Next Issue
Volume 3, June
Previous Issue
Volume 3, December

Table of Contents

Appl. Syst. Innov., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 16 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW) appears to be a solid joining process by the frictional heat [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessConcept Paper
Reducing Wooden Structure and Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Disaster Risk through Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010016 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
In recent years, severe and deadly wildland-urban interface (WUI) fires have resulted in an increased focus on this particular risk to humans and property, especially in Canada, USA, Australia, and countries in the Mediterranean area. Also, in areas not previously accustomed to wildfires, [...] Read more.
In recent years, severe and deadly wildland-urban interface (WUI) fires have resulted in an increased focus on this particular risk to humans and property, especially in Canada, USA, Australia, and countries in the Mediterranean area. Also, in areas not previously accustomed to wildfires, such as boreal areas in Sweden, Norway, and in the Arctic, WUI fires have recently resulted in increasing concern. January 2014, the most severe wooden town fire in Norway since 1923 raged through Lærdalsøyri. Ten days later, a wildfire raged through the scattered populated community of Flatanger and destroyed even more structures. These fires came as a surprise to the fire brigades and the public. We describe and analyze a proposed way forward for exploring if and how this increasing fire incidence can be linked to concomitant changes in climate, land-use, and habitat management; and then aim at developing new dynamic adaptive fire risk assessment and management tools. We use coastal Norway as an example and focus on temporal changes in fire risk in wooden structure settlements and in the Norwegian Calluna vulgaris L. dominated WUI. In this interface, the fire risk is now increasing due to a combination of land-use changes, resulting in large areas of early successional vegetation with an accumulation of biomass, and the interactive effects of climatic changes resulting in increased drought risk. We propose a novel bow-tie framework to explore fire risk and preventive measures at various timescales (years, months, weeks, hours) as a conceptual model for exploring risk contributing factors and possibilities for risk management. Ignition is the top event of the bow-tie which has the potential development towards a fire disaster as a worst case outcome. The bow-tie framework includes factors such as changes in the built environment and natural habitat fuel moisture content due to the weather conditions, WUI fuel accumulation, possibly improved ecosystem management, contribution by civic prescribed burner groups, relevant fire risk modeling, and risk communication to the fire brigades and the public. We propose an interdisciplinary research agenda for developing this framework and improving the current risk understanding, risk communication, and risk management. This research agenda will represent important contributions in paving the road for fire disaster prevention in Norway, and may provide a model for other systems and regions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Natural Virtual Reality User Interface to Define Assembly Sequences for Digital Human Models
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010015 - 12 Mar 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Digital human models (DHMs) are virtual representations of human beings. They are used to conduct, among other things, ergonomic assessments in factory layout planning. DHM software tools are challenging in their use and thus require a high amount of training for engineers. In [...] Read more.
Digital human models (DHMs) are virtual representations of human beings. They are used to conduct, among other things, ergonomic assessments in factory layout planning. DHM software tools are challenging in their use and thus require a high amount of training for engineers. In this paper, we present a virtual reality (VR) application that enables engineers to work with DHMs easily. Since VR systems with head-mounted displays (HMDs) are less expensive than CAVE systems, HMDs can be integrated more extensively into the product development process. Our application provides a reality-based interface and allows users to conduct an assembly task in VR and thus to manipulate the virtual scene with their real hands. These manipulations are used as input for the DHM to simulate, on that basis, human ergonomics. Therefore, we introduce a software and hardware architecture, the VATS (virtual action tracking system). This paper furthermore presents the results of a user study in which the VATS was compared to the existing WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointer) interface. The results show that the VATS system enables users to conduct tasks in a significantly faster way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality in Product Design)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks: An Up-to-Date Survey
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010014 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks are considered to be among the most rapidly evolving technological domains thanks to the numerous benefits that their usage provides. As a result, from their first appearance until the present day, Wireless Sensor Networks have had a continuously growing range [...] Read more.
Wireless Sensor Networks are considered to be among the most rapidly evolving technological domains thanks to the numerous benefits that their usage provides. As a result, from their first appearance until the present day, Wireless Sensor Networks have had a continuously growing range of applications. The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date presentation of both traditional and most recent applications of Wireless Sensor Networks and hopefully not only enable the comprehension of this scientific area but also facilitate the perception of novel applications. In order to achieve this goal, the main categories of applications of Wireless Sensor Networks are identified, and characteristic examples of them are studied. Their particular characteristics are explained, while their pros and cons are denoted. Next, a discussion on certain considerations that are related with each one of these specific categories takes place. Finally, concluding remarks are drawn. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Intelligent Microwave Oven with Thermal Imaging and Temperature Recommendation Using Deep Learning
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010013 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Whenever food in a microwave oven is heated, the user estimates the time to heat. This estimation can be incorrect, leading the food to be too hot or still cold. In this research, an intelligent microwave oven is designed. After the food is [...] Read more.
Whenever food in a microwave oven is heated, the user estimates the time to heat. This estimation can be incorrect, leading the food to be too hot or still cold. In this research, an intelligent microwave oven is designed. After the food is put into the microwave oven and the door is closed, it captures the image of the food, classifies the image and then suggests the food’s target temperature by learning from previous experiences, so the user does not have to recall the target food temperature each time the same food is warmed. The temperature of the food is measured using a thermal camera. The proposed microwave incorporates a display to show a real-time colored thermal image of the food. The microwave automatically stops the heating when the temperature of the food hits the target temperature using closed-loop control. The deep learning-based image classifier gradually learns the type of foods that are consumed in that household and becomes smarter in temperature recommendation. The system can classify and recommend target temperature with 93% accuracy. A prototype is developed using a microcontroller-based system and successfully tested. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Nanofluids Behavior in a PV-Thermal-Driven Organic Rankine Cycle with Cooling Capability
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010012 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
This paper discusses the performance of nanofluids in a PV Thermal-driven Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with cooling capabilities. This study was intended to investigate the enhancement effect and characteristics of nanofluids; Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4 and SiO [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the performance of nanofluids in a PV Thermal-driven Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with cooling capabilities. This study was intended to investigate the enhancement effect and characteristics of nanofluids; Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4 and SiO2 on the performance the hybrid system composed of PV Thermal, ORC and cooling coil. The quaternary refrigerant mixture used in the ORC cycle to enhance the ORC efficiency is an environmentally sound refrigerant mixture composed of R152a, R245fa, R125, and R1234fy. It was shown that the enhancement of the efficiency of the hybrid system in question is significantly dependent upon not only the solar radiation but also the nanofluids concentration and the type of nanofluid as well as the fluid temperature driving the ORC. A higher hybrid system efficiency has been overserved with nanofluid CuO. Moreover, it has been also shown that on the average, the hybrid system efficiency was higher 17% with nanofluid CuO compared to water as the heat transfer fluid. In addition, it was also observed that the higher cooling effect produced is significantly increased with the use of the nanofluid CuO compared to the other nanofluids under investigation and water as heat transfer fluid. The results observed in this paper on ORC efficiency and PV solar panel efficiency are comparable to what has been published in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Systems and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Secured Key Distribution by Concatenating Optical Communications and Inter-Device Hand-Held Video Transmission
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010011 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Key distribution is a growing concern for symmetric cryptography. Most of the current key-distribution mechanisms assume the use of the Internet and WAN networks, which are exposed to security hazards. To overcome them, the use of comprehensive and robust cryptographic mechanisms such as [...] Read more.
Key distribution is a growing concern for symmetric cryptography. Most of the current key-distribution mechanisms assume the use of the Internet and WAN networks, which are exposed to security hazards. To overcome them, the use of comprehensive and robust cryptographic mechanisms such as Diffie–Hellman (DH) and RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) algorithms are proposed. These solutions are limited. DH and RSA have been under threat since the introduction of quantum computing. Hence, new ideas are required. This paper introduces a new security approach for a safe key transmission using undetected high-speed optical camera communication (OCC), which is based on the rolling shutter effect of modern smart cameras. The key transfer is done by blinking light-emitting diode (LED) lights in a specific sequence and frequency, following an encoding pattern. The receiver decodes the received blinks to a bit string using a corresponding image processing application. This optical media ensures secure transfer without the ability to quote it. We demonstrate in an experiment the feasibility of using basic wireless optical communication for key transmission, eliminating the need for a permanent, long, and costly setup. It is mobile, available everywhere anytime, and requires only simple connections to operate. The results show that this method is feasible, robust, efficient, and implementable. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study of the Impact of PV-Thermal and Nanofluids on the Desalination Process by Flashing
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010010 - 03 Feb 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
In this study, a mathematical and numerical modeling of the photovoltaic (PV)-thermal solar system to power the multistage flashing chamber process is presented. The proposed model was established after the mass and energy conservation equations written for finite control volume were integrated with [...] Read more.
In this study, a mathematical and numerical modeling of the photovoltaic (PV)-thermal solar system to power the multistage flashing chamber process is presented. The proposed model was established after the mass and energy conservation equations written for finite control volume were integrated with properties of the water and nanofluids. The nanofluids studied and presented herein are Ai2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, and SiO2. The multiple flashing chamber process was studied under various conditions, including different solar radiation levels, brine flows and concentrations, and nanofluid concentrations as well as flashing chamber temperatures and pressures. Solar radiation levels were taken as 500 w/m2, 750 w/m2, 1000 w/m2, and finally, 1200 w/m2. The nanofluid volumetric concentrations considered varied from 1% to 20%. There is clear evidence that the higher the solar radiation, the higher the flashed flow produced. The results also clearly show that irreversibility is reduced by using nanofluid Ai2O3 at higher concentrations of 10% to 20% compared to water as base fluid. The highest irreversibility was experienced when water was used as base fluid and the lowest irreversibility was associated with nanofluid SiO2. The irreversibility increase depends upon the type of nanofluid and its thermodynamic properties. Furthermore, the higher the concentration (e.g., from 10% to 20% of Ai2O3), the higher the availability at the last flashing chamber. However, the availability is progressively reduced at the last flashing chamber. Finally, the predicted results compare well with experimental data published in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Systems and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Appl. Syst. Innov. in Volume 2, 2019
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010009 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Hamming Code Strategy for Medical Image Sharing
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010008 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
In medical practice, the scanned image of the patient between the patient and the doctor is confidential. If info is stored on a single server and the server is successfully attacked, it is possible to expose confidential information. Password encryption and data authentication [...] Read more.
In medical practice, the scanned image of the patient between the patient and the doctor is confidential. If info is stored on a single server and the server is successfully attacked, it is possible to expose confidential information. Password encryption and data authentication are commonly used to protect patient data, however, encryption and data authentication are computationally expensive and take time to execute on a mobile device. In addition, it is not easy for the patient details related to medical images to leak if the hacked image are not visual.Therefore, in this paper, we propose a way to make medical images remain untouched in this sense. We use our method to quickly create two shadows from two medical images and store them on two servers. Revealing a shadow image does nothing to compromise the confidentiality of a patient’s health. This method is based on Hamming code. With low computational cost, the proposed scheme is suitable for tablet, pamphlets and other mobile devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Resilience Analysis for Double Spending via Sequential Decision Optimization
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010007 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Recently, diverse concepts originating from blockchain ideas have gained increasing popularity. One of the innovations in this technology is the use of the proof-of-work (PoW) concept for reaching a consensus within a distributed network of autonomous computer nodes. This goal has been achieved [...] Read more.
Recently, diverse concepts originating from blockchain ideas have gained increasing popularity. One of the innovations in this technology is the use of the proof-of-work (PoW) concept for reaching a consensus within a distributed network of autonomous computer nodes. This goal has been achieved by design of PoW-based protocols with a built-in equilibrium property: If all participants operate honestly then the best strategy of any agent is also to follow the same protocol. However, there are concerns about the stability of such systems. In this context, the analysis of attack vectors, which represent potentially successful deviations from the honest behavior, turns out to be the most crucial question. Naturally, stability of a blockchain system can be assessed only by determining its most vulnerable components. For this reason, knowing the most successful attacks, regardless of their sophistication level, is inevitable for a reliable stability analysis. In this work, we focus entirely on blockchain systems which are based on the proof-of-work consensus protocols, referred to as PoW-based systems, and consider planning and launching an attack on such system as an optimal sequential decision-making problem under uncertainty. With our results, we suggest a quantitative approach to decide whether a given PoW-based system is vulnerable with respect to this type of attack, which can help assessing and improving its stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain-Based Systems: Design, Implementation and Evaluation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Bicycle Use among Student Population: Exploratory Research of Social and Infrastructure Factors
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010006 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
By exposing more benefits than shortcomings regarding cycling, this paper focuses on university students as a significant target group that could promote cycling as the main transport mode in cities. The paper addresses a variety of determinants, barriers, and motivation for cycling among [...] Read more.
By exposing more benefits than shortcomings regarding cycling, this paper focuses on university students as a significant target group that could promote cycling as the main transport mode in cities. The paper addresses a variety of determinants, barriers, and motivation for cycling among the university students within the international context. Furthermore, it exposes the importance of smaller university cities, where students can present a substantial share of the total population. Contextually, we present the research upon the use of bicycles among the students in the university city of Maribor, Slovenia. To examine whether social or infrastructural determinants play a decisive role, a questionnaire was conducted among 382 students. The findings revealed that although the topography of the city and the distances between crucial institutions are, in general, favorable, only 10.7% of students cycle daily, whereby 63.3% do not cycle at all. There were no statistical differences noticed between the impact of infrastructural and social factors; convenience was exposed as a statistically significant determinant, whereas the sustainability aspect proved to be an insignificant factor for students cycling. To conclude, cycling among the student population in smaller cities can represent a common case of potentially high impact of student population regarding sustainable mobility. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Survey of Smart Grid Concepts and Technological Demonstrations Worldwide Emphasizing on the Oman Perspective
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010005 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 516
Abstract
The Smart Grid (SG) is considered as an imminent future power network because of its fault identification and self-healing capabilities. Energy sustainability, renewable energy integration and an efficient control system are the key factors to be considered in developing SG system. Among various [...] Read more.
The Smart Grid (SG) is considered as an imminent future power network because of its fault identification and self-healing capabilities. Energy sustainability, renewable energy integration and an efficient control system are the key factors to be considered in developing SG system. Among various SG concepts, the term virtual power plant (VPP) integrates renewable energy to the grid and provides higher operational flexibility, but it requires extra capital costs for control system and software. The operational activities of a smart grid largely depend on the active customer demands. This paper defines and discusses various SG system concepts such as virtual power plant, and active demand in consumer networks, and also presents drivers and roadmaps for development of smart grids worldwide. Furthermore, this work provides an insight into present research and development on smart grids around the world, and sheds light on developing and establishing SG for the Sultanate of Oman. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Affordable Broadband with Software Defined IPv6 Network for Developing Rural Communities
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010004 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The software defined networking (SDN) paradigm with enhanced features of IPv6 offers flexible network management and better network visibility for enhancing overall network performance, network manageability, and security. Thus, along with the IPv6 network deployment worldwide, SDN migration has emerged worldwide, but network [...] Read more.
The software defined networking (SDN) paradigm with enhanced features of IPv6 offers flexible network management and better network visibility for enhancing overall network performance, network manageability, and security. Thus, along with the IPv6 network deployment worldwide, SDN migration has emerged worldwide, but network service providers suffer from different issues when migrating their existing legacy network into operable SDN and IPv6 enabled networks. In this paper, we investigate the affordability of broadband network services for the rural communities in the context of information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure deployment throughout Nepal. During the phase of network transformation, it will be more challenging for the service providers of Nepal to have a proper choice of technologies to expand the network while considering the proper policy formulation, affordability, need of skilled human resources, deployment cost, and many other aspects. We also present the service provider affordability via energy optimization in software defined IPv6 network (SoDIP6) implementation that contributes to a reduction in organizational operational expenditure (OpEX). We perform an experimental analysis over an SoDIP6 network testbed and present a comparison of the annual energy and OpEX savings for network service providers. Our empirical analysis shows that an energy saving of 31.50% on switches and 55.44% on links can be achieved with an SoDIP6 network compared to a network with legacy devices and network management. Optimization on service provider network operational cost leads to sustainability and affordable services to both customers and service providers Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation of a Cross-Section with a Constant Transverse Shear Stress Distribution Using a Numerical Approach
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010003 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 685
Abstract
A structural beam which is subjected to shear forces acting perpendicularly to its longitudinal axis will experience longitudinal and transverse shear stresses. In beams where failure in the transverse direction is plausible, it is desirable to maintain a constant transverse shear stress over [...] Read more.
A structural beam which is subjected to shear forces acting perpendicularly to its longitudinal axis will experience longitudinal and transverse shear stresses. In beams where failure in the transverse direction is plausible, it is desirable to maintain a constant transverse shear stress over the beam cross-section to avoid stress concentrations and to use the least amount of material. A numerical approach to the inverse problem of solving for a beam cross-section with a constant transverse shear stress distribution was investigated in this study using Microsoft Excel’s Solver and Matlab. The efficiency and shape of the developed cross-section were dependent on the number of elements used to discretize the cross-section. As the number of elements approached infinity, the shape of the cross-section became infinitely thin at the top and infinitely wide at the neutral axis, while also approaching an efficiency of 100%. It is therefore determined that this is an ill-posed inverse problem and no such perfect cross-section exists. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Structural Anatomy of Tunnel Void Defect in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding, Elucidated by the Analogue Modelling
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
The potential position for tunnel defect within the structure of bobbin-tool friction stir welds was studied by analogue modelling. The welding process was simulated on layered plasticine slabs instead, compared to the aluminum plates. Observations in the modelled structure showed a high possibility [...] Read more.
The potential position for tunnel defect within the structure of bobbin-tool friction stir welds was studied by analogue modelling. The welding process was simulated on layered plasticine slabs instead, compared to the aluminum plates. Observations in the modelled structure showed a high possibility for a continuous channelled discontinuity, like a tunnel-shaped void defect, in the entry zone of the weld, which mirrors the metal welding. The anatomy of tunnel defect in the entry zone was explained according to the mechanics of material during the plastic deformation process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
A Review of the Transformation of Road Transport Systems: Are We Ready for the Next Step in Artificially Intelligent Sustainable Transport?
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3010001 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Mobility is experiencing a revolution, as advanced communications, computers with big data capacities, efficient networks of sensors, and signals, are developing value-added applications such as intelligent spaces and autonomous vehicles. Another new technology that is both promising and might even be pervasive for [...] Read more.
Mobility is experiencing a revolution, as advanced communications, computers with big data capacities, efficient networks of sensors, and signals, are developing value-added applications such as intelligent spaces and autonomous vehicles. Another new technology that is both promising and might even be pervasive for faster, safer and more environmentally-friendly public transport (PT) is the development of autonomous vehicles (AVs). This study aims to understand the state of the current research on the artificially intelligent transportation system (ITS) and AVs through a critical evaluation of peer-reviewed literature. This study’s findings revealed that the majority of existing research (around 82% of studies) focused on AVs. Results show that AVs can potentially reduce more than 80% of pollutant emissions per mile if powered by alternate energy resources (e.g., natural gas, biofuel, electricity, hydrogen cells, etc.). Not only can private vehicle ownership be cut down by bringing in ridesharing but the average vehicle miles travelled (VMT) should also be reduced through improved PT. The main benefits of AV adoption were reported in the literature to be travel time, traffic congestion, cost and environmental factors. Findings revealed barriers such as technological uncertainties, lack of regulation, unawareness among stakeholders and privacy and security concerns, along with the fact that lack of simulation and empirical modelling data from pilot studies limit the application. AV–PT was also found to be the most sustainable strategy in dense urban areas to shift the heavy trip load from private vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Systems and Infrastructures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop