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Plasma, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Applications of the COST Plasma Jet: More than a Reference Standard
Plasma 2019, 2(3), 316-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2030023
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
The rapid advances in the field of cold plasma research led to the development of many plasma jets for various purposes. The COST plasma jet was created to set a comparison standard between different groups in Europe and the world. Its physical and [...] Read more.
The rapid advances in the field of cold plasma research led to the development of many plasma jets for various purposes. The COST plasma jet was created to set a comparison standard between different groups in Europe and the world. Its physical and chemical properties are well studied, and diagnostics procedures are developed and benchmarked using this jet. In recent years, it has been used for various research purposes. Here, we present a brief overview of the reported applications of the COST plasma jet. Additionally, we discuss the chemistry of the plasma-liquid systems with this plasma jet, and the properties that make it an indispensable system for plasma research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasma Jets: Physics, Diagnostics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Preheating Phase of Micro-Arc Discharge in Seawater, Operated Using a Needle-to-Plane Electrode with Variation in the Tip Shape
Plasma 2019, 2(3), 303-315; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2030022
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
In this work, micro-arc discharge is investigated using a needle-to-plane electrode system placed with a micro-gap in highly conductive artificial seawater. A major problem with microarc discharge is the erosion of electrodes caused by the high current of the arc; however, it was [...] Read more.
In this work, micro-arc discharge is investigated using a needle-to-plane electrode system placed with a micro-gap in highly conductive artificial seawater. A major problem with microarc discharge is the erosion of electrodes caused by the high current of the arc; however, it was found that erosion of the needle electrode did not have any effect on the discharge process in the case of precise control of the discharge gap. A simple mathematical model was developed for a more detailed study of the preheating phase of the discharge. The modeling showed good agreement with the experimental results and confirmed that the needle electrode could be reused to generate reproducible micro-arc discharges even after the erosion caused by the arc. Moreover, it was found that, in certain conditions, the preheating phase could be simulated using a simple inductor-capacitor-resistor (LCR) oscillator model with a resistor instead of electrodes immersed in the liquid. It was confirmed that the shape of the needle electrode’s tip did not affect the measurement of optical emission spectra in the case of precise focusing, which could be used in the development of compact analytical tools for on-site analysis of deep-sea water using atomic emission spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Peroxide Interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand Assessments of Plasma Treated Waters
Plasma 2019, 2(3), 294-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2030021
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Plasma-driven advanced oxidation represents a potential technology to safely re-use waters polluted with recalcitrant contaminants by mineralizing organics via reactions with hydroxyl radicals, thus relieving freshwater stress. The process results in some residual hydrogen peroxide, which can interfere with the standard method for [...] Read more.
Plasma-driven advanced oxidation represents a potential technology to safely re-use waters polluted with recalcitrant contaminants by mineralizing organics via reactions with hydroxyl radicals, thus relieving freshwater stress. The process results in some residual hydrogen peroxide, which can interfere with the standard method for assessing contaminant removal. In this work, methylene blue is used as a model contaminant to present a case in which this interference can impact the measured chemical oxygen demand of samples. Next, the magnitude of this interference is investigated by dosing de-ionized water with hydrogen peroxide via dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet and by solution. The chemical oxygen demand increases with increasing concentration of residual hydrogen peroxide. The interference factor should be considered when assessing the effectiveness of plasma to treat various wastewaters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasma Jets: Physics, Diagnostics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Emission Spectroscopic Characterization of a Helium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet with Various Mixtures of Argon Gas in the Presence and the Absence of De-Ionized Water as a Target
Plasma 2019, 2(3), 283-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2030020
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
A helium-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with various flow rates of argon gas as a variable working gas was characterized by utilizing optical emission spectroscopy (OES) alongside the plasma jet. The spectroscopic characterization was performed through plasma exposure in direct and indirect [...] Read more.
A helium-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with various flow rates of argon gas as a variable working gas was characterized by utilizing optical emission spectroscopy (OES) alongside the plasma jet. The spectroscopic characterization was performed through plasma exposure in direct and indirect interaction with and without de-ionized (DI) water. The electron density and electron temperature, which were estimated by Stark broadening of atomic hydrogen (486.1 nm) and the Boltzmann plot, were investigated as a function of the flow rate of argon gas. The spectra obtained by OES indicate that the hydroxyl concentrations reached a maximum value in the case of direct interaction with DI water as well as upstream of the plasma jet for all cases. The relative intensities of hydroxyl were optimized by changing the flow rate of argon gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasma Jets: Physics, Diagnostics and Applications)
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