Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Compos. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-30
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Graphene/Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Hierarchical Polymer Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010030
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
Viewed by 376 | PDF Full-text (3567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) have extensively been used as structural elements in a myriad of sectors due to their superior mechanical properties, low weight and ease of processing. However, the relatively weak compression and interlaminar properties of these composites limit their applications. [...] Read more.
Conventional carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) have extensively been used as structural elements in a myriad of sectors due to their superior mechanical properties, low weight and ease of processing. However, the relatively weak compression and interlaminar properties of these composites limit their applications. Interest is, therefore, growing in the development of hierarchical or multiscale composites, in which, a nanoscale filler reinforcement is utilized to alleviate the existing limitations associated with the matrix-dominated properties. In this work, the fabrication and characterization of hierarchical composites are analyzed through the inclusion of graphene to conventional CFRP by vacuum-assisted resin infusion molding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Graphene-based Nanocomposites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Wear Behavior of Copper–Graphite Composites Processed by Field-Assisted Hot Pressing
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010029
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
Viewed by 219 | PDF Full-text (3583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper–graphite composites with 0–4 wt % graphite were fabricated by field-assisted hot pressing with the aim of studying the effect of graphite content on microhardness and tribological properties. Experimental results reveal that hardness decreases with the graphite content. Wear testing was carried out [...] Read more.
Copper–graphite composites with 0–4 wt % graphite were fabricated by field-assisted hot pressing with the aim of studying the effect of graphite content on microhardness and tribological properties. Experimental results reveal that hardness decreases with the graphite content. Wear testing was carried out using a ball-on-disc tribometer with a normal load of 8 N at a constant sliding velocity of 0.16 m/s. The friction coefficient of composites decreases significantly from 0.92 to 0.29 with the increase in graphite content, resulting in a friction coefficient for the 4 wt % graphite composite that is 68.5% lower than pure copper. The wear rate first increases when the graphite content is 1 wt %; it then decreases as the graphite content is further increased until a certain critical threshold concentration of graphite, which seems to be around 3 wt %. Plastic deformation in conjunction with some oxidative wear is the wear mechanism observed in pure copper, while abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism in copper–graphite composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Graphene-based Nanocomposites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Machinability, Modelling and Statistical Analysis of In-Situ Al–Si–TiB2 Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010028
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Viewed by 236 | PDF Full-text (6247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aluminum and its alloys have numerous applications in manufacturing, aerospace, and automotive industries. At elevated temperatures, they start to fail in fulfilling their roles and functions. Aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) are good alternatives for metal and alloys due to their excellent properties. [...] Read more.
Aluminum and its alloys have numerous applications in manufacturing, aerospace, and automotive industries. At elevated temperatures, they start to fail in fulfilling their roles and functions. Aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) are good alternatives for metal and alloys due to their excellent properties. However, the conventional machining of several composites shows complications for a number of reasons, such as high tool wear, poor surface roughness, high machining cost, cutting forces, etc. Numerous studies have already been conducted on the machinability of various MMCs, but the machinability of Al–Si–TiB2 composite is still not well studied. It is of utmost importance that several process parameters of conventional machining are precisely controlled as well as optimized. In this study an effort was made to optimize input parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed to obtain well-finished final components with the minimum cutting force and tool wear. These progressions are involved with multiple response characteristics, therefore the exploration of an appropriate multi-objective optimization technique was indeed essential. The performance characteristics of cutting forces and surface roughness were considered for optimization of the machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed for the optimization and statistical analysis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Critical Review of the Parameters Affecting the Effectiveness of Moisture Absorption Treatments Used for Natural Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010027
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
Viewed by 262 | PDF Full-text (4239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural composites can be fabricated through reinforcing either synthetic or bio-based polymers with hydrophilic natural fibers. Ultimate moisture absorption resistance at the fiber–matrix interface can be achieved when hydrophilic natural fibers are used to reinforce biopolymers due to the high degree of compatibility [...] Read more.
Natural composites can be fabricated through reinforcing either synthetic or bio-based polymers with hydrophilic natural fibers. Ultimate moisture absorption resistance at the fiber–matrix interface can be achieved when hydrophilic natural fibers are used to reinforce biopolymers due to the high degree of compatibility between them. However, the cost of biopolymers is several times higher than that of their synthetic counterparts, which hinders their dissemination in various industries. In order to produce economically feasible natural composites, synthetic resins are frequently reinforced with hydrophilic fibers, which increases the incompatibility issues such as the creation of voids and delamination at fiber–matrix interfaces. Therefore, applying chemical and/or physical treatments to eliminate the aforementioned drawbacks is of primary importance. However, it is demonstrated through this review study that these treatments do not guarantee a sufficient improvement of the moisture absorption properties of natural composites, and the moisture treatments should be applied under the consideration of the following parameters: (i) type of hosting matrix; (ii) type of natural fiber; (iii) loading of natural fiber; (iv) the hybridization of natural fibers with mineral/synthetic counterparts; (v) implantation of nanofillers. Complete discussion about each of these parameters is developed through this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability of Composites Under Severe Environmental Conditions)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reinforced Concrete Corbel Strengthened Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Sheets
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010026
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
Viewed by 237 | PDF Full-text (4673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents and discusses the procedures adopted for repairing and strengthening a damaged reinforced concrete corbel of an industrial biomass boiler. The reinforced concrete corbel was subjected to concrete spalling, favoring the risk of the main tie reinforcement slip in the anchorage [...] Read more.
This paper presents and discusses the procedures adopted for repairing and strengthening a damaged reinforced concrete corbel of an industrial biomass boiler. The reinforced concrete corbel was subjected to concrete spalling, favoring the risk of the main tie reinforcement slip in the anchorage zone. The proposed solution involved a local repair with a polymeric mortar and subsequent strengthening using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, attending the requirements imposed by the in site conditions and the design plans. The intervention allowed the confinement of the concrete zone subjected to spalling and provided additional safety for the main tie reinforcement of the corbel. The applied technique was demonstrated to be fast, reliable, practical, and cheaper than other available solutions, such as section enlargements with concrete jacketing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FRP Composites in Structural Concrete)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Thermal Analysis of Blended Nanoaluminum/Fluorinated Polyether-Segmented Urethane Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010025
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
Viewed by 254 | PDF Full-text (1585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermally induced reaction of aluminum fuel and a fluoropolymer oxidizer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (via C-F activation) has been a well-studied thermite event for slow-burning pyrolants among a multitude of energetic applications. Generally, most metallized thermoplastic fluoropolymers suffer from manufacturing limitations using common [...] Read more.
The thermally induced reaction of aluminum fuel and a fluoropolymer oxidizer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (via C-F activation) has been a well-studied thermite event for slow-burning pyrolants among a multitude of energetic applications. Generally, most metallized thermoplastic fluoropolymers suffer from manufacturing limitations using common melt or solvent processing techniques due to the inherent low surface energy and high crystallinity of fluoropolymers. In this report, we prepared an energetic composite utilizing the versatility of urethane-based polymers and provide a comparative thermal characterization study. Specifically, a thermite formulation comprising of nanometer-sized aluminum (nAl) fuel coated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oxidizer was solvent-blended with either a polyethylene glycol (PEG) or PFPE-segmented urethane copolymer. Thermal data were collected with calorimetric and thermogravimetric techniques to determine glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature, which showed modest effects upon various loadings of PFPE-coated nAl in the urethane matrix. While our application focus was for energetics, this study also demonstrates the potential to expand the ability to broadly manufacture structural metallized composites to their consideration as coatings, foams, or fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research and Development in Composite Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Deterioration of Wood Plastics Composites by the White-Rot Fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010024
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
Viewed by 329 | PDF Full-text (4218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wood plastic composites (WPC) are characterized by the mixing of wood fibers with plastics, allowing the production of new products whose characteristics are in several aspects superior to those of the original products and represent an expanding class of durable and low-cost materials [...] Read more.
Wood plastic composites (WPC) are characterized by the mixing of wood fibers with plastics, allowing the production of new products whose characteristics are in several aspects superior to those of the original products and represent an expanding class of durable and low-cost materials in which their uses can reduce the environmental footprint and the dependence on petroleum products. Nevertheless, WPC has some setbacks, including biodegradation, which shortens its life span. In this study, the wood composite was exposed to the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus in order to evaluate its resistance to biodegradation. The WPC was prepared with a 1:1 ratio of Eucalyptus spp. bark as reinforcement agent and polypropylene as matrix. Mechanical and rheological properties and mass loss were evaluated from 15 to 120 days of fungus exposure. After 15 days, a mass loss was detected, which transmitted a negligible effect on the impact resistance of the composite. For the 120-day fungus-exposed composite, the fungus produced a biofilm under the WPC that create a special environment for lignocellulosic consuming led to deterioration of the mechanical properties and minor changes on the thermal–chemical stability of the WPC. Finally, the study gave a great indication of the susceptibility of a Eucalyptus-based composite to biodegradation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Measuring Fiber Orientation of Elliptical Fibers from Optical Microscopy
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010023
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
Viewed by 340 | PDF Full-text (3372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The orientation of fibers with elliptical cross-sections cannot be estimated using standard optical microscopy analysis methods in which the ratio of the minor-axis to the major-axis and orientation of the major-axis are directly used to determine the fiber spherical coordinates, θ and ϕ [...] Read more.
The orientation of fibers with elliptical cross-sections cannot be estimated using standard optical microscopy analysis methods in which the ratio of the minor-axis to the major-axis and orientation of the major-axis are directly used to determine the fiber spherical coordinates, θ and ϕ . A new method for estimating the orientation of fibers with elliptical cross-sections is presented and validated using both simulations and experiments. Fibers with elliptical cross-sections rather than circular possess a roll degree of freedom, which significantly affects the dimensions of projected cross-sections in viewing planes. The equations of the projected ellipse of an elliptic cylinder onto a viewing plane are determined in terms of typical spherical coordinate system angles, θ and ϕ , the roll angle, α , and the fiber semi-major and semi-minor diameters. Fiber angles are determined by numerical fitting of the developed equations to measured ellipses. An ambiguity in the determined angles is identified, and, in the special case of fiber bundles, a scheme is presented by which the ambiguity can be resolved. Validation experiments showed that the method is quite effective at estimating fiber orientation from micrographs when fiber cross-section dimensions are measured beforehand, and the additional ambiguity is resolved easily in the case of fiber bundles. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
On the Representativeness of the Cohesive Zone Model in the Simulation of the Delamination Problem
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010022
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
Viewed by 265 | PDF Full-text (5933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of finite element (FE) codes, numerical modelling of delamination is often considered to be somewhat commonplace in modern engineering. However, the readily available modelling techniques often undermine the truthful understanding of the nature of the problem. In particular, a critical [...] Read more.
With the development of finite element (FE) codes, numerical modelling of delamination is often considered to be somewhat commonplace in modern engineering. However, the readily available modelling techniques often undermine the truthful understanding of the nature of the problem. In particular, a critical review of the representativeness of the numerical model is often diverted to merely a matter of numerical accuracy. The objective of this paper is to scrutinise the representativeness of cohesive zone modelling (CZM), which is readily available in most of the modern FE codes and is used extensively. By concentrating on obtaining the converged solution for the most basic types of delamination, a wide range of modelling complications are addressed systematically, through which complete clarity is brought to their FE modelling. The representativeness of the obtained predictions, i.e., their ability to reproduce the physical reality of the delamination process, is investigated by conducting a basic verification of the results, where the capability of the model to reproduce its input data in terms of critical energy release rates is assessed. It is revealed that even with converged solutions, input values of the critical energy release rates for the simple cases considered are not reproduced precisely, indicating that representativeness of the CZM for more general applications must not be taken for granted. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetic of Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites Using an Isoconversional Method
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010021
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
Viewed by 307 | PDF Full-text (5274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Behavior studies of thermoplastic polymers during non-isothermal crystallization are extremely important since most of their properties are influenced by degree of crystallinity and the crystallization process. In general, an approach based on a model-fitting method is used to perform crystallization kinetic studies. Due [...] Read more.
Behavior studies of thermoplastic polymers during non-isothermal crystallization are extremely important since most of their properties are influenced by degree of crystallinity and the crystallization process. In general, an approach based on a model-fitting method is used to perform crystallization kinetic studies. Due to their inability to uniquely determine the reaction mode, many studies have used the isoconversional method, where it is not necessary to assume a crystallization model to obtain the kinetic parameters. Therefore, in this work, the influence of acid and octadecylamine functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the crystallization kinetic of polyethylene (PE) was studied using an isoconversional method with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). The kinetic parameters and the crystallization model were determined. The incorporation of functionalized and non-functionalized CNTs into PE did not change the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami crystallization model. However, the CNTs increased the crystallization temperature and reduced the activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the Avrami coefficient values were lower for the nanocomposites when compared to pure PE. The incorporation of CNTs accelerated the crystallization of PE, reducing the crystallite sizes and modifying their morphology. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Performance of Wet and Dry Pulverized Wood Flour Reinforced PP Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010020
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Viewed by 327 | PDF Full-text (4443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we exclusively studied the effects of dry and wet pulverization of different wood flours on the fatigue performance of polypropylene (PP)/wood flour (WF) composites. Wood flours obtained from cypress and Scots pine trees were pulverized in both dry and wet [...] Read more.
In this paper, we exclusively studied the effects of dry and wet pulverization of different wood flours on the fatigue performance of polypropylene (PP)/wood flour (WF) composites. Wood flours obtained from cypress and Scots pine trees were pulverized in both dry and wet conditions at two different mill-plate gaps, 200 µm and 350 µm, and were used as reinforcement in PP matrices. Master batches of PP with different types of pulverized WF were compounded before processing in an extruder. The PP/WF composites of initial WF were also prepared for comparison. The prepared composites were analyzed by tensile and fatigue tests. It was found that the tensile properties of wood/polypropylene composites were affected by the pulverization of WF. Fatigue test results displayed that wet pulverization of short cypress flour had a negative effect on the fatigue life of PP/WF composites, while wet pulverization of long cypress flour and pine flour had a positive effect on the fatigue life of PP/WF composites. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Local Fiber Volume Content of Unidirectional Non-Crimp Fabrics with Forming Effects
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010019
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Viewed by 285 | PDF Full-text (11283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detailed knowledge of the local fiber orientation and the local fiber volume content within composite parts provides an opportunity to predict the structural behavior more reliably. Utilizing forming simulation methods of dry or pre-impregnated fabrics allows for predicting the local fiber orientation. Additionally, [...] Read more.
Detailed knowledge of the local fiber orientation and the local fiber volume content within composite parts provides an opportunity to predict the structural behavior more reliably. Utilizing forming simulation methods of dry or pre-impregnated fabrics allows for predicting the local fiber orientation. Additionally, during the forming process, so-called draping effects like waviness, gapping or shear-induced transverse compression change the local fiber volume content. To reproduce and investigate such draping effects, different manufacturing tools have been developed in this work. The tools are used to create fabric samples with pre-defined deformation states, representing the different draping effects. The samples are evaluated regarding the resulting fiber volume content. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of an analytical solution and of a numerical solution based on draping simulation results. Furthermore, the interaction of the draping effects at arbitrary strain states is discussed regarding the resulting fiber volume content. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Studies of Effects of Calcination Temperature on the Crystallinity and Optical Properties of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanocomposites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010018
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 309 | PDF Full-text (7164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ag-doped ZnO nanocomposites are successfully synthesized at different calcination temperatures and times through a simple, effective, high-yield and low-cost mechanochemical combustion technique. Effects of calcination temperature on the crystallinity and optical properties of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV−visible [...] Read more.
Ag-doped ZnO nanocomposites are successfully synthesized at different calcination temperatures and times through a simple, effective, high-yield and low-cost mechanochemical combustion technique. Effects of calcination temperature on the crystallinity and optical properties of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV−visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD patterns of the synthesized Ag/ZnO exhibit a well-crystalline wurtzite ZnO crystal structure. The grain size of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites is found to be 19 and 46 nm at calcination temperatures of 400 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The maximum absorption in the UV region is obtained for Ag/ZnO nanocomposites synthesized at a calcination temperature of 500 °C for 3 h. The peak position of blue emissions is almost the same for the nanocomposites obtained at 300–700 °C calcination temperatures. The usual band edge emission in the UV is not obtained at 330 nm excitation. Band edge and blue band emissions are observed for the use of low excitation energy at 335–345 nm. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Enhancing the Fracture Toughness Properties by Introducing Anchored Nano-Architectures at the Metal–FRP Composite Interface
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010017
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Viewed by 365 | PDF Full-text (4522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel technique for improving aluminium–glass/epoxy composite interfacial bonding through the generation of metallic nano-architectures on the metal surface. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) deposited via solution casting at varying concentrations and annealed at different temperatures in an air atmosphere improved the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel technique for improving aluminium–glass/epoxy composite interfacial bonding through the generation of metallic nano-architectures on the metal surface. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) deposited via solution casting at varying concentrations and annealed at different temperatures in an air atmosphere improved the aluminium-glass/epoxy composite fracture toughness as measured via mode I experiments. For AgNW concentrations of 1 and 3 g/m2 deposited via a single-stage process and annealed at 375 °C, the initiation fracture toughness of the aluminium-glass/epoxy composite improved by 86% and 157%, respectively, relative to the baseline composite without AgNWs. The corresponding steady-state fracture toughness of these nano-modified fibre metal laminates (FMLs) were at least seven times greater than the baseline composite. The FML variant in which AgNWs were deposited at a concentration of 3 g/m2 through a two-stage process followed by annealing at 375 °C and 300 °C, respectively after each deposition, achieved the highest steady-state fracture toughness of all nano-modified composites—a fracture toughness value that was 13 times greater than the baseline composite. Intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms dictated by the morphology of the silver nano-architectures were found to be responsible for the improved initiation and steady-state fracture toughness in nano-modified FMLs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Monitoring the Self-healing of Concrete from the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010016
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
Viewed by 306 | PDF Full-text (1000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete has the ability to naturally heal its cracks, in a process called self-healing. This article aimed to analyze the self-healing of concretes, evaluating the influence of fly ash and the age of occurrence of cracks. Concrete specimens were submitted to cracking at [...] Read more.
Concrete has the ability to naturally heal its cracks, in a process called self-healing. This article aimed to analyze the self-healing of concretes, evaluating the influence of fly ash and the age of occurrence of cracks. Concrete specimens were submitted to cracking at 7 and 28 days. Subsequently, the samples were exposed to 12 wetting and drying cycles in order to favor the self-healing process. The phenomenon was evaluated through the ultrasonic pulse velocity testing, performed weekly on the specimens from the molding stage until the end of all cycles. The concretes showed a decrease in ultrasonic pulse velocity at the time they were cracked. This is due to the greater difficulty in the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the voids formed during cracking. This drop was higher for concrete with fly ash. Also, the results show that the fly ash concretes presented a more expressive self-healing process when cracked at 28 days, which may be related to the presence of pozzolanic reactions and the presence of more anhydrous particles. The concretes without fly ash had self-healing when they were cracked at 7 days. This is explained by the high hydration rate characteristic of ordinary Portland cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Repairing Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Bending, Free Vibration, and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Porous Micro-Plates Using a General Third-Order Plate Theory
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010015
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
Viewed by 385 | PDF Full-text (1258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Static bending, free vibration and buckling of functionally graded porous micro-plates are investigated using a general third order plate theory. In addition, analytical solutions are obtained using the Navier method. The effect of the material length scale factor and the variation of material [...] Read more.
Static bending, free vibration and buckling of functionally graded porous micro-plates are investigated using a general third order plate theory. In addition, analytical solutions are obtained using the Navier method. The effect of the material length scale factor and the variation of material property through the thickness direction of plates are considered as well as porosity effects. Three different porosity distributions are considered and the effects of porosity variations are examined in the framework of a general third order plate theory. Numerical results show that the effect of each distribution of porosity is distinguished due to coupling between the heterogeneity of the material properties and the variation of porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Innovative Materials in Engineering Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics Molding by Using Direct Resistance Heating to Carbon Nanofilaments Grafted Carbon Fiber
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010014
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
Viewed by 325 | PDF Full-text (7304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the automobile industry, carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) have attracted attention as potential materials to reduce the weight of the automobile body. In order to apply CFRTP to mass-produced automobile parts, it is necessary to develop the reduction of molding time and [...] Read more.
In the automobile industry, carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) have attracted attention as potential materials to reduce the weight of the automobile body. In order to apply CFRTP to mass-produced automobile parts, it is necessary to develop the reduction of molding time and the impregnation method into the carbon fiber (CF) for the thermoplastic resin, which has relatively high viscosity. Although the conventional hot press molding uses only the heat transfer from the mold to the molding materials, it is expected to develop a new molding method for CFRTP using heat generation of the materials themselves to overcome these issues. As a method of heating the carbon fiber, there is a direct resistance heating method, in which carbon fiber is directly energized and heated by Joule heat. We have developed resistance welding methods in which carbon nanotube (CNT) grafted carbon fiber (CNT-CF) is used for the heating elements, and revealed that the higher welded strength is obtained by using CNT-CF instead of CF. Therefore, the carbon nanofilaments (CNF) grafted carbon fiber (CNF-CF) including CNF-CF is expected not only to be used as a resistance heating medium at the time of joining but also as a reinforcing fiber and as a self-heating member at the time of molding. In this study, we develop the CFRTP molding method by using direct resistance heating to CNF-CF in the hot press molding. CFRTP ([0°]20) with the volume fractions (Vf) of 40% are molded by conventional hot press and hot press with direct resistance heating to reinforcing fiber. CF or CNF-CF is used for reinforcement. CFRTP molded by hot press with direct resistance heating to CNF-CF indicated lower void content than CFRTP molded by hot press with direct resistance heating to CF. Compared to CFRTP molding by only hot press, hot press molding with direct resistance heating to CNF-CF can mold CFRTP with low void content. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing and Performance Evaluation of Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Honeycombs
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010013
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
Viewed by 468 | PDF Full-text (4288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the manufacturing characteristics and a performance evaluation of carbon fiber–reinforced epoxy honeycombs are reported. The vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process, using a central injection point, is used to infuse a unidirectional dry slit tape with the epoxy resin system Prime [...] Read more.
In this work, the manufacturing characteristics and a performance evaluation of carbon fiber–reinforced epoxy honeycombs are reported. The vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process, using a central injection point, is used to infuse a unidirectional dry slit tape with the epoxy resin system Prime 20 LV in a wax mold. The compression behavior of the manufactured honeycomb structure was evaluated by subjecting samples to quasi-static compression loading. Failure criteria for the reinforced honeycombs were developed and failure maps were constructed. These maps can be used to evaluate the reliability of the core for a prescribed loading condition. Improvements in the load-carrying capacity for the reinforced samples, as compared with unreinforced specimens, are discussed and the theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental data. The compression test results highlight a load-carrying capacity up to 26 kN (~143 MPa) for a single hexagonal cell (unit cell) and 160 kN (~170 MPa) for cores consisting of 2.5 × 3.5 cells. The failure map indicates buckling to be the predominant mode of failure at low relative densities, shifting to cell wall fracture at relative densities closer to a value of 10−1. The resulting energy absorption diagram shows a monotonic increase in energy absorption with the increasing t/l ratio of the honeycomb core cell walls. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
PHBV/MWCNT Films: Hydrophobicity, Thermal and Mechanical Properties as a Function of MWCNT Concentration
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010012
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
Viewed by 334 | PDF Full-text (5113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into polymer matrixes has been an important tool to alter and improve some properties in polymer nanocomposites, including biodegradable polymers such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). In this work, PHBV nanocomposites with 0.05, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 [...] Read more.
The introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into polymer matrixes has been an important tool to alter and improve some properties in polymer nanocomposites, including biodegradable polymers such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). In this work, PHBV nanocomposites with 0.05, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 wt % of MWCNTs were produced by solvent casting. MWCNT morphology and structure were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that MWCNTs have a considerable amount of amorphous carbon (AC) onto their surface and a wide distribution of the tube diameter. MWCNTs act as the nucleating agent in the PHBV matrix, as verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that thermal stability was not significantly affected. The nanofiller dispersion into the PHBV matrix was not effective for concentrations from 1 wt % according to the micrographs obtained in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle was changed with the introduction of MWCNTs, turning the nanocomposites hydrophobic and improving the mechanical tensile properties of the PHBV matrix. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Anticorrosion Properties of Epoxy Composite Coating Reinforced by Molybdate-Intercalated Functionalized Layered Double Hydroxide
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010011
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 445 | PDF Full-text (4357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein, an intercalation modification technique is proposed to improve the anticorrosion performance of polymeric coatings. Molybdate, an inhibitor, was intercalated to bestow inhibitive attributes, while functionalization of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) reservoir was performed to augment the interfacial adhesion of LDH with [...] Read more.
Herein, an intercalation modification technique is proposed to improve the anticorrosion performance of polymeric coatings. Molybdate, an inhibitor, was intercalated to bestow inhibitive attributes, while functionalization of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) reservoir was performed to augment the interfacial adhesion of LDH with the polymer matrix and steel surfaces. The intercalation and functionalization of Mg–Al–LDH was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The corrosion inhibition effectiveness of the prepared composite coating was analyzed using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results revealed that the protective performance of epoxy coating was significantly enhanced by the addition of functionalized double hydroxide. The corrosion protection efficiency of the composite coating was improved by more than 98%, while the corrosion rate was lowered by ~98%, respectively, with the addition of 1 wt.% of functionalized LDH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research and Development in Composite Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Carbon Nanotube Deposition Time to the Surface of Carbon Fibres on Flexural Strength of Resistance Welded Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Carbon Nanotube Grafted Carbon Fibre as Heating Element
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010009
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
Viewed by 451 | PDF Full-text (8583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) are expected to be used as lightweight structural materials for mass-produced vehicles. CFRTP with thermoplastics as matrix allows us to weld them using melting of matrix by heating. We have been developing a direct resistance [...] Read more.
In recent years, carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) are expected to be used as lightweight structural materials for mass-produced vehicles. CFRTP with thermoplastics as matrix allows us to weld them using melting of matrix by heating. We have been developing a direct resistance heating method, which uses carbon fibres as the resistance heating element. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is expected to be used as additive to FRP and we reported that the fibre/matrix interfacial shear strength was improved by grafting CNT on the surface of carbon fibres and tensile lap-shear strength was improved by using CNT grafted carbon fibre as the heating element for welding. For the practical use of CFRTP for structural parts, flexural strength is also necessary to be evaluated. In this study, flexural test was carried out to clarify the effect of CNT deposition time to the surface of carbon fibres on flexural strength of resistance welded CFRTP using CNT grafted carbon fibre as the heating element. The highest flexural strength was obtained when CNT10, for which CNT is grafted on the carbon fibres for deposition time of 10 min, was used for the heating element of resistance welding. In the case of CNT deposition time of 60 min, the lowest flexural strength was obtained because of the poor impregnation of the resin into the carbon fibre due to the excess CNT on the carbon fibres. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Orthotropic Hygroscopic Swelling of Fiber-Reinforced Composites from Isotropic Swelling of Matrix Polymer
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010010
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
Viewed by 436 | PDF Full-text (4162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Swelling in fiber-reinforced composites is anisotropic. In this work, dealing with glass fiber epoxy composite immersed in distilled water, swelling coefficients are obtained in each direction experimentally. Swelling behaviour in the fiber direction was constrained by the non-swelling fibers and was close to [...] Read more.
Swelling in fiber-reinforced composites is anisotropic. In this work, dealing with glass fiber epoxy composite immersed in distilled water, swelling coefficients are obtained in each direction experimentally. Swelling behaviour in the fiber direction was constrained by the non-swelling fibers and was close to null, while swelling in the transverse directions was found to occur freely—similar to the unconstrained polymer. An analytical method for predicting anisotropic swelling in composites from the swelling of the matrix polymer is reported in this work. The method has an advantage that it is simple to use in practice and requires only a swelling coefficient of the matrix polymer, elastic constants of the matrix and fibers, and a known fiber volume fraction of the composite. The method was validated using finite element analysis. Good agreement was obtained and is reported between experimental hygroscopic swelling data, analytical and numerical results for composite laminates, indicating the validity of this predictive approach. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Composites Science in 2018
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010008
Published: 9 January 2019
Viewed by 328 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bio-Composites Reinforced with Strontium Titanate Nanoparticles: Mechanical Behavior and Degradability
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010007
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
Viewed by 376 | PDF Full-text (6186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-polymer-based composites are appealing cost-effective and environmentally friendly materials for electronic applications. This project relates to bio-composites made of chitosan and cellulose and reinforced with strontium titanate nanoparticles. Upon their fabrication, relevant parameters studied were the acetic acid concentration, the cellulose content, and [...] Read more.
Bio-polymer-based composites are appealing cost-effective and environmentally friendly materials for electronic applications. This project relates to bio-composites made of chitosan and cellulose and reinforced with strontium titanate nanoparticles. Upon their fabrication, relevant parameters studied were the acetic acid concentration, the cellulose content, and the amount of strontium titanate nanoparticles. The specimens were characterized using thermogravimetric and degradation analyses, as well as via creep and tensile tests. The results revealed how higher cellulose levels lowered the ultimate tensile strength and the degradation temperature of the bio-composites. Moreover, when nanoparticles are present, higher cellulose levels contributed to their tensile strength. Additionally, more acidic solutions became detrimental to the mechanical properties and the thermal degradation temperature of the composites. Furthermore, the creep studies allowed determining elastic coefficients and viscous coefficients using the Burgers’ model. Those creep results suggest that higher amounts of SrTiO3 (STO) nanoparticles raised the composites creep strain rate. As a whole, the study provides a baseline characterization of these novel bio-composites when subject to aggressive environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research and Development in Composite Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermal and Flammability Characteristics of Blended Jatropha Bio-Epoxy as Matrix in Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010006
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
Viewed by 363 | PDF Full-text (1986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This purpose of this paper was to reveal characteristics of a composite structure containing carbon fiber as a reinforcement and blended synthetic epoxy/bio-epoxy derived from crude jatropha oil as resin and compared with fully synthetic epoxy. The composite structure was prepared by the [...] Read more.
This purpose of this paper was to reveal characteristics of a composite structure containing carbon fiber as a reinforcement and blended synthetic epoxy/bio-epoxy derived from crude jatropha oil as resin and compared with fully synthetic epoxy. The composite structure was prepared by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding technique and was left to cure for 24 h at room temperature. Both were characterized for their thermal, chemical, and flammable characteristics. The incorporation of jatropha bio-epoxy into the matrix significantly improved the thermal stability between 288–365 °C as obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) test. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) curves showed slight diminution of performances and Tg from DMA tests confirmed well with the trend of Tg obtain by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. On the other hand, the flammability property was rated horizontal burning (HB) which was the same as the fully synthetic composite, but the duration to self-extinguish was halved for the composite with jatropha bio-epoxy. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) was conducted to determine the difference of functional groups’ spectrum due to bonding type existing on both specimens. Overall, the composite specimen with blended bio-epoxy exhibited better thermal stability, comparable flammability characteristics, and performances. The aim of this paper was to introduce bio-based epoxy as a potential alternative epoxy and to compete with synthetic epoxy so as to minimize the footprint of non-renewable composite. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cyclic Performance of Steel–Concrete–Steel Sandwich Beams with Rubcrete and LECA Concrete Core
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010005
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 423 | PDF Full-text (8474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the structural and economic features of steel–concrete–steel (SCS) structural systems compared with conventional reinforced concrete ones, they are now used for a range of structural applications. Rubcrete, in which crumbed rubber from scrap tires partially replaces mineral aggregates in concrete, can [...] Read more.
Due to the structural and economic features of steel–concrete–steel (SCS) structural systems compared with conventional reinforced concrete ones, they are now used for a range of structural applications. Rubcrete, in which crumbed rubber from scrap tires partially replaces mineral aggregates in concrete, can be used instead of conventional concrete. Utilizing rubber waste in concrete potentially results in a more ductile lightweight concrete that can introduce additional features to the SCS structural members. This study aimed to explore different concrete core materials in SCS beams and the appropriate shear connectors required. In this study, four SCS sandwich beams were tested experimentally under incrementally increasing flexure cyclic loading. Each beam had a length of 1000 mm, and upper and lower steel plates with 3 mm thickness sandwiched the concrete core, which had a cross-section of 150 mm × 150 mm. Two of the beams were constructed out of Rubcrete core with welded and bolted shear connectors, while the other two beams were constructed with welded shear connectors and either conventional concrete or lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) concrete cores. The performance of the SCS sandwich beams including damage pattern, failure mode, load-displacement response, and energy dissipation behavior was compared. The results showed that, while Rubcrete was able to provide similar concrete cracking behavior and strength to that of conventional concrete, LECA concrete degraded the strength properties of SCS. Using bolted shear connectors instead of welded ones caused a high number of cracks that resulted in a reduced ductility and deflection capacity of the beam before failure. The rubberized concrete specimen presented an improved ductility and deflection capacity compared with its conventional concrete counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Rubber Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Water Absorption on the Fiber–Matrix Interfacial Shear Strength of Carbon Nanotube-Grafted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyamide Resin
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010004
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
Viewed by 421 | PDF Full-text (4449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) are expected to be used for the structural parts of automobiles and aircraft due to their mechanical properties, such as high specific stiffness, high specific strength, short molding times and high recyclability. The fiber/matrix interface of the composite [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) are expected to be used for the structural parts of automobiles and aircraft due to their mechanical properties, such as high specific stiffness, high specific strength, short molding times and high recyclability. The fiber/matrix interface of the composite plays an important role in transmitting stress from the matrix to the reinforcing fibers. It was reported that grafting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fiber can improve the fiber/matrix interfacial property. We have reported that CNTs, which are directly grafted onto carbon fiber using Ni as the catalyst by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, can improve the fiber/matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of carbon fiber/polyamide 6 (PA6). For practical use of CFRTPs, it is important to clarify the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties of the composite material. In this study, the effects of water absorption on the fiber–matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of carbon fiber reinforced polyamide resin and CNT-grafted carbon fiber reinforced polyamide resin were clarified by the single fiber pull-out test for specimens preserved in air, then in water for 24 h and re-dried after water absorption. The IFSS of carbon fiber/PA6 was significantly decreased by water absorption. In contrast, CNT-grafted carbon fiber/PA6 showed smaller degradation of the IFSS by water absorption. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Damping Characterization of Hybrid Carbon Fiber Elastomer Metal Laminates using Experimental and Numerical Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010003
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
Viewed by 628 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lightweight structures which consist to a large extent of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), often lack sufficient damping behavior. This also applies to hybrid laminates such as fiber metal laminates made of CFRP and aluminum. Since they are usually prone to vibrations due [...] Read more.
Lightweight structures which consist to a large extent of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), often lack sufficient damping behavior. This also applies to hybrid laminates such as fiber metal laminates made of CFRP and aluminum. Since they are usually prone to vibrations due to their high stiffness and low mass, additional damping material is required to meet noise, vibration and harshness comfort demands in automotive or aviation industry. In the present study, hybrid carbon fiber elastomer metal laminates (HyCEML) are investigated which are intended to influence the damping behavior of the laminates by an elastomer interlayer between the CFRP ply and the aluminum sheets. The damping behavior is based on the principle of constrained layer damping. To characterize the damping behavior, dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) are performed under tension on the elastomer and the CFRP, and under three point bending on the hybrid laminate. Different laminate lay-ups, with and without elastomer, and two different elastomer types are examined. The temperature and frequency dependent damping behavior is related to the bending stiffness and master curves are generated by using the time temperature superposition to analyze the damping behavior at higher frequencies. A numerical model is built up on the basis of DMA experiments on the constituents and micro mechanical studies. Subsequently, three point bending DMA experiments on hybrids are simulated and the results are compared with the experimental investigations. In addition, a parameter study on different lay-ups is done numerically. Increasing vibration damping is correlated to increasing elastomer content and decreasing elastomer modulus in the laminate. A rule of mixture is used to estimate the laminate loss factor for varying elastomer content. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Atomic Structure and Mechanical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010002
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (2083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the atomic structure and mechanical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with a different twist angle using molecular dynamic simulations. The two layers are corrugated after energy minimization. We found two different modes of corrugation. The mechanical properties are tested both in-plane [...] Read more.
We studied the atomic structure and mechanical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with a different twist angle using molecular dynamic simulations. The two layers are corrugated after energy minimization. We found two different modes of corrugation. The mechanical properties are tested both in-plane and perpendicular to the plane. The in-plane properties are dominated by the orientation of graphene. The perpendicular properties depend on the twist angle, as the larger the twist angle, the higher the intrinsic strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Graphene-based Nanocomposites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hydrogel-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites as Electrochemical Platform to Simultaneously Determine Dopamine in Presence of Ascorbic Acid Using an Unmodified Glassy Carbon Electrode
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010001
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
Viewed by 463 | PDF Full-text (2718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The detection of dopamine, an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is relevant because low levels of dopamine can cause brain disorders. Here, a novel electrochemical platform made of a hydrogel–graphene oxide nanocomposite was employed to electrochemically determine simultaneously dopamine (DA) and [...] Read more.
The detection of dopamine, an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is relevant because low levels of dopamine can cause brain disorders. Here, a novel electrochemical platform made of a hydrogel–graphene oxide nanocomposite was employed to electrochemically determine simultaneously dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA). Unlike previous work, where the base electrode is modified, the active material (graphene oxide, GO) was dispersed in the hydrogel matrix, making an active nanocomposite where the electrochemical detection occurs. The GO, hydrogel and nanocomposite synthesis is described. Dynamic Light Scattering, UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies showed that the synthesized GO nanoparticles present 480 nm of diagonal size and a few sheets in height. Moreover, the polymer swelling, the adsorption capacity and the release kinetic of DA and AA were evaluated. The nanocomposite showed lower swelling capacity, higher DA partition coefficient and faster DA release rate than in the hydrogel. The electrochemical measurement proved that both materials can be employed to determine DA and AA. Additionally, the nanocomposite platform allowed the simultaneous determination of both molecules showing two well separated anodic peaks. This result demonstrates the importance of the incorporation of the nanomaterial inside of the hydrogel and proves that the nanocomposite can be used as a platform in an electrochemical device to determinate DA using an unmodified glassy carbon electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Applications of Advanced Composite Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

J. Compos. Sci. EISSN 2504-477X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top