Next Issue
Volume 7, June
Previous Issue
Volume 7, April
 
 

J. Compos. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 35 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): AC with a surface area of 4320.7 m2/g was prepared via a chemical and hydrothermal process. SEM images confirmed the porosity and roughness of its surface. An FTIR study of prepared AC reported decreases in the hydroxyl group (OH-) and the removal of aliphatic bonds of both (C-H) and CH2 and CH3 groups due to thermal and chemical AC modifications. When AC was exposed to CO2 for 60 min in a closed chamber at atmospheric pressure, the adsorption of a 301.1 mmol CO2 (13.25 g CO2) per gram of activated carbon was observed. This adsorption was a result of AC porosity and its surface roughness. While not surpassing the highest recorded adsorption ratio of 920.6 mmol/g, this is still notably high. In addition, the thermal stability of AC was stable at high temperatures, proving that AC could be useful for many industrial applications such as catalysts. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
21 pages, 5545 KiB  
Article
Strong Structure Formation of Ceramic Composites Based on Coal Mining Overburden Rocks
by Galiya Rakhimova, Andrey Stolboushkin, Olga Vyshar, Victor Stanevich, Murat Rakhimov and Pavel Kozlov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050209 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Currently, the amount of man-made waste worldwide is steadily increasing. It is, therefore, necessary to constantly look for effective ways of utilization and recycling. It is also necessary to reduce the use of non-renewable resources and reduce the impact on the environment. The [...] Read more.
Currently, the amount of man-made waste worldwide is steadily increasing. It is, therefore, necessary to constantly look for effective ways of utilization and recycling. It is also necessary to reduce the use of non-renewable resources and reduce the impact on the environment. The use of coal industry waste is currently quite insignificant, amounting to some 10% of the total volume. The work aimed to study the properties of raw materials and study the processes of structure formation during the forming, drying, and firing of composite ceramic produced using overburden rock and additives. The work’s relevance lies in the need to solve environmental, economic, and technological problems related to the utilization of coal mining waste. Experiments of the past prove the possibility of using the waste coal industry as additives in the production of building materials. The article presents the results of studies of the chemical, mineralogical, and granulometric composition of overburden rock in coal mining. Peculiarities of structure formation during the forming, drying, and firing of ceramic composites based on optimal fractional compositions from coal-mine overburden were revealed. Organic and chemical additives were used for the correction of technological properties and improvement of the quality of finished composite products. The physical and mechanical indices of the obtained composite ceramic samples were determined, the analysis of which revealed that the use of highly mineralized carbonaceous rocks as solid additives provided a 2–2.5-fold increase in the strength of the product, 5.6% reduction in water absorption, and an increase in the product frost resistance by 20–25 cycles. The aluminum oxychloride influence on the physical and mechanical indices of the obtained composite articles was reflected in a reduction in their water absorption from 8.2 to 7.0%, a 10–12% increase in strength in compression, and an increase in freeze–thaw resistance by 30–35 cycles. Research results proved that the composition and properties of coal-mine overburden rock are close to those of conventional clays. With special technological preparation, they can be used for the production of composite ceramic products. This will significantly reduce the cost of bricks, to make up for the shortage of high-grade clay raw materials and improve the environmental situation. Nevertheless, further research into the use of coal-mine overburdens in the composite ceramic material technology is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 5255 KiB  
Article
High Strain Rates Impact Performance of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Impregnated with Shear-Thickening Fluid
by Minghai Wei, Li Sun and Wanjin Gu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050208 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
This paper examines the behavior at high strain rates of a shear-thickening fluid (STF) impregnated glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) fabric using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). This study involved impact testing of 4 GFRP specimens and 20 GFRP-STF composite specimens at four [...] Read more.
This paper examines the behavior at high strain rates of a shear-thickening fluid (STF) impregnated glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) fabric using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). This study involved impact testing of 4 GFRP specimens and 20 GFRP-STF composite specimens at four different strain rates. The STF employed in this study was synthesized by incorporating 20.0 wt.% of 12 nm silica in polyethylene glycol. Rheological tests indicated that the STF exhibited a noticeable shear-thickening effect, with viscosity surging from 3.0 Pa·s to 79.9 Pa·s. The GFRP-STF specimen demonstrated greater energy absorption capacity, deformation ability, and toughness, bearing higher and faster impact loads than neat GFRP. Specifically, the GFRP-STF specimen showed a 21.8% increase in peak stress and a 92.9% rise in energy absorption capacity under high-strain-rate loading. Notably, the stress–strain curve of the GFRP-STF specimen exhibited a distinct yield stage, while the energy absorption curve displayed no significant descending stage features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4932 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Energy Harvesting by Thermoelectric Cement Composites with Nanostructured Graphene and Metallic Oxides
by Sampad Ghosh and Bidyut Baran Saha
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050207 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
The measurement of electrical power and efficiency of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) holds significant importance in the realm of thermoelectric materials research and development. The present investigation involves the measurement of thermoelectric characteristics, namely electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, of cement [...] Read more.
The measurement of electrical power and efficiency of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) holds significant importance in the realm of thermoelectric materials research and development. The present investigation involves the measurement of thermoelectric characteristics, namely electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, of cement composites containing graphene nanoplatelets and metallic oxides (Fe2O3, ZnO, MnO2). These properties are then utilized to determine the electrical power output and efficiency of the aforementioned composites. It is possible to estimate a power output of up to 1.5 W per square meter when utilizing GnP-ZnO-added cement composites, given a temperature differential of approximately 50 °C. This paper additionally discusses the methodology for fabricating a cement composite-based structural TEG module with the aim of augmenting the overall output voltage, power, and efficiency of the system. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 4187 KiB  
Article
Application of the Artificial Neural Network to Predict the Bending Strength of the Engineered Laminated Wood Produced Using the Hydrolyzed Soy Protein-Melamine Urea Formaldehyde Copolymer Adhesive
by Morteza Nazerian, Fatemeh Naderi and Antonios N. Papadopoulos
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050206 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
The artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the laminated wood products adhered by melamine/urea formaldehyde (MUF) resin with different formaldehyde to melamine/urea molar ratios combined with different weight ratios of the protein adhesive resulting from [...] Read more.
The artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the laminated wood products adhered by melamine/urea formaldehyde (MUF) resin with different formaldehyde to melamine/urea molar ratios combined with different weight ratios of the protein adhesive resulting from the alkaline treatment (NaOH) of the soybean oil meal to MUF resin pressed at different temperatures according to the central composite design (CCD). After making the boards and performing the mechanical test to measure the MOR, based on experimental data, different statistics such as determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and sum of squares error (SSE) were determined, and then the suitable algorithm was selected to determine the estimated values. After comparing estimated values with the experimental values, the direct and interactive effects of the independent variables on MOR were determined. The results indicated that using suitable algorithms to train the ANN well, a very good estimate of the bending strength of the laminated wood products can be offered with the least error. In addition, based on the estimated and measured strengths and FTIR and TGA diagnostic analyses, it was found that the replacement of the MUF resin by the protein bio-based adhesive when using low F to M/U molar ratios, the MOR is maximized if a high range of temperature is used during the press. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2172 KiB  
Article
Unusual Micro Carbon Rods Formed from PET Plastic via Pyrolysis and Annealing in CO2/He Co-Gas
by Yi’en Zhou and Liang Hong
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050205 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
This study investigates the transformation of activated carbon (AC) powder, derived from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) through pyrolysis, into a specific type of short cylindrical carbon. This carbon-to-carbon (C-C) transformation was completed by annealing the AC powder in a co-gas atmosphere of He and [...] Read more.
This study investigates the transformation of activated carbon (AC) powder, derived from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) through pyrolysis, into a specific type of short cylindrical carbon. This carbon-to-carbon (C-C) transformation was completed by annealing the AC powder in a co-gas atmosphere of He and CO2. This produces low-porous, amorphous, and micro carbon rods (MCR) in micron size. It is suggested that a so-far unknown growth mechanism originates from the oxidation role of CO2, initiating the curving of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sheets. This annealing step was followed by layer-by-layer sheet stacking steps to render the thick rods. This thickness is also created by the simultaneous occurrence of rare carbon nanotubes, supposedly formed initially from curling a small sheet of PAH surrounding carbon nanoparticles to create a tube template for subsequent cylindrical growth. This is the first example of CNT growth through C-C transformation rather than the other vapor deposition routes. As the main product, MCR is amorphous and fairly porous, with an average aspect ratio greater than 10, which possesses potential applications as a mechanical reinforcing or energy-attenuation filler for different composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 10162 KiB  
Article
Porous Diatomaceous Earth/Nano-Zinc Oxide Composites: Preparation and Antimicrobial Applications
by Chin-Chun Chung and Jiunn-Jer Hwang
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050204 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
This paper presents the preparation and characterization of a porous and antimicrobial composite material consisting of diatomaceous earth, an inorganic pore-forming agent, and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO). A modified direct precipitation device produced high-surface area ZnO powder. The effect of reaction temperature, volume flow [...] Read more.
This paper presents the preparation and characterization of a porous and antimicrobial composite material consisting of diatomaceous earth, an inorganic pore-forming agent, and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO). A modified direct precipitation device produced high-surface area ZnO powder. The effect of reaction temperature, volume flow rate, and titration rate on ZnO particle size was studied. Using sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, and sodium percarbonate as porosity to create porous structures through dissolution was also investigated. This study found that adding cement sand to diatomaceous earth improved mold strength while lowering the volume flow rate, and increasing the reaction temperature increased the specific surface area of ZnO. At 60 °C, the crystalline structure changed from an irregular spherical form to a regular nanorod structure. The specific surface area of the prepared ZnO nanorods reached over 15 m2/g, which is about five times higher. In an antibacterial experiment, adding 5% ZnO nanorods of 50 nm diameter to the porous diatomaceous earth composite material resulted in a nearly 100% antibacterial rate against E. coli in an aqueous environment. The results suggest that the porous diatomaceous earth/nano-ZnO composite has potential applications as an antimicrobial material, and the modified direct precipitation method could have broader implications in materials science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 11738 KiB  
Article
Gypsum Composites with Modified Waste Expanded Polystyrene
by Pauls P. Argalis, Girts Bumanis and Diana Bajare
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050203 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
The construction and demolition waste recycling into secondary raw materials is vital to achieving a sustainable and circular building life cycle. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is one of the materials whose recycling rate should be increased. EPS boards can be shredded and used as [...] Read more.
The construction and demolition waste recycling into secondary raw materials is vital to achieving a sustainable and circular building life cycle. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is one of the materials whose recycling rate should be increased. EPS boards can be shredded and used as aggregate of lightweight cement composites resulting in a material with combined properties subjected from EPS and mineral binder. To reduce the open structure of shredded EPS particles, proper treatment could improve EPS performance. The heat treatment of the aggregates can reduce the volume and increase their density. In this paper, EPS aggregates were heat-treated at 120 and 130 °C, and heat-modified EPS aggregates with a bulk density of 40 and 100 kg/m3 were incorporated as filler material in gypsum composites. The composites’ density, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, and sound absorption were characterized. Results indicate that a composite with a compressive strength from 15 to 136 kPa and a material density ranging from 48 to 194 kg/m3 can be obtained. Thermal conductivity was achieved from 0.0390 to 0.0604 W/(mK). Following the ISO 10534-2 standard, the noise reduction coefficient was determined and showed promising results at 600 to 800 Hz, reaching a sound absorption coefficient of 0.88. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Waste to Advance Composite Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 9027 KiB  
Article
Influence of Discrete Basalt Fibres on Shrinkage Cracking of Self-Compacting Ambient-Cured Geopolymer Concrete
by Mohamed Heweidak, Bidur Kafle and Riyadh Al-Ameri
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050202 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Short basalt fibres (BFs) have recently gained significant interest in the building materials sector due to their superior mechanical characteristics and cheaper manufacturing cost than other fibre types. Drying shrinkage and the early-age cracking of concrete are the root cause of many durability [...] Read more.
Short basalt fibres (BFs) have recently gained significant interest in the building materials sector due to their superior mechanical characteristics and cheaper manufacturing cost than other fibre types. Drying shrinkage and the early-age cracking of concrete are the root cause of many durability issues in the long run. Including small dosages of fibres within concrete composites has been shown as an effective technique to minimise drying shrinkage rates and reduce the crack widths developed due to plastic shrinkage cracking. Nevertheless, limited research studies have investigated the influence of short and long BFs with different dosages on the drying shrinkage rates and early-age cracking of geopolymer composites. In the present study, self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC) using fly ash and slag as the binder is mixed with anhydrous sodium metasilicate powder as an alkali-activator. The study aims to investigate the influence of short (12 mm), long (30 mm) and hybrid-length (1:3 (short/long)) BFs with 1%, 1.5% and 2% dosages on the drying shrinkage properties and plastic shrinkage cracking of SCGC. The study results showed that adding BFs to SCGC reduces the drying shrinkage rates compared to plain SCGC, and SCGC reinforced with a 2% dosage of hybrid-length BFs recorded the lowest drying shrinkage rate. Two methods were used to measure crack widths: manual measurement (crack width gauge) and image analysis. No plastic shrinkage cracks were identified in mixes reinforced with 12 mm (1.5% and 2% dosages), 30 mm and hybrid-length BFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3964 KiB  
Article
Analysis Method for Post-Impact Damage Development in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminate under Repeated Loading
by Nikolai Turbin and Kirill Shelkov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050201 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
In the current work, an analysis method for obtaining post-impact damage propagation under cyclic compressive load in flat carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels is presented. The solution for damage growth life is given based on the introduced hypothesis of reference damage mode [...] Read more.
In the current work, an analysis method for obtaining post-impact damage propagation under cyclic compressive load in flat carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels is presented. The solution for damage growth life is given based on the introduced hypothesis of reference damage mode (RDM). The critical size of damage for obtaining damage growth life was informed by the analysis of crack driving force versus damage size conducted using finite element analysis (FEA). The applicability of the damage tolerance principle for the case of compression–compression cyclic loading of the structural element containing impact damage is discussed and illustrated by the example. The results of using the introduced simplified approach to the calculation of characteristics of damage growth life suggest that the use of the slow-growth approach in composite structures is possible, though the necessity of obtaining the exact parameters of the damage growth rate equation with regard to the chosen crack driving force measure must be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Modelling and Characterization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7380 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Piezoelectric PEO/SF/BaTiO3 Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering
by Abdelrahman K. A. Khalil, Hassan Fouad, Abdalla Abdal-hay, Nasser M. Abd El-salam and Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050200 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
The existence of an intrinsic electrical platform responsible for the formation and transmission of impulses is essential, especially in cardiac tissue. However, most cardiac tissue made from biodegradable polymeric materials lacks conductive characteristics; this delays regional conduction, potentially causing arrhythmias. This study proposes [...] Read more.
The existence of an intrinsic electrical platform responsible for the formation and transmission of impulses is essential, especially in cardiac tissue. However, most cardiac tissue made from biodegradable polymeric materials lacks conductive characteristics; this delays regional conduction, potentially causing arrhythmias. This study proposes a conductive polyethylene oxide (PEO)/silk fibroin (SF)-based material conjugated with conductive nanoparticles as a cardiac patch to fix any infarcted heart part. A new composite of PEO/15 wt%SF/0.2 wt%BaTiO3 was prepared and characterized in vitro. The obtained patches were characterized by conventional Bragg-platinum-conductive action (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis. A PiezoTester device was used to evaluate the piezoelectric properties. The produced samples of 500 μm thickness were assessed in tapping mode. The applied load was selected to be as low as possible, and the frequencies were adjusted to simulate the heartbeats, ranging from 10 to 100 Hz. The results showed that a maximum of around 1100 mV was obtained at a load of 20 N. A maximum of about 80 mV was received at an applied force of 1 N and a frequency of 100 Hz, which matches the electricity generated by the human heart. The cytotoxicity effect of prepared films was tested against AC16 cells using microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT). The pristine PEO cell viability either was not affected by adding SF or slightly decreased. However, the cell viability dramatically increased by adding BaTiO3 to the PEO/SF composites. The confocal microscope images proved that the cells showed a spread morphology. The cells adhered to the PEO membranes and demonstrated a well-spread morphology. Overall, our study suggests that the PEO/SF/BaTiO3 composite can be a promising cardiac patch material for repairing infarcted heart tissue, as it is conductive, has good mechanical properties, and is biocompatible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Additives for Bio-Based Advanced Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 2099 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Enhancing the Performance of Medical Implants with Nanocomposites
by Maziar Ramezani and Zaidi Mohd Ripin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050199 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3321
Abstract
Medical implants are essential tools for treating chronic illnesses, restoring physical function, and improving the quality of life for millions of patients worldwide. However, implant failures due to infection, mechanical wear, corrosion, and tissue rejection continue to be a major challenge. Nanocomposites, composed [...] Read more.
Medical implants are essential tools for treating chronic illnesses, restoring physical function, and improving the quality of life for millions of patients worldwide. However, implant failures due to infection, mechanical wear, corrosion, and tissue rejection continue to be a major challenge. Nanocomposites, composed of nanoparticles or nanofillers dispersed in a matrix material, have shown promising results in enhancing implant performance. This paper provides an overview of the current state of research on the use of nanocomposites for medical implants. We discuss the types of nanocomposites being developed, including polymer-, metal-, and ceramic-based materials, and their advantages/disadvantages for medical implant applications. Strategies for improving implant performance using nanocomposites, such as improving biocompatibility and mechanical properties and reducing wear and corrosion, are also examined. Challenges to the widespread use of nanocomposites in medical implants are discussed, such as biocompatibility, toxicity, long-term stability, standardisation, and quality control. Finally, we discuss future directions for research, including the use of advanced fabrication techniques and the development of novel nanocomposite materials. The use of nanocomposites in medical implants has the potential to improve patient outcomes and advance healthcare, but continued research and development will be required to overcome the challenges associated with their use. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 6490 KiB  
Review
Modern Trends in Recycling Waste Thermoplastics and Their Prospective Applications: A Review
by Isiaka Oluwole Oladele, Christian Junior Okoro, Anuoluwapo Samuel Taiwo, Linus N. Onuh, Newton Itua Agbeboh, Oluwayomi Peter Balogun, Peter Apata Olubambi and Senzeni Sipho Lephuthing
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050198 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5003
Abstract
Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics are two major classes of polymers in that have recently become materials that are indispensable for humankind. Regarding the three basic needs of human beings—food, shelter, and clothing—polymers and polymer-based materials have gained pre-eminence. Polymers are used in food [...] Read more.
Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics are two major classes of polymers in that have recently become materials that are indispensable for humankind. Regarding the three basic needs of human beings—food, shelter, and clothing—polymers and polymer-based materials have gained pre-eminence. Polymers are used in food production, beginning with farming applications, and in the health sector for the development of various biomaterials, as well as in shelter and clothing for a variety of applications. Polymers are the material of choice for all modern-day applications (transportation, sporting, military/defence, electronics, packaging, and many more). Their widespread applications have created many negative challenges, mainly in the area of environmental pollution. While thermoplastics can be easily reprocessed to obtain new products, thermosetting plastics cannot; thus, this review focuses more on the use of waste from thermoplastics with less emphasis on thermosetting plastics. Hence, the review presents a concise summary of the availability of waste thermoplastics as raw materials for product development and the anticipated benefits. The prospects for waste thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics, the possibility of cleaning the environment, and the uncovering of opportunities for further research and development are presented. The limitations of the current methods of waste polymer recycling are highlighted with possible future prospects from newly introduced methods. With zero tolerance for polymer waste in our environments, potential uses for recycled thermosetting plastics are described. Waste polymers should be seen as potential raw materials for research and development as well as major materials for new products. Recycled polymers are expected to be processed for use in advanced materials applications in the future due to their availability. This review shows that the major source of environmental pollution from polymers is the packaging, hence the need to modify products for these applications by ensuring that most of them are biodegradable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Waste to Advance Composite Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 7844 KiB  
Article
Natural-Fibre-Reinforced Composite-Based Micro-Size Wind Turbines: Numerical Analysis and Feasibility Study
by E. Fantin Irudaya Raj, M. Appadurai, Vishal Ram, Augustine Mathu Gnaniah and Surender Reddy Salkuti
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050197 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2722
Abstract
Due to their inherent advantages, micro-sized horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are preferred over vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) for urban applications. Typically, HAWTs on the market are constructed using steel, alloys, or fibre-reinforced composites, with the latter being the most economical and [...] Read more.
Due to their inherent advantages, micro-sized horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are preferred over vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) for urban applications. Typically, HAWTs on the market are constructed using steel, alloys, or fibre-reinforced composites, with the latter being the most economical and stable in comparison to steel and alloy-based HAWTs. Nevertheless, in light of the increased emphasis on cost savings and environmental sustainability, natural-fibre composites have become more desirable. This study focuses on the implementation of flax-fibre-reinforced HAWT wind blades designed for urban applications in particular. The proposed wind blades were designed using CATIA and their feasibility and performance were evaluated via numerical analyses in ANSYS. Structural, modal, and harmonic analyses were conducted under various loading conditions. The results indicate that flax-fibre-reinforced wind blades possess higher natural frequencies, greater stability, and lower deflection amplitudes at resonance frequencies than other materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fiber Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4381 KiB  
Article
Computational-Simulation-Based Behavioral Analysis of Chemical Compounds
by Pushpalatha Rajendran, Ramadevi Rathinasabapathy, Somasundaram Chandra Kishore and Stefano Bellucci
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050196 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
This research focuses on obtaining the behavior of chemical compounds with respect to their molecular weight and optimization energy based on the variation in properties in organic carbon links. Here, behavioral analysis of compounds is used in the application of a metal organic [...] Read more.
This research focuses on obtaining the behavior of chemical compounds with respect to their molecular weight and optimization energy based on the variation in properties in organic carbon links. Here, behavioral analysis of compounds is used in the application of a metal organic framework to denote the high-grade compounds. The grade was selected based on the essential measure of optimization energy and molecular weight, and in turn, depicts the stability of material. Computation of the optimization energy and molecular weight of chemical compounds was performed with Avogadro software. Several force fields can be considered to compute optimized energy. Exclusively, three force fields, namely, the Universal Force Field (UFF), the General Amber Force Field (GAFF), and the Ghemical force field (Ghemical) were selected from Avogadro as these were more relevant to compounds considered in this research. The various chemical compounds examined in this work are Aluminum (Al), Boron (Br), Calcium (Ca), Chlorine (Cl), Indium (In), Potassium (K), Scandium (Sc), Silicon (Si), and Tungsten (W). Hence, molecular modeling of different compounds incorporated with three different force fields was evaluated in this work. In this study, we found that the In structure has more energy reduction, of 22.673 kJ mol−1 in UFF, when compared with the other two force fields. Thus, In has higher potential with more stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Modelling and Characterization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1673 KiB  
Review
Multilayer External Enclosing Wall Structures with Air Gaps or Channels
by Nurlan Zhangabay, Askhat Tagybayev, Islambek Baidilla, Bayan Sapargaliyeva, Bekbulat Shakeshev, Kanat Baibolov, Bolat Duissenbekov, Akmaral Utelbayeva, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Aizhan Izbassar and Pavel Kozlov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050195 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Precise meanings of thermophysical processes taking place in air gaps have decisive importance in composite cladding structure systems’ calculation and modeling. The climatic load conditions in Kazakhstan can significantly affect the microclimate of premises in general. In this work, a review study is [...] Read more.
Precise meanings of thermophysical processes taking place in air gaps have decisive importance in composite cladding structure systems’ calculation and modeling. The climatic load conditions in Kazakhstan can significantly affect the microclimate of premises in general. In this work, a review study is carried out to obtain the relevant scientific literature on enclosing structures with air gaps under various climatic conditions. The review mainly covers research institutes from Sweden, Norway, France, Saudi Arabia, Russia, and China. On the issue of the air gap parameter’s influence on thermophysical processes, 16 papers were analyzed, and on the issue of air infiltration, 12 papers were analyzed. However, the review shows a lack of research in this area under various climatic conditions. At the same time, experience has shown that the principle of multilayer protection from climatic influences creates a favorable microclimate in buildings, but due to a possible temperature drop, wall structures made of composite building materials can be quite favorable under some conditions, and under others they may be less favorable. Therefore, working out a new energy-saving design with air gaps for climatic conditions with large temperature fluctuations during summer and winter is an urgent task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2242 KiB  
Article
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Optical Properties of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films Doped with Potassium Iodide
by Ahmed Ali Husein Qwasmeh, Batool A. Abu Saleh, Mohammed Al-Tweissi, Mou’ad A. Tarawneh, Ziad M. Elimat, Ruba I. Alzubi and Hassan K. Juwhari
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050194 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of thin films of polymer electrolytes was investigated. The thin films were composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) salt. The optical absorption spectrum of [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of thin films of polymer electrolytes was investigated. The thin films were composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) salt. The optical absorption spectrum of each film was measured using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer over a range of 300 to 800 nm. The PEO thin-film samples were subjected to gamma irradiation at two different doses of 100 and 200 Gy generated by a Co-60 source. It was found that the optical properties of the thin films were significantly influenced by the KI dopant concentration and gamma irradiation. Increasing both the KI concentration and the gamma irradiation dose resulted in a reduction in the energy gap and an increase in the absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the PEO electrolyte. These findings have potential applications in the optimization of polymers for use in optical devices and energy storage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
Fast Charging of a Thermal Accumulator Based on Paraffin with the Addition of 0.3 wt. % rGO
by Sergey A. Baskakov, Yulia V. Baskakova, Eugene N. Kabachkov, Elizaveta V. Dvoretskaya, Victor N. Vasilets, Zhi Li and Yury M. Shulga
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050193 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
The composite of paraffin with reduced graphene oxide (paraffin/rGO) was obtained at 70 °C by the mechanical mixing of the components followed by ultrasonic dispersion. The introduction of only 0.3 wt.% rGO stained the paraffin black. It has been shown that thermal batteries [...] Read more.
The composite of paraffin with reduced graphene oxide (paraffin/rGO) was obtained at 70 °C by the mechanical mixing of the components followed by ultrasonic dispersion. The introduction of only 0.3 wt.% rGO stained the paraffin black. It has been shown that thermal batteries made from 160 grams of pure paraffin and 160 grams of the composite are equally slow at charging when placed in boiling water. However, two minutes of microwave heating increases the temperature of the pure paraffin battery to only 32 °C, while the temperature of the paraffin/rGO composite battery rises to 74 °C, which is above the paraffin solid–liquid phase transition temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 7146 KiB  
Article
A Self-Pumping Composite Dressing Improved Hypertrophic Scar Healing with Dual Therapy and Active-Fluid Transport
by Kam-Che Lui, Nuruzzaman Noor, Chi-Wai Kan and Xungai Wang
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050192 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
Silicone gel sheeting (SGS) and pressure garment therapy (PGT) are the International Clinical Recommendations on Scar Management’s (ICRSM) two principal non-invasive scar-healing procedures. This study created a new PGT-SGS composite (PGF-Biopor®AB-based) via pre-strained screen printing. The Biopor®AB hydrophobicity and [...] Read more.
Silicone gel sheeting (SGS) and pressure garment therapy (PGT) are the International Clinical Recommendations on Scar Management’s (ICRSM) two principal non-invasive scar-healing procedures. This study created a new PGT-SGS composite (PGF-Biopor®AB-based) via pre-strained screen printing. The Biopor®AB hydrophobicity and nylon-hydrophilicity enabled self-pumping for PGT-SGS dual therapy and pressure-driven “warp insertions” mobility facilitates active-fluid transportation. Integrating both therapies in a single PGT-SGS composite achieved efficacy optimization, and the 3D channel structure allowed trauma-free active-fluid transport. The 3D channel topology enables smooth diffusional transport in active-fluid transport environments—and active “nylon absorbency” improved water uptake and enhanced permeability capabilities with sustainability achieved dynamic hydration. The sole use of PGF-Biopor®AB composite in empirical trials verified dual therapy with trauma-free active-fluid transport with one-month efficacy, providing a new route for dual treatment and active scar management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 8462 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nanostructured Silica Additives on the Extrusion-Based 3D Concrete Printing Application
by Zhenbang Liu, Mingyang Li, Guo Sheng James Moo, Hitoshi Kobayashi, Teck Neng Wong and Ming Jen Tan
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050191 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Recently, 3D printing technology has become more popular in the field of construction. For the extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP) process, the cementitious material needs to be strong and flowable enough to ensure buildability and pumpability. Nanostructured silica, a kind of additive, has [...] Read more.
Recently, 3D printing technology has become more popular in the field of construction. For the extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP) process, the cementitious material needs to be strong and flowable enough to ensure buildability and pumpability. Nanostructured silica, a kind of additive, has been used to modify the 3DCP concrete to meet these requests. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of nanostructured silica on rheological properties and failed to link the obtained rheological properties of nanostructured-silica-modified cementitious materials to the performance in 3D printing. In this paper, the 3DCP mixture based on premix cement, river sand, silica fume, and water was modified by different dosages of nanostructured silica (from 0.25% to 1.00% by the total weight of the 3DCP mixture). The effects of nanostructured silica on the rheological, hydration, printing, and microstructural properties were determined by rheological tests, stress growth tests, setting time tests, printing tests, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests, respectively. This paper revealed that the nanostructured silica has a positive effect on 3DCP buildability but negatively affects the printing quality, which fits the effect of nanostructured silica on the rheological properties. Hence, the determined rheological properties can qualitatively evaluate the printing performance of nanostructured-silica-modified cementitious materials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
ZnO:V Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activities
by Leila Alaya, Ahmad Mohammad Saeedi, Ahmad Abdulhadi Alsaigh, Meshal H. K. Almalki, Norah Hamad Alonizan and Mokhtar Hjiri
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050190 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
In this study, we used sol-gel to synthesize undoped and V-ZnO nanoparticles with different vanadium concentrations (1, 3, and 5 at.%) under supercritical dry conditions of ethanol. XRD spectra showed that the obtained powders are well crystallized in the hexagonal wurtzite structure of [...] Read more.
In this study, we used sol-gel to synthesize undoped and V-ZnO nanoparticles with different vanadium concentrations (1, 3, and 5 at.%) under supercritical dry conditions of ethanol. XRD spectra showed that the obtained powders are well crystallized in the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The average crystallite size, estimated by the Debye-Scherer formula, was found to be equal to 31 nm for the pure sample, and it was decreased to 27 nm for the 3at.% vanadium-doped one. SEM and TEM photographs indicated the spherical and elongated shapes of the nanoparticles. The stretching bands located at 419 cm−1 confirmed ZnO material formation. The efficacy of the produced ZnO NPs against Gram+, Gram bacteria, and fungi was tested. Vanadium-doped ZnO, with low concentrations (10 µg/mL), exhibited a large influence on bacterial and fungi growth inhibition. For example, the inhibition zones IZ of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria reached 16 and 15 mm, respectively, for ZnO:V1%, while the IZ of these two bacteria were 14 and 12 mm for the undoped ZnO. The use of V-dopant enhanced the production of the reactive oxygen species ROS by the photogeneration of electron-hole pairs due to light absorption by ZnO in the visible region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composites, Volume III)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 7958 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Prediction of Process Parameters during Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Hybrid Rice Straw and Furcraea foetida Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite
by Abhishek Sadananda Madival, Deepak Doreswamy, Raviraj Shetty, Nithesh Naik and Prakash Rao Gurupur
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050189 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
In the last few decades, natural composite materials have been considered one of the highly sustainable ecological alternatives for reducing the consumption of synthetic materials. Today, research on natural fiber composites is the main thrust for their use in various industrial applications. Further, [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, natural composite materials have been considered one of the highly sustainable ecological alternatives for reducing the consumption of synthetic materials. Today, research on natural fiber composites is the main thrust for their use in various industrial applications. Further, continuous research works are being carried out to utilize natural composites as an alternative to synthetic materials. However, the inhomogeneity of composites, delamination, fiber pullout, higher surface roughness (SR) and dimensional inaccuracy under traditional machining have led the attention towards non-traditional machining, such as abrasive water jet machining, to achieve high-quality components. Hence, in this study, an experimental analysis based on the design of experiments is conducted on the machinability of a hybrid rice straw/Furcraea foetida composite under abrasive water jet machining (AWJM). Further, the concentration of the rice straw and the AWJ process parameters are varied, and their effects on the quality of machining is evaluated. The experimental trials are designed based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array, followed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). From extensive experimentations, the concentration of rice straw is observed to be the most contributing (93.5%) factor to the SR. The traverse speed (TS) shows the highest percentage contributions of 93.13%, 55.50 and 55.70% to the material removal rate (MRR) and the top (TKW) and bottom kerf widths (BKW), respectively. However, the interaction between the fiber concentration and traverse speed gives the maximum contribution (35.04%) to the kerf taper (KT). A second-order response surface model is generated to study the effects of the process parameters on the SR, MRR, TKW, BKW and KT in any experimental domain. Finally, the microstructural characteristics of the machined surfaces, such as micro-cracks, debonding, and fiber pullout, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Spin Label Study of the Orientational Preferences of Lysozyme in a Bioinspired Silica Composite
by Francesco Bruno, Lucia Gigli and Enrico Ravera
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050188 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Polycationic polypeptides prompt the polycondensation of inorganic oxides, most notably of silica. Hen egg-white lysozyme is a small polycationic protein that is quite conveniently used to this end. The fate of the protein after the completion of the polycondensation reaction is still a [...] Read more.
Polycationic polypeptides prompt the polycondensation of inorganic oxides, most notably of silica. Hen egg-white lysozyme is a small polycationic protein that is quite conveniently used to this end. The fate of the protein after the completion of the polycondensation reaction is still a matter of debate. We have recently proven that lysozyme strongly interacts with silica. In this study, we use spin-label-based EPR spectroscopy to investigate whether the protein shows an orientational preference with respect to the silica surface within the composite. We find that a large share of the protein behaves as when it is adsorbed on pre-formed silica, albeit with a more marked preference for orientations that point the patches with higher surface charge density toward the material. In addition, a part of the protein shows a less-defined behavior. With this study, we provide additional information on the nature of the protein-material interactions in this class of bioinspired solids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biocomposites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2633 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Water Absorption Properties of 2D Interwoven Kevlar–Jute Reinforced Hybrid Laminates
by Narayana Dilip Raja, Kammanni Veerabhadrappa Anand Kumar, Sachin Salunkhe and Hussein Mohamed Abdelmoneam Hussein
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050187 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The hygroscopic properties of natural fibers tend to degrade the mechanical properties of composite materials. It is essential to investigate the influence of water absorption behavior on the mechanical properties of hybrid composite materials. In this study, hybrid laminate materials consisting of two [...] Read more.
The hygroscopic properties of natural fibers tend to degrade the mechanical properties of composite materials. It is essential to investigate the influence of water absorption behavior on the mechanical properties of hybrid composite materials. In this study, hybrid laminate materials consisting of two different reinforcement materials, i.e., Kevlar fibers and jute fibers in the same layer, are considered. Hybrid laminates that have four different weaving patterns: plain weave, basket weave, twill weave, and the satin weave, are tested for their water absorption characteristics. The jute fiber is a naturally extracted fiber that is subjected to chemical treatment. A comparison of mechanical properties before and after treatment of the jute fibers is carried out. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness are tested. It is found that the mechanical properties improved after the treatment of the jute fibers. The twill weave pattern exhibited negligible defects compared to its counterparts. Chemical treatment of the jute fibers enabled less water being absorbed into the hybrid laminate materials. Mechanical properties improved after using chemically treated jute fibers as the reinforcement material in the hybrid laminate materials. It is concluded that the twill weave pattern and chemical treatment of the natural fibers improved the mechanical properties of the hybrid laminate materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Engineered GO-Silk Fibroin-Based Hydrogel for the Promotion of Collagen Synthesis in Full-Thickness Skin Defect
by Valeriia Syromiatnikova, Sharda Gupta, Margarita Zhuravleva, Galina Masgutova, Elena Zakirova, Alexander Aimaletdinov, Albert Rizvanov, Ilnur Salafutdinov, Ekaterina Naumenko and Arindam Bit
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050186 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
In order to improve the regeneration of full-layer skin defects, hydrogels were developed based on the combination of chitosan (Cs), Daba silk fibroin (DSF), and graphene oxide (GO): CS, DSF/Cs and DSF/Cs/GO. The biocompatibility of hydrogels with human dermis fibroblasts in vitro was [...] Read more.
In order to improve the regeneration of full-layer skin defects, hydrogels were developed based on the combination of chitosan (Cs), Daba silk fibroin (DSF), and graphene oxide (GO): CS, DSF/Cs and DSF/Cs/GO. The biocompatibility of hydrogels with human dermis fibroblasts in vitro was evaluated using the MTS assay. To assess the regenerative potential of hydrogels, a model of a full-layer skin defect was reconstructed on the back of rats and closed the wound surface with CS, DSF/Cs and DSF/Cs/GO hydrogels. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of regenerate tissues were obtained by staining with hematoxylin-eosin, Heidengain azocarmine, and immunohistochemistry on days 7 and 14 of the experiment. It has been shown that the use of DSF/Cs and DSF/Cs/GO promotes enhanced healing and epithelization of a full-layer skin wound. The addition of GO to the hydrogel increased the synthetic activity of fibroblasts and improved the characteristics of the produced collagen fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8506 KiB  
Article
Structure and Oxidation Resistance of Mo-Y-Zr-Si-B Coatings Deposited by DCMS and HIPIMS Methods Using Mosaic Targets
by Alina D. Sytchenko, Pavel A. Loginov, Alla V. Nozhkina, Evgeny A. Levashov and Philipp V. Kiryukhantsev-Korneev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050185 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
In this study, Mo-(Y,Zr)-Si-B coatings were obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) using mosaic targets. The results showed that the addition of Y and Zr into the composition of Mo-Si-B coatings led to the suppression of [...] Read more.
In this study, Mo-(Y,Zr)-Si-B coatings were obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) using mosaic targets. The results showed that the addition of Y and Zr into the composition of Mo-Si-B coatings led to the suppression of columnar grain growth, a decrease in the crystallite size of h-MoSi2 phase from ~50 to ~5 nm, and an increase in the amorphous to crystalline phases ratio Doping of the Mo-Si-B coating with Y and Zr promoted an increase in oxidation resistance at a temperature of 1000 °C. The introduction of yttrium into the composition of Mo-Si-B contributed to an increase in their crack resistance when heated to 1300 °C. High oxidation resistance of the coatings was provided by a defect-free SiO2 + MoO3 + Y2O3 surface layer. The transition from the DCMS mode to HIPIMS decreased the texture of the Mo-Si-B coatings. The use of an HIPIMS mode led to a decrease in the oxidation rate of Mo-(Y)-Si-B coatings at T = 1000 °C by 1.6–4.5 times compared to DCMS. In the case of Mo-Y-Si-B coatings, the use of HIPIMS led to a decrease of more than 50% in the thickness of the oxide layer at a temperature of 1300 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6828 KiB  
Article
Tensile, Compressive, and Flexural Characterization of CFRP Laminates Related to Water Absorption
by Sudarisman Sudarisman, Haniel Haniel, Angger Kaloka Taufik, Muhammad Tiopan, Rela Adi Himarosa and Muhammad Akhsin Muflikhun
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050184 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3251
Abstract
CFRP structures are often exposed to humid environment resulting in water absorption and causing property degradation. Water swelling and its effect on tensile, compressive, and flexural properties were investigated according to ASTM standards. Fracture modes were evaluated by analyzing micrographs of fracture areas. [...] Read more.
CFRP structures are often exposed to humid environment resulting in water absorption and causing property degradation. Water swelling and its effect on tensile, compressive, and flexural properties were investigated according to ASTM standards. Fracture modes were evaluated by analyzing micrographs of fracture areas. The specimens were cut from twill wave CFRP composite plates fabricated using a vacuum infusion technique. Some of them were immersed in water prior to being mechanically tested. It was found that tensile strength, as well as compressive, and flexural strength and moduli decreased due to water swelling, but fracture strain was found to increase due to water swelling. The most severely affected by water swelling is flexural strength (decreased by 25.72%), and the least is compressive modulus (decreased by 1.89%). Tensile specimens underwent fibre breakage followed by matrix cracking, compressive and flexural specimens showed fibre buckling followed by kinking and crushing where flexural specimens failed in their compressive side. In conclusion, water absorption has a bad impact on the composite strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 1614 KiB  
Article
Hygro-Elastic Coupling in a 3D Exact Shell Model for Bending Analysis of Layered Composite Structures
by Salvatore Brischetto and Domenico Cesare
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050183 - 3 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
In this work, a 3D fully coupled hygro-elastic model is proposed. The moisture content profile is a primary variable of the model’s displacements. This generic fully coupled 3D exact shell model allows the investigations into the consequences arising from moisture content and elastic [...] Read more.
In this work, a 3D fully coupled hygro-elastic model is proposed. The moisture content profile is a primary variable of the model’s displacements. This generic fully coupled 3D exact shell model allows the investigations into the consequences arising from moisture content and elastic fields in terms of stresses and deformations on different plate and shell configurations embedded in composite and laminated layers. Cylinders, plates, cylindrical and spherical shells are analyzed in the orthogonal mixed curvilinear reference system. The 3D equilibrium equations and the 3D Fick diffusion equation for spherical shells are fully coupled in a dedicated system. The main advantage of the orthogonal mixed curvilinear coordinates is related to the degeneration of the equations for spherical shells to simpler geometries thanks to basic considerations of the radii of curvature. The exponential matrix method is used to solve this fully coupled model based on partial differential equations in the thickness direction. The closed-form solution is related to simply supported sides and harmonic forms for displacements and the moisture content. The moisture content amplitudes are directly applied at the top and bottom outer faces through steady-state hypotheses. The final system is based on a set of coupled homogeneous second-order differential equations. A first-order differential equation system is obtained by redoubling the number of variables. The moisture field implications are evaluated for the static analysis of the plates and shells in terms of displacement and stress components. After preliminary validations, new benchmarks are proposed for several thickness ratios, geometrical and material data, lamination sequences and moisture values imposed at the external surfaces. In the proposed results, there is clearly accordance between the uncoupled hygro-elastic model (where the 3D Fick diffusion law is separately solved) and this new fully coupled hygro-elastic model: the differences between the investigated variables (displacements, moisture contents, stresses and strains) are always less than 0.3%. The main advantages of the 3D coupled hygro-elastic model are a more compact mathematical formulation and lower computational costs. Both effects connected with the thickness layer and the embedded materials are included in the conducted hygro-elastic analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5297 KiB  
Article
Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan and Aggregate Size on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Pervious Concrete
by Kwabena Boakye and Morteza Khorami
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050182 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Pervious concrete has been reported as a viable solution to reduce stormwater run-off, the heat-island effect, road noise, and pavement flooding. Previous researchers have focused on analysing the structural properties and functionality of pervious concrete. However, relatively few studies have been conducted into [...] Read more.
Pervious concrete has been reported as a viable solution to reduce stormwater run-off, the heat-island effect, road noise, and pavement flooding. Previous researchers have focused on analysing the structural properties and functionality of pervious concrete. However, relatively few studies have been conducted into the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as calcined clay, in pervious concrete and its effect on long-term durability. This paper has studied the effect of calcined clay pozzolan as a partial substitute for Portland cement in pervious concrete, together with the influence of coarse aggregate size. A water–binder ratio of 0.4 and aggregate–binder ratio of 4.0, as well as a superplasticiser content of 0.95%, were maintained for all mixes. Two sizes of coarse aggregates were used for this study: 9.5 mm and 20 mm. CEM-I cement was partly substituted with calcined clay in dosages of 0 to 30% in replacement intervals of 5%. The mechanical tests conducted included the split tensile test, compressive strength test, and flexural strength test. Durability measurements such as the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT), thermal conductivity and sulphate resistance tests were also carried out. The mechanical properties of the pervious concrete followed a similar trend. The results showed that at 20% replacement with calcined clay, the compressive strength increased by 12.7% and 16% for 9.5 mm and 20 mm aggregates, respectively. The flexural strength improved by 13.5% and 11.5%, whereas the splitting tensile strength increased by 35.4% and 35.7%, respectively, as compared to the reference concrete. Beyond 20% replacement, the tested strengths declined. The optimum calcined clay replacement was found to be 20% by weight. Generally, pervious concrete prepared with 9.5 mm obtained improved mechanical and durability properties, as compared to those of 20 mm aggregates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 8314 KiB  
Article
Use of Dregs as a Replacement for Hydrated Lime in Cement Coating Mortar
by Alencar Ibeiro de Oliveira, Mahbube Subhani, Arthur Behenck Aramburu, Hebert Luis Rossetto, Guilherme Höehr Trindade, White José dos Santos and Rafael de Avila Delucis
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050181 - 1 May 2023
Viewed by 1791
Abstract
The pulp and paper industry generates a significant volume of solid waste during its operations. In order to mitigate the environmental impact caused by this industry, one of its residues was applied in eco-friendly composites. Therefore, this research aims to use green liquor [...] Read more.
The pulp and paper industry generates a significant volume of solid waste during its operations. In order to mitigate the environmental impact caused by this industry, one of its residues was applied in eco-friendly composites. Therefore, this research aims to use green liquor dregs as a partial replacement for lime in coating mortars. Hydrated lime was replaced by dregs in percentages of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 30%, and the manufactured mortar specimens were tested in terms of their flowability, air content, and specific gravity in the fresh state. In the hardened state, physical and chemical characterization was carried out to determine the influence of the introduction of the dregs on the properties of the different types of mortar. Mechanical testing of the mortar specimens’ compressive, flexural, and adhesive strengths was carried out, and scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the microstructural features of the cement composites. In general, the types of mortar with dregs showed a high degree of similarity to conventional mortar in all studied aspects, including the 30% replacement group. The obtained SEM images indicated that the presence of dregs in the mortar did not change the formational mechanism of C-S-H crystals, maintaining the mechanical properties of the material even after the accelerated aging procedure was performed, reaching similar levels of flexural, compressive, and tensile bond strengths when compared to the neat mortar. Furthermore, tensile bond levels reached approximately 0.9 MPa for all the studied types of mortar, allowing the material to be used in external applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Manufacturing and Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2258 KiB  
Article
Structure and Property of Diamond-like Carbon Coating with Si and O Co-Doping Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering
by Wei Dai, Liang Wu and Qimin Wang
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(5), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7050180 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with Si and O co-doping (Si/O-DLC) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C2H2, O2 and Ar to sputter a silicon/graphite splicing target. The O content in [...] Read more.
In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with Si and O co-doping (Si/O-DLC) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C2H2, O2 and Ar to sputter a silicon/graphite splicing target. The O content in the Si/O-DLC coatings was controlled by tuning the O2 flux in the gas mixture. The composition, chemical bond structure, mechanical properties and tribological behavior of the coatings were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, a scratch tester and a ball-on-disk tribometer. The electrical resistivity of the Si/O-DLC coatings was also studied using the four-point probe method. The results show that the doping O tends to bond with Si to form a silicon–oxygen compound, causing a decrease in the sp3 content as well as the hardness of the coatings. The tribological performance of the coatings can be improved due to the formation of the silicon–oxygen compound, which can effectively reduce the friction coefficient. In addition, the insulating silicon–oxygen compound is doped into the C-C network structure, significantly improving the surface resistivity of the DLC coating with a low sp3 content. The Si/O-DLC coatings with good mechanical properties, tribological performance and electrical insulation properties might be used as protection and insulation layers for microelectronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop