge stone circle in England, which is over 4000 years old; and Paphos Theatre in Cyprus, which [...] Read more.
This paper explores the acoustics of three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: five caves in Spain that feature prehistoric paintings that are up to 40,000 years old; Stonehenge stone circle in England, which is over 4000 years old; and Paphos Theatre in Cyprus, which is 2000 years old. Issues with standard acoustic methods are discussed, and a range of different possible approaches are explored for sound archaeology studies, also known as archaeoacoustics. The context of the three sites are examined followed by an analysis of their acoustic properties. Firstly, early decay time is explored, including a comparison of these sites to contemporary concert halls. Subsequently, reverberation, clarity of speech, and bass response are examined. Results show that the caves have a wide range of different naturally occurring acoustics, including reverberation, and strong bass effects. Stonehenge has acoustics that change as the design of the site develops, with some similarities to the effects in the caves. Acoustic effects vary considerably as you move further into the centre of the stone circle, and as the stone circle develops through time; these effects would be noticeable, and are a by-product of the human building of ritual sites. At Paphos Theatre, acoustics vary from the best seats on the front rows, backwards; here, the architects have considered acoustics in the design of the building. The paper illustrates the changing acoustics of ritual sites in human cultures, showing how sound contributed to giving spaces an individual character, helping to afford a sense of contextualized ritual place. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Sound-Absorbing Material Placement on Room Acoustical Parameters
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 644-660; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030038 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 470
Abstract
The reverberation of a room is often controlled by installing sound absorption panels to the ceiling and on the walls. The reduced reverberation is particularly important in classrooms to maximize the speech intelligibility and in open-plan offices to make spaces more pleasant. In [...] Read more.
The reverberation of a room is often controlled by installing sound absorption panels to the ceiling and on the walls. The reduced reverberation is particularly important in classrooms to maximize the speech intelligibility and in open-plan offices to make spaces more pleasant. In this study, the impact of the placement of the absorption material in a room was measured in a reverberation room and in a mockup classroom. The results show that absorption material is less efficient if it is mounted to the corners or on the edges between the walls and ceiling, if the sound field is more or less diffuse. If the room modes dominate the sound field, the most efficient location for the sound-absorbing material was found at one of the surfaces causing the modes. The results help acoustical consultants to place the absorption material in optimal locations and, generally, minimize the amount of material and save costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Adding Pyramidal and Convex Diffusers on Room Acoustic Parameters in a Small Non-Diffuse Room
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 618-643; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030037 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 398
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation of the effects of relatively large-scale pyramidal and convex-shaped diffusers on the acoustical properties of a small non-diffuse rectangular room. Room impulse responses (RIRs) were measured in various room configurations to extract the early decay time (EDT), reverberation [...] Read more.
This paper presents an investigation of the effects of relatively large-scale pyramidal and convex-shaped diffusers on the acoustical properties of a small non-diffuse rectangular room. Room impulse responses (RIRs) were measured in various room configurations to extract the early decay time (EDT), reverberation time (T20), early-to-late arriving sound ratio (C50), and clarity (C80). The difference between the parameters measured in the empty room were chosen to be the reference, and those measured in other room configurations was calculated. Statistical analysis of the measurement results supplements the investigation to determine whether the coverage and type of diffusers contribute significantly to the variation of the acoustical parameters. The results show that adding diffusers in the room generally decreases EDT as well as T20, and increases C50 as well as C80 for both diffuser types. The statistical analysis shows that the coverage of diffusers significantly contributes to the variation of the acoustical parameters in most conditions (octave band, diffuser type). The effect of the diffuser shape is only significant for some of the conditions (at 4 kHz, the number of diffusers). The data presented demonstrate that in a small non-diffuse room the reverberation can be controlled efficiently by redirecting the sound energy towards the most absorbing surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Distortions and Parametric Amplification Generate Otoacoustic Emissions and Increased Hearing Sensitivity
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 608-617; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030036 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The ear is able to detect low-level acoustic signals by a highly specialized system including a parametric amplifier in the cochlea. This is verified by a numerical mechanical model of the cochlea, which reduces the three-dimensional (3D) system to a one-dimensional (1D) approach. [...] Read more.
The ear is able to detect low-level acoustic signals by a highly specialized system including a parametric amplifier in the cochlea. This is verified by a numerical mechanical model of the cochlea, which reduces the three-dimensional (3D) system to a one-dimensional (1D) approach. A formerly developed mechanical model permits the consideration of the fluid and the orthotropic basilar membrane in a 1D fluid-structure coupled system. This model shows the characteristic frequency to place transformation of the traveling wave in the cochlea. The additional inclusion of time and space dependent stiffness of outer hair cells and the signal level dependent stiffness of the string enables parametric amplification of the input signal. Due to the nonlinear outer hair cell stiffness change, nonlinear distortions follow as a byproduct of the parametric amplification at low levels constituting the compressive nonlinearity. More distortions are generated by the saturating displacements of the string at high input levels, which can be distinguished from the low-level distortions by the order of additional harmonics. Amplification factors of 15.5 d B and 24.0 d B are calculated, and a change of the traveling-wave mapping is postulated with parametric amplification representing the healthy state of the cochlea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
The Present and Future Role of Acoustic Metamaterials for Architectural and Urban Noise Mitigations
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 590-607; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030035 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Owing to a steep rise in urban population, there has been a continuous growth in construction of buildings, public or private transport like cars, motorbikes, trains, and planes at a global level. Hence, urban noise has become a major issue affecting the health [...] Read more.
Owing to a steep rise in urban population, there has been a continuous growth in construction of buildings, public or private transport like cars, motorbikes, trains, and planes at a global level. Hence, urban noise has become a major issue affecting the health and quality of human life. In the current environmental scenario, architectural acoustics has been directed towards controlling and manipulating sound waves at a desired level. Structural engineers and designers are moving towards green technologies, which may help improve the overall comfort level of residents. A variety of conventional sound absorbing materials are being used to reduce noise, but attenuation of low-frequency noise still remains a challenge. Recently, acoustic metamaterials that enable low-frequency sound manipulation, mitigation, and control have been widely used for architectural acoustics and traffic noise mitigation. This review article provides an overview of the role of acoustic metamaterials for architectural acoustics and road noise mitigation applications. The current challenges and prominent future directions in the field are also highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advantages and Disadvantages of Surround-Type Concert Halls
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 582-589; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030034 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 448
Abstract
Following the significant number of new shoebox-type halls that opened in the last decades of the 20th century, the first decades of the 21st century have seen large concert hall design and construction dominated by halls in a surround format. This typology is [...] Read more.
Following the significant number of new shoebox-type halls that opened in the last decades of the 20th century, the first decades of the 21st century have seen large concert hall design and construction dominated by halls in a surround format. This typology is characterised by the audience surrounding the concert platform, with a significant percentage of the audience seated to the sides of or behind the platform. These halls often use vineyard-style terracing. This paper discusses some advantages and disadvantages of surround halls, with respect to both acoustics and wider performance aspects. The perspectives of audiences, performers and hall operators are considered. Factors include acoustical quality, equality of audience experience, multiple performance genre use and ticket revenue. In particular, the implications of locating a high percentage of the audience behind the concert platform are examined. This is because, in most surround halls, a significantly higher percentage of the audience is located behind the platform as compared, for example, to shoebox halls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditorium Acoustics)
Open AccessArticle
Simulations and Subjective Rating of Acoustic Conditions in a Symphony Orchestra—A Case Study
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 570-581; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030033 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Acoustic conditions in a symphony orchestra on a concert hall stage are very different from those on an empty stage. Since inter-orchestral sound transmission and other acoustic conditions with the orchestra present is easier to simulate than to measure, a method for simulations [...] Read more.
Acoustic conditions in a symphony orchestra on a concert hall stage are very different from those on an empty stage. Since inter-orchestral sound transmission and other acoustic conditions with the orchestra present is easier to simulate than to measure, a method for simulations in Odeon models of orchestras in different rooms was developed by this author. This method was applied in the Grieghallen Renewal Project, which involved changes in concert hall, orchestra pit, and rehearsal hall. The resident orchestra members gave their overall rating of playing conditions in the home venues in addition to a number of international venues. Acoustical conditions in the rated venues were simulated and compared with ratings. Several metrics were investigated, and their correlation with subjective ratings varied between r2 = 0.09 and r2 = 0.85. It turned out the orchestra clearly preferred to play in conditions where the direct component and the reverberant component of the inter-orchestral sound-transmission on average were equally strong; |D-R| = 0. Any deviation from equality was associated with reduced preference, with correlation coefficient r = −0.92. Several interesting implications and interpretations of the result are discussed in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditorium Acoustics)
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Open AccessReview
Discussion of the Relation between Initial Time Delay Gap (ITDG) and Acoustical Intimacy: Leo Beranek’s Final Thoughts on the Subject, Documented
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 561-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030032 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 376
Abstract
Current discussions on the objective attributes contributing to concert hall quality started formally in 1962 with the publication of Leo Beranek’s book “Music, Acoustics, and Architecture”. From his consulting work in the late 1950s, Beranek determined that in narrow halls, the short early [...] Read more.
Current discussions on the objective attributes contributing to concert hall quality started formally in 1962 with the publication of Leo Beranek’s book “Music, Acoustics, and Architecture”. From his consulting work in the late 1950s, Beranek determined that in narrow halls, the short early delay times were an important factor in quality. Needing a measurable acoustical factor, rather than a dimensional one, he chose to define the initial time delay gap (ITDG) for a specific location near the middle of the hall’s main floor. Many acousticians failed to understand the simplicity of this proposal. Beranek had learned that long first delays sounded “arena-like” and “remote”, and, thus, not “intimate”. This bolstered his belief that ITDG was an important objective factor he decided to call “intimacy”. Most acoustical parameters can be directly measured and sensed by the listener, such as reverberation decay, sound strength, clarity. “Intimacy” however is a feeling, and over the past two decades, it has become apparent that it is a multisensory attribute influenced by visual input and perhaps other factors. [J.R. Hyde, Proc. IOA, London, July 2002, Volume 24, Pt. 4, “Acoustical Intimacy in Concert Halls: Does Visual Input affect the Aural Experience”?] Beranek’s paper “Comments on “intimacy” and ITDG concepts in musical performing spaces”, [JASA 115, 2403 (2004)] finally acknowledged the multisensory aspects of “intimacy” and stated this choice of the word “may have been unfortunate”. He further separated the term “intimacy” from ITDG. Documentation of this pronouncement will be provided in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditorium Acoustics)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Spatial Responsiveness in Concert Halls
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 549-560; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030031 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 375
Abstract
In musical perception, a proportion of the reflected sound energy arriving at the ear is not consciously perceived. Investigations by Wettschurek in the 1970s showed the detectability to be dependent on the overall loudness and direction of arrival of reflected sound. The relationship [...] Read more.
In musical perception, a proportion of the reflected sound energy arriving at the ear is not consciously perceived. Investigations by Wettschurek in the 1970s showed the detectability to be dependent on the overall loudness and direction of arrival of reflected sound. The relationship Wettschurek found between reflection detectability, listening level, and direction of arrival correlates well with the subjective progression of spatial response during a musical crescendo: from frontal at pianissimo, through increasing apparent source width, to a fully present room acoustic at forte. “Dynamic spatial responsiveness” was mentioned in some of the earliest psychoacoustics research and recent work indicates that it is a key factor in acoustical preference. This article describes measurements of perception thresholds made using a binaural virtual acoustics system—these show good agreement with Wettschurek’s results. The perception measurements indicate that the subjective effect of reflections varies with overall listening level, even when the reflection level, delay, and direction relative to the direct sound are maintained. Reflections which are perceptually fused with the source may at louder overall listening levels become allocated to the room presence. An algorithm has been developed to visualize dynamic spatial responsiveness—i.e., which aspects of a three-dimensional (3D) Room Impulse Response would be detectable at different dynamic levels—and has been applied to measured concert hall impulse responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditorium Acoustics)
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Open AccessReview
Developments in Concert Hall Acoustics in the 1960s: Theory and Practice
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 538-548; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030030 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 398
Abstract
After the war, there was a general understanding of reverberation time (RT), including how to measure it and its significance, as well as its link to a state of diffusion. Reverberation refers to a property of late sound; there was an appreciation that [...] Read more.
After the war, there was a general understanding of reverberation time (RT), including how to measure it and its significance, as well as its link to a state of diffusion. Reverberation refers to a property of late sound; there was an appreciation that early sound must be significant, but in what way? Research had begun in the 1950s using simulation systems in anechoic chambers, with the Haas effect of 1951 being the most prominent result. Thiele’s Deutlichkeit, or early energy fraction, was important from 1953 and indirectly found expression in Beranek’s initial time delay gap (ITDG) from 1962. The 1960s produced a possible explanation for RTs in halls being shorter than calculations predicted, the importance of early sound for the sense of reverberation (EDT), the nature of directional sensitivity, conditions for echo disturbance, and the importance of early lateral reflections. Much of the research in the 1960s laid the foundations for research investigating the relative importance of the various subjective effects for concert hall listening. Important concert halls built during the period include Philharmonic Hall, New York (1962); Fairfield Hall, Croydon, London (1962); the Philharmonie, Berlin (1963); and De Doelen Hall, Rotterdam (1966). The parallel-sided halls of the past were rarely copied, however, due to architectural fashion. These various halls will be discussed as they make a fascinating group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditorium Acoustics)
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Open AccessArticle
Historic Approaches to Sonic Encounter at the Berlin Wall Memorial
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 517-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030029 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Investigations of historic soundscapes must analyze and place results within a complex framework of contemporary and past contexts. However, the conscious use and presentation of historic built environments are factors that require more deliberate attention in historic soundscape analysis. The following paper presents [...] Read more.
Investigations of historic soundscapes must analyze and place results within a complex framework of contemporary and past contexts. However, the conscious use and presentation of historic built environments are factors that require more deliberate attention in historic soundscape analysis. The following paper presents a multimodal research methodology and promising preliminary results from a study at the Berlin Wall Memorial in Berlin, Germany. Here, the historic context from the Wall’s recent past is presented within the surroundings of the contemporary unified capital city. The study approached the past soundscape and present site by combining historic and current-conditions research, linking archival research, conditions assessments via binaural recording and psychoacoustics analysis tools, and soundscape surveys rooted in standardized soundscape research practices. In so doing, archival textual and pictorial sources provided a rich source of primary information integrated within the study and are suggested as a resource for similar inquiries elsewhere. The investigation identified concerns specific to heritage sites that require critical consideration for historic soundscape research of the recent past—survey-participant composition and the problematized use of typical descriptors in soundscape surveys are the two concerns that are discussed. Some standardized soundscape terminology and research methodologies were found to be insufficient in historic contexts. Initial qualitative results from the research are presented as a proof of concept for the research approach with signposts for future analysis and developments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustical Impact of Architectonics and Material Features in the Lifespan of Two Monumental Sacred Structures
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 493-516; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030028 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Hagia Sophia and Süleymaniye Mosque, built in the 6th and 16th centuries, respectively, are the two major monuments of the İstanbul World Heritage Site. Within the context of this study, sound fields of these two sacred multi-domed monumental structures are analyzed with a [...] Read more.
Hagia Sophia and Süleymaniye Mosque, built in the 6th and 16th centuries, respectively, are the two major monuments of the İstanbul World Heritage Site. Within the context of this study, sound fields of these two sacred multi-domed monumental structures are analyzed with a focus on their architectonic and material attributes and applied alterations in basic restoration works. A comprehensive study is undertaken by a comparative analysis over acoustical field tests held in different years and over an extensive literature review on their material and architectural characteristics. Initially, the major features of Hagia Sophia and Süleymaniye Mosque are presented, and later, basic alterations in regard to function and materials are provided. The methodology includes the field tests carried both within the scope of this research as well as the published test results by other researchers. Acoustical simulations are utilized for comparison of unoccupied versus occupied conditions and also for discussion on original materials. The impact of historical plasters on the acoustics of domed spaces is highlighted. Common room acoustics parameters as of reverberation time and clarity are utilized in comparisons. The formation of multi-slope sound energy decay is discussed in light of different spiritual and acoustical needs expected from such monumental sacred spaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Commissioning the Acoustical Performance of an Open Office Space Following the Latest Healthy Building Standard: A Case Study
Acoustics 2019, 1(3), 473-492; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030027 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Healthy building design guides are cogent and necessary. While elements that contribute to healthy buildings are multifactorial, the perception of sound versus noise is subjective and difficult to operationalize. To inform the commissioning process, the acoustics in an open office was examined following [...] Read more.
Healthy building design guides are cogent and necessary. While elements that contribute to healthy buildings are multifactorial, the perception of sound versus noise is subjective and difficult to operationalize. To inform the commissioning process, the acoustics in an open office was examined following the first international building certification system that focuses on the well-being of occupants. Results highlight the role facility managers play in ensuring acoustical quality and offer suggestions to optimize healthy building rating systems. Mixed empirical evidence concerning the advantages of open office designs exists, as does evidence that noise, and a lack of privacy, affects workers’ levels of distraction and dissatisfaction. Sound masking systems can lower stress levels and augment performance. However, the sound produced by these systems can also be disruptive; conflicting information exists for facility managers to use when making decisions. The results suggest that, although objective measurements and healthy building guidelines for designing satisfactory indoor acoustic environments are important, changes to the physical environment, and acoustical systems, in particular, require iterative subjective assessments within the retrofit process to bolster occupant satisfaction. Mixed-methodologies used in this study may aid facilities managers in capturing and interpreting occupant data about physical stimuli in the workplace and improving the commissioning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Soundscape: Integrating Sound, Experience and Architecture)
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