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Acoustics, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 9 articles

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Open AccessReview
Are Cry Studies Replicable? An Analysis of Participants, Procedures, and Methods Adopted and Reported in Studies of Infant Cries
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 866-883; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040052 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Infant cry is evolutionarily, psychologically, and clinically significant. Over the last half century, several researchers and clinicians have investigated acoustical properties of infant cry for medical purposes. However, this literature suffers a lack of standardization in conducting and reporting cry-based studies. In this [...] Read more.
Infant cry is evolutionarily, psychologically, and clinically significant. Over the last half century, several researchers and clinicians have investigated acoustical properties of infant cry for medical purposes. However, this literature suffers a lack of standardization in conducting and reporting cry-based studies. In this work, methodologies and procedures employed to analyze infant cry are reviewed and best practices for reporting studies are provided. First, available literatures on vocal and audio acoustic analysis are examined to identify critical aspects of participant information, data collection, methods, and data analysis. Then, 180 peer-reviewed research articles have been assessed to certify the presence of critical information. Results show a general lack of critical description. Researchers in the field of infant cry need to develop a consensual standard set of criteria to report experimental studies to ensure the validity of their methods and results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Turkish and European Noise Management and Soundscape Policies: A Proposal of Indoor Soundscape Integration to Architectural Design and Application
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 847-865; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040051 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 576
Abstract
Improving soundscape studies and policies states that the soundscape approach, which also considers noise interventions, should replace noise management. However, a considerable number of soundscape studies have been concerned with the quality of acoustic environments of open and urban public spaces. This study [...] Read more.
Improving soundscape studies and policies states that the soundscape approach, which also considers noise interventions, should replace noise management. However, a considerable number of soundscape studies have been concerned with the quality of acoustic environments of open and urban public spaces. This study focuses on indoor soundscaping and its possible integration into the architectural design and application process. Therefore, the present and ongoing Turkish and European soundscape and noise management policies were evaluated in detail and compared in order to characterize the gap regarding the state of indoor soundscaping between the literature and the policy development level. Furthermore, we identified and classified factors and methods which have an influence on indoor soundscaping to be integrated into the final proposed model. As a result of the detailed evaluation regarding policies and indoor soundscaping principles, five stages were proposed that can be used in an integrated indoor soundscape model: (1) the establishment of a topic specific institution or working group on indoor soundscaping; (2) the preparation of a standard that includes definitions, indoor soundscape factors and methods; (3) the preparation of an indoor soundscape directive; (4) the preparation of indoor soundscape guidelines; and (5) the provision of maintenance and supervision by experts and authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Soundscape: Integrating Sound, Experience and Architecture)
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Open AccessArticle
Categorization of Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations Using Machine Learning Techniques
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 837-846; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040050 - 04 Nov 2019
Viewed by 481
Abstract
A study of the ultrasonic vocalizations of several adult male BALB/c mice in the presence of a female, is undertaken in this study. A total of 179 distinct ultrasonic syllables referred to as “phonemes” are isolated, and in the resulting dataset, k-means [...] Read more.
A study of the ultrasonic vocalizations of several adult male BALB/c mice in the presence of a female, is undertaken in this study. A total of 179 distinct ultrasonic syllables referred to as “phonemes” are isolated, and in the resulting dataset, k-means and agglomerative clustering algorithms are implemented to group the ultrasonic vocalizations into clusters based on features extracted from their pitch contours. In order to find the optimal number of clusters, the elbow method was used, and nine distinct categories were obtained. Results when the k-means method was applied are presented through a matching matrix, while clustering results when the agglomerative technique was applied are presented as a dendrogram. The results of both methods are in line with the manual annotations made by the authors, as well as with the ones presented in the literature. The two methods of unsupervised analysis applied on 14 element feature vectors provide evidence that vocalizations can be grouped into nine clusters, which translates into the claim that there is a distinct repertoire of “syllables” or “phonemes”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulations of the Nonlinear Interaction of a Bubble Cloud and a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Field
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 825-836; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040049 - 29 Oct 2019
Viewed by 462
Abstract
We studied the effects of a small bubble cloud located at the pre-focal area of a high-intensity focused ultrasound field. Our objective is to show that bubbles can modify the bioeffects of an ultrasound treatment in muscle tissue. We model a three-dimensional ultrasound [...] Read more.
We studied the effects of a small bubble cloud located at the pre-focal area of a high-intensity focused ultrasound field. Our objective is to show that bubbles can modify the bioeffects of an ultrasound treatment in muscle tissue. We model a three-dimensional ultrasound field in an idealized configuration of real operating conditions. Simulations are performed using a combined method based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation, describing the ultrasound propagation, and a Rayleigh-Plesset equation, modeling the bubble oscillations. The nonlinear interaction of the ultrasound field and the bubble oscillations is considered. Results with and without bubbles for different void fractions of the cloud and different acoustic powers are compared. The cloud induces scattering, nonlinear distortion, and shielding of ultrasound, which increase the mechanical index in the pre-focal zone, shift the location, reduce the size, and modify the shape of the volume of tissue of high mechanical index values, and lower the pressure at the intended focus considerably. Although some hypothesis and parameters used in the models do not fit the real HIFU situations, the simulation results suggest that the effects caused by a bubble cloud located in the pre-focal area should be considered and monitored to ensure the safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Exposure to High-Frequency Sound and Ultrasound in Public Places: Examples from Zurich, Switzerland
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 816-824; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040048 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The public is unknowingly exposed to very high-frequency sound (VHFS; 11.2–17.8 kHz) and ultrasound (US; >17.8 kHz) signals in air in public places, as evidenced by previously published reports. The present report provides evidence for the presence of VHFS/US signals in the air [...] Read more.
The public is unknowingly exposed to very high-frequency sound (VHFS; 11.2–17.8 kHz) and ultrasound (US; >17.8 kHz) signals in air in public places, as evidenced by previously published reports. The present report provides evidence for the presence of VHFS/US signals in the air at public places in Zurich, Switzerland. The analysis of the signals measured revealed that they: (i) contain one, two or multiple frequencies; (ii) comprise frequencies ranged from 15.5 kHz to 36.0 kHz; (iii) were either quasi constant in their amplitude or exhibit a clear amplitude modulation; and (iv) were in their characteristics (frequencies, modulation, intensity) specific for each place. Based on the signal characteristic it is likely that the signals are generated by public-address voice-alarm (PAVA) systems. The work presented: (i) documents the presence of VHFS/US signals at public places in Zurich, possibly caused by PAVA systems; and should (ii) show that is easily possibly to measure the signals with an affordable measurement equipment as a “citizen scientist”, and stimulate others also to measure and analyse VHFS/US signals with this citizen scientist approach in other cities worldwide. Due to the possible negative health-related effects of a human exposure to VHFS/US signals, further research is needed to document VHFS/US signals at public places and to evaluate biological effects of this exposure with laboratory studies. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
A Comparison of Optimal SONAR Array Amplitude Shading Coefficients
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 808-815; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040047 - 02 Oct 2019
Viewed by 541
Abstract
This paper compares two different approaches to deriving shading coefficients (weights) for optimal first order and second order directional sensors (that is; sonobuoys, vectors and dyadic sensors). The first approach is an analytical or a physics-based derivation, involving computations with gradients and linearized [...] Read more.
This paper compares two different approaches to deriving shading coefficients (weights) for optimal first order and second order directional sensors (that is; sonobuoys, vectors and dyadic sensors). The first approach is an analytical or a physics-based derivation, involving computations with gradients and linearized momentum; the second is an adaptive minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) derivation, which finds weights that minimize the cross spectral density (CSD) matrix. The two approaches are shown to be equivalent. In other words, the adaptive MVDR processing procedure does indeed converge to a physics-based solution, without any pre-existing physical knowledge of the behavior of the acoustic field. This suggests that adaptive algorithms innately seek physics-based solutions when these solutions are optimum. The intent of this short communication is not to advocate for one type of adaptive processing method over another. The observation that is presented here is important though, it confirms that at least in an idealized noise field, adaptive processing converges on an optimal set of shading coefficients, similarly derived based on well-established physical acoustics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Bolt Tension by Surface Acoustic Waves: An Experimentally Verified Simulation Study
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 794-807; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040046 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Quantifying bolt tension and ensuring that bolts are appropriately tightened for large-scale civil infrastructures are crucial. This study investigated the feasibility of employing the surface acoustic wave (SAW) for quantifying the bolt tension via finite element modeling. The central hypothesis is that the [...] Read more.
Quantifying bolt tension and ensuring that bolts are appropriately tightened for large-scale civil infrastructures are crucial. This study investigated the feasibility of employing the surface acoustic wave (SAW) for quantifying the bolt tension via finite element modeling. The central hypothesis is that the real area of contact in a bolted joint increases as the tension or preload is increased, causing an acoustical signature change. The experimentally verified 3-D simulations were carried out in two steps: A preload was first applied to the bolt body to simulate the realistic behavior of bolted joint; and the SAW propagation was then excited on the top surface of the plate to reflect from the bolted joint. The bolt tension value was varied between 4 and 24 kN (properly tightened bolt) in the steps of 4 kN to study the effect of the bolt tension. The results indicate an increased reflected wave amplitude and a gradual phase shift, up to 0.5 µs, as the bolt tension increased. Furthermore, the result shows that the distance between the first reflected wave and the source becomes shorter as the preload increases, as hypothesized. A 1.9 mm difference in the distance between the maximum and minimum preload was observed. As part of this study, the simulation results were also compared with the experimental results, and a good agreement between the simulation and experiments was demonstrated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Tip Mass Length Ratio on Low Amplitude Galloping Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 763-793; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040045 - 24 Sep 2019
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Galloping beams were exposed to the wind free stream and is used for sustainable wind-power harnessing. In this paper, the effect of tip mass on the performance of a galloping energy harvester is investigated by simple modeling of the system, which is useful [...] Read more.
Galloping beams were exposed to the wind free stream and is used for sustainable wind-power harnessing. In this paper, the effect of tip mass on the performance of a galloping energy harvester is investigated by simple modeling of the system, which is useful for broad engineering applications of these systems. Here, the piezoelectric layer attached to a cantilever beam with a tip mass exposed to the wind free stream is used as an energy harvester. A fluid–solid interaction model is used to simulate the problem. The fluid–solid interaction model is composed of the experimental data for aerodynamic loads and one-dimensional structural model of piezoelectric and beam material with Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The governing partial differential equations of the system are solved analytically by use of the approximation method. The resulting model is confirmed by preceding experimental results. The effects of the tip mass length ratio on the onset of galloping, the level of the produced voltage, and the harvested power are determined analytically. As shown by increase of the length of tip mass for the constant beam and piezoelectric length, the inertia of the system increases while the tip displacement and onset of galloping decrease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On Discovery of the Twelfth and Thirteenth New Nondispersive SH-SAWs in 6 mm Magnetoelectroelastics
Acoustics 2019, 1(4), 749-762; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1040044 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 555
Abstract
This report acquaints the reader with an extra two new shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAWs). These new SH-SAWs can propagate along the free surface of the transversely isotropic (6 mm) magnetoelectroelastic materials. These (composite) materials can simultaneously possess the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and magnetoelectric [...] Read more.
This report acquaints the reader with an extra two new shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAWs). These new SH-SAWs can propagate along the free surface of the transversely isotropic (6 mm) magnetoelectroelastic materials. These (composite) materials can simultaneously possess the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and magnetoelectric effects. Some competition among these effects can lead to suitable solutions found for the following three possible coupling mechanisms: eα – hε, eµ – hα, εµ – α2. Here, the mechanically free interface between the solid and a vacuum was considered. This report discovers the twelfth (thirteenth) new SH-SAW for the magnetically closed (electrically open) case and continuity of both the normal component of the electrical (magnetic) displacement and the electrical (magnetic) potential when the coupling mechanism eα – hε (eµ – hα) works. The propagation velocities were obtained in explicit forms that take into account the contribution of the vacuum material parameters. The discovered waves were then graphically studied for the purpose of disclosing the dissipation phenomenon (the propagation velocity becomes imaginary) caused by the coupling with the vacuum properties. The obtained results can be useful for further investigations of interfacial and plate SH-waves, constitution of technical devices, nondestructive testing and evaluation, and application of some gravitational phenomena. Full article
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