Acoustical Impact of Architectonics and Material Features in the Lifespan of Two Monumental Sacred Structures
1.1. Acoustics of Sacred Spaces
1.2. Room Acoustics Coupling in Multi-Domed Superstructures
2. Hagia Sophia
2.1. Major Architectural Features
2.2. Basic Repairs and Alterations
3. Süleymaniye Mosque
3.1. Major Architectural Features
3.2. Basic Repairs and Restorations
4.1. Room Acoustics Measurements
4.2. Acoustical Simulations
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Acoustics of Hagia Sophia after the 1990s
5.2. Acoustics of Süleymaniye Mosque for before and after 2007–2011 Restorations
5.3. Interpretation of Süleymaniye Mosque′s Acoustics for Its Original State
5.4. Interior Sound Fields of Hagia Sophia and Süleymaniye Mosque in Relation to Major Architectural Parameters
- Having a larger volume (almost double) and reflective floor finish, Hagia Sophia resulted in higher reverberation times in comparison to Süleymaniye Mosque in mid to high frequencies. This result is appropriate for the original function of Hagia Sophia considering the liturgical music held in churches and cathedrals, in comparison to mosques where liturgical music is seldom.
- In lower octave bands, Süleymaniye Mosque has greater reverberation values in comparison to Hagia Sophia. The excessive reverberation in low frequencies of Süleymaniye Mosque is discussed for its original state by a trial on applying historical lime-based plasters through simulations. Inherently good sound absorption characteristics of historical multi-layered lime-based plasters have resulted in much proper acoustical parameter results within Süleymaniye Mosque.
- Due to the effective surface area, the slight difference on the plasters′ sound absorption performance significantly changes the overall acoustical character of sacred spaces. Thus, the physical and chemical characteristics of plasters used in restorations and renovations are highly important, not only for other building physics aspects, but as well for acoustics science.
- The high reverberance of such mega-structures may negatively affect speech intelligibility due to its masking effect. However, a very short reverberation rating would cause a dry acoustical environment and reduce the envelopment and spaciousness in a religious space. Thus, the optimization studies of reverberation times in sacred spaces should not disregard the spiritual aspects.
- The recent restoration work on Süleymaniye Mosque when compared to previous years′ field test results has ended up in lower and much more optimal reverberation times in mid to high frequencies, on average. This is most probably due to the removal of cement-based plasters, but is still not totally effective. However, the low frequencies are even higher. One reason for lower decay rates of previous field tests in low frequencies is thought to be due to the insufficient impulse response length.
- A concave dome is a representation of the wholly world, while at the same time this geometry is the primary reason for sound focusing and all relevant acoustical defects as of echoesBurnt-clay pots (Sebu′s) as discussed in Süleymaniye Mosque, might had cured the low frequency sound energy built-up within the Mosque, as well as provided acoustical asymmetry in overcoming acoustical defects as of sound foci or echo formation. This approach should be a motivation for today′s scientific research with much developed acoustical technology.
- On the other hand, the particular geometrical configuration of multi-domed case structures and interrupted plan-layout with arches, and elements such as mahfili′s, elephant feet′s, columns, and piers, help to overcome fluttering echoes in between parallel wall surfaces and also help an even distribution of sound.
- All of the field tests in Hagia Sophia were held after the major architectural revisions in relation to the function of this sacred space. The most recent field tests held within the scope of this research indicates that the reverberation times in overall frequency spectrum is lowered by 1–2 s.
- Another discussion point, briefly mentioned in this study, is that the sacred monuments provide not a single decay with a single reverberation time but multiple sound energy decays, which is rarely observed in modest sized single-space structures. The significance of multiple-decay, in form of early and late energy, is that the early decay enhances clarity or definition of sound, while the late decay contributes to the reverberance that complements spiritual needs.
Conflicts of Interest
- Abdelazeez, M.K.; Hammad, R.N.; Mustafa, A.A. Acoustics of King Abdullah Mosque. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1991, 90, 1441–1445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Suárez, R.; Alonso, A.; Sendra, J.J. Virtual acoustic environment reconstruction of the hypostyle mosque of Cordoba. App. Acoust. 2018, 140, 214–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- CAHRISMA, Conservation of the Acoustical Heritage by the Revival and Identification of Sinan′s Mosques′ Acoustics; Project report No: ICA3-CT-1999-00007, Work package 2, Deliverables; Yıldız Technical University: Istanbul, Turkey.
- Abdou, A.A. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2003, 113, 1505–1517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sü, Z.; Yılmazer, S. The acoustical characteristics of the Kocatepe Mosque in Ankara, Turkey. Arch. Sci. Rev. 2008, 51, 21–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gül, Z.S.; Çalışkan, M. Impact of design decisions on acoustical comfort parameters: case study of Doğramacızade Ali Paşa Mosque. Technical Note. App. Acoust. 2013, 74, 834–844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Magrini, A.; Magnani, L. Models of the influence of coupled spaces in Christian churches. Build. Acoust. 2005, 12, 115–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Luigi, E.; Martellotta, F. Acoustics as a cultural heritage: the case of Orthodox churches and of the “Russian church” in Bari. J. Cult. Heritage 2015, 16, 912–917. [Google Scholar]
- Martellotta, F. Identifying acoustical coupling by measurements and prediction-models for St. Peter′s Basilica in Rome. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2009, 126, 1175–1186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anderson, J.S.; Anderson, M.B. Acoustic coupling effects in St Paul’s Cathedral, London. J. Sound Vib. 2000, 236, 209–225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alonso, A.; Suárez, R.; Sendra, J.J. On the assessment of the multiplicity of spaces in the acoustic environment of cathedrals: The case of the cathedral of Seville. App. Acoust. 2018, 141, 54–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Suárez, R.; Alonso, A.; Sendra, J.J. Intangible cultural heritage: the sound of the Romanesque Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. J. Cult. Heritage 2015, 16, 239–243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pedrero, A.; Ruiz, R.; Díaz-Chyla, A.; Díaz, C. Acoustical study of Toledo Cathedral according to its liturgical uses. App. Acoust. 2014, 85, 3–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kleiner, M.; Klepper, D.L.; Torres, R.R. Worship Space Acoustics, 1st ed.; J. Ross Publishing: Plantation, FL, USA, 2010; pp. 227–271. [Google Scholar]
- Sü Gül, Z.; Xiang, N.; Çalışkan, M. Investigations on sound energy decays and flows in a monumental mosque. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2016, 140, 344–355. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- SüGül, Z. Assessment of Non-Exponential Sound Energy Decays within Multi-Domed Monuments by Numerical and Experimental Methods. Ph.D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey, January 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Sü Gül, Z.; Çalışkan, M.; Tavukcuoglu, A.; Xiang, N. Assessment of acoustical indicators in multi-domed historic structures by non-exponential energy decay analysis. Acoust. Aust. 2018, 46, 181–192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Klenbauer, W.E.; White, A.; Matthews, H. Hagia Sophia; Scala Publishers: London, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Oyhon, E.; Etingü, B. Hagia Sophia, Church of Divine Wisdom. In Churches in İstanbul; YKY: Istanbul, Turkey, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Mark, R.; Çakmak, A.S. Hagia Sophia from the age of Justinian to the Present; Cambridge University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Kahler, H.; Mango, C. Hagia Sophia; Frederick A. Praeger: New York, NY, USA, 1967. [Google Scholar]
- Mainstone, R.J. Hagia Sophia: Architecture, structure and liturgy of Justinian′s Great Church; Thames and Hudson: London, UK, 1988. [Google Scholar]
- Weitze, C.A.; Rindel, J.H.; Christensen, C.L.; Gade, A.C. The Acoustical History of Hagia Sophia Revived through Computer Simulation; Forum Acusticum: Seville, Spain, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Abel, J.S.; Woszczyk, W.; Ko, D.; Levine, S.; Hong, J.; Skare, T.; Wilson, M.J.; Coffin, S.; Lopez-Lezcano, F. Recreation of the Acoustics of Hagia Sophia in Stanford′s Bing Concert Hall for the Concert Performance and Recording of Cappella Romana. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Room Acoustics, Toronto, ON, Canada, 9–11 June 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Akgündüz, A.; Öztürk, S.; Baş, Y. Kiliseden Müzeye Ayasofya; Osmanlı Araştırmaları Vakfı: Fatih/İstanbul, Turkey, 2006; pp. 174–180, 280–285. [Google Scholar]
- Eyice, S. Ayasofya; Yapı Kredi: Istanbul, Turkey, 1984. [Google Scholar]
- Cantay, T. Süleymaniye Camii; EREN Yayıncılık: Istanbul, Turkey, 1989. [Google Scholar]
- T.R. Prime Ministry Directorate General of Foundations Archive. 2011.
- Saatçi, S. Temelden Aleme İnşaat Süreci. In Bir Şaheser Süleymaniye Külliyesi; Mülayim, S., Ankara, T.C., Eds.; Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı: Ankara, Turkey, 2007; pp. 57–74. [Google Scholar]
- Yılmaz, Y. Kanuni Vakfiyesi Süleymaniye Külliyesi; Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü: Ankara, Turkey, 2008; pp. 87–134. [Google Scholar]
- Necipoğlu-Kafadar, G. The Süleymaniye Complex in İstanbul: an interpretation. Muqarnas 1985, 3, 92–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mungan, I. Strüktür Çözümü. In Bir Şaheser Süleymaniye Külliyesi; Mülayim, S., Ankara, T.C., Eds.; Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı: Ankara, Turkey, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Kuban, D.A. Symbol of ottoman architecture: The Süleymaniye. In Ottoman Architecture; Antique Collectors′ Club: Suffolk, UK, 2010; pp. 277–294. [Google Scholar]
- Kolay, I.A.; Çelik, S. Ottoman stone acquisition in the mid-sixteenth century: The Süleymaniye Complex in Istanbul. Muqarnas 2006, 23, 251–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barkan, L.O. Süleymaniye Camii ve İmareti İnşaatı (1550-1557); Türk Tarih Kurumu Matbaası: Ankara, Turkey, 1972; Volume 1, pp. 14–45. [Google Scholar]
- Eyüpgiller, K. Restitüsyon ve Renovasyon. In Bir Şaheser Süleymaniye Külliyesi. Mülayim. Mülayim, S.; Mülayim, S., Ankara, T.C., Eds.; Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı: Ankara, Turkey, 2007; pp. 193–232. [Google Scholar]
- İrteş, S. Kalemişi, Cam ve Revzen. In Bir Şaheser Süleymaniye Külliyesi. Mülayim. Mülayim, S.; Mülayim, S., Ankara, T.C., Eds.; Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı: Ankara, Turkey, 2007; pp. 293–328. [Google Scholar]
- Ersen, A.; Nilgün, O.; Akbulut, S.S.; Yıldırım, B.S. Süleymaniye Camii 2007–2010 yılları restorasyonu ve restorasyon kararları. Restorasyon 2011, 3, 6–27. [Google Scholar]
- Acar, S. Süleymaniye′nin düşündürdükleri. Tasarım 2000, 102, 108–117. [Google Scholar]
- A Discussion on the Acoustics of Süleymaniye Mosque for its Original State. Available online: http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/256_bos_kupun_sirri-1028387 (accessed on 17 July 2013).
- ISO 3382-1. Acoustics-Measurement of Reverberation Time of Rooms with Reference to Other Acoustical Parameters; ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Sü Gül, Z.; Çalışkan, M.; Tavukcuoglu, A. On the acoustics of Süleymaniye Mosque from past to present. Megaron 2014, 9, 201–216. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kayılı, M. Mimar Sinan′ın Camilerindeki Akustik Verilerin Değerlendirilmesi. Mimarbaşı Koca Sinan: Yaşadığı Çağ ve Eserleri. 1988, 1, 545–555. [Google Scholar]
- Topaktaş, L. Acoustical properties of classical ottoman mosques, simulation and measurements. Master’s Thesis, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey, July 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Naylor, G.M. ODEON—another hybrid room acoustical model. Appl. Acoust. 1993, 38, 131–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sü Gül, Z.; Xiang, N.; Çalışkan, M. Diffusion equation based finite element modeling of a monumental worship space. J. Comput. Acoust. 2017, 25, 1–16. [Google Scholar]
- Sü Gül, Z.; Odabaş, E.; Xiang, N.; Çalışkan, M. Diffusion equation modeling for sound energy flow analysis in multi domain structures. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2019, 145, 2703–2717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ahnert, W.; Feistal, S.; Behrens, T. Speech Intelligibility Prediction in very Large Sacral Venues. In Proceedings of the Meetings on Acoustics ICA2013, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2–7 June 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Tavukçuoğlu, A.; Aydın, A.; Çalışkan, M. Tarihi Türk Hamamlarının Akustik Nitelikleri: Özgün Hali ve Bugünkü Durumu. In Proceedings of the TAKDER 9th National Congress, Ankara, Turkey, 26–27 May 2011. [Google Scholar]
- SüGül, Z.; Çalışkan, M. Acoustical Design of Turkish Religious Affairs Mosque. In Proceedings of the 21st International Congress on Acoustics ICA2013, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2–7 June 2013. [Google Scholar]
- ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications, SI ed.; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA, USA, 2011.
- SüGül, Z.; Tavukcuoglu, A.; Çalışkan, M.A. Discussion on the Acoustics of Süleymaniye Mosque for its Original State. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin (MONUBASIN), Ankara, Turkey, 3–5 June 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Bos, H.L.; Van Den Oever, M.J.A.; Peters, O.C.J.J. Tensile and compressive properties of flax fibres for natural fibre reinforced composites. J. Mater. Sci. 2002, 37, 1683–1692. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dalmay, P.; Smith, A.; Chotard, T.; Sahay-Turner, P.; Gloaguen, V.; Krausz, P. Properties of cellulosic fibre reinforced plaster: Influence of hemp or flax fibres on the properties of set gypsum. J. Mater. Sci. 2010, 45, 793–803. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Orfali, W.A. Sound Parameters in Mosques. In Proceedings of the 153rd Meeting of ASA, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 4–8 June 2007. [Google Scholar]
|Materials/Locations||Sound Absorption Coefficients over 1/1 Octave Bands||Scattering Coefficient|
|125 Hz||250 Hz||500 Hz||1 kHz||2 kHz||4 kHz|
|Ornamented stone piers, arches columns, and column heads||0.05||0.05||0.06||0.09||0.11||0.11||0.20|
|Current carpet ||0.02||0.12||0.25||0.38||0.55||0.58||0.10|
|Carpet with prayers ||0.18||0.22||0.41||0.58||0.69||0.72||0.70|
|Historical plasters tested in 30% humidity ||0.10||0.17||0.23||0.29||0.32||0.32||0.10|
|Current plasters on brick||0.13||0.09||0.07||0.05||0.03||0.04||0.10|
|Large pane of glass||0.18||0.06||0.04||0.03||0.02||0.02||0.05|
|Wooden doors and furniture||0.10||0.07||0.05||0.04||0.04||0.04||0.10|
|Gypsum moldings for muqarnas and similar decorations||0.29||0.10||0.05||0.04||0.07||0.09||0.50|
|Copper decorative elements||0.12||0.08||0.02||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.50|
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Sü Gül, Z. Acoustical Impact of Architectonics and Material Features in the Lifespan of Two Monumental Sacred Structures. Acoustics 2019, 1, 493-516. https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030028
Sü Gül Z. Acoustical Impact of Architectonics and Material Features in the Lifespan of Two Monumental Sacred Structures. Acoustics. 2019; 1(3):493-516. https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030028Chicago/Turabian Style
Sü Gül, Zühre. 2019. "Acoustical Impact of Architectonics and Material Features in the Lifespan of Two Monumental Sacred Structures" Acoustics 1, no. 3: 493-516. https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1030028