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Proceedings, 2021, E-textiles 2020

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Open AccessProceedings
PEDOT:PSS/PDMS-Coated Cotton Fabric for Strain and Moisture Sensors
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068001 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In this work, we have successfully developed a flexible, lightweight, and washable strain and moisture sensor textile fabric by printing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate/polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene oxide (PEDOT:PSS/PDMS) conductive polymer composite on knitted cotton fabric. A 60.2 kΩ/sq surface resistance has been obtained at a 30% [...] Read more.
In this work, we have successfully developed a flexible, lightweight, and washable strain and moisture sensor textile fabric by printing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate/polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene oxide (PEDOT:PSS/PDMS) conductive polymer composite on knitted cotton fabric. A 60.2 kΩ/sq surface resistance has been obtained at a 30% ratio of PDMS to PEDOT:PSS at 0.012 g/cm2 solid add-on. The coated fabric was washed at 30 °C for 30 min in the presence of a standard detergent. It was observed that there was a 5.3% increase in surface resistance, i.e., 63.4 kΩ/sq. After coating, the fabric could still be stretched up to the infliction elongation of the fabric, i.e., 40%, with a significant change in surface resistance that makes it usable as a strain sensor. In addition, the conductive fabric showed a drop in surface resistance with an increase of the moisture regain up to 150%. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Investigation of the Physical and Electrical Properties of Knitted Electrodes When Subjected to Multi-Axial Compression and Abrasion
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068002 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Knitted electrodes are a key component to many electronic textiles including sensing devices, such as pressure sensors and heart rate monitors; therefore, it is essential to assess the electrical performance of these knitted electrodes under different mechanical loads to understand their performance during [...] Read more.
Knitted electrodes are a key component to many electronic textiles including sensing devices, such as pressure sensors and heart rate monitors; therefore, it is essential to assess the electrical performance of these knitted electrodes under different mechanical loads to understand their performance during use. The electrical properties of the electrodes could change while deforming, due to an applied load, which could occur in the uniaxial direction (while stretched) or multiaxial direction (while compressed). The properties and performance of the electrodes could also change over time when rubbed against another surface due to the frictional force and generated heat. This work investigates the behavior of a knitted electrode under different loading conditions and after multiple abrasion cycles. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Smart Glove with an Arduino-Controlled Textile Bending Sensor, Textile Data Conductors and Feedback Using LED-FSDsTM and Embroidery Technology
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068004 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The smart glove presented in this paper consists of an integrated textile bending sensor in the finger; functional sequins, called LED-FSDsTM, on the back of the hand; an attachable cuff with a microcontroller and an energy source. The glove and the [...] Read more.
The smart glove presented in this paper consists of an integrated textile bending sensor in the finger; functional sequins, called LED-FSDsTM, on the back of the hand; an attachable cuff with a microcontroller and an energy source. The glove and the cuff are connected by small push buttons. The signals derived from the textile bending sensor are controlled by the microcontroller in the cuff and forwarded to the acting LED-FSDsTM. All components are connected to each other by a silver-coated, electro conductive thread, which is processed by a fully automated and reproducible embroidery process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Modular E-Textile Toolkit for Prototyping and Manufacturing
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068005 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
We present a novel E-textiles toolkit that can be used in the rapid prototyping of electronic textiles during the research and evaluation phase. The modular, Arduino-compatible toolkit incorporates various sensors and control and communication modules. The needs of fashion professionals have been considered [...] Read more.
We present a novel E-textiles toolkit that can be used in the rapid prototyping of electronic textiles during the research and evaluation phase. The modular, Arduino-compatible toolkit incorporates various sensors and control and communication modules. The needs of fashion professionals have been considered during the conception of the toolkit, which was developed in close cooperation with partners from textile research institutes, the textile industry, art schools and design. After the initial manual prototyping, the toolkit modules can be directly transferred to reliable industrial integration using advanced machinery. To achieve this, we developed the E-textile Bonder, a machine capable of mechanically and electrically connecting modules to textiles with integrated conductors. This paper gives an overview of the toolkit as well as the design considerations discussed and implemented during the cooperation with textile industry stakeholders. Furthermore, the integration process with the E-Textile Bonder is described, and its advantages over other technologies are discussed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Investigation of Nozzle Height Control to Improve Dispenser Printing of E-Textiles
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068006 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Dispenser printing is a versatile way of manufacturing prototype and bespoke e-textiles that uses a robotically actuated nozzle to dispense pastes. Investigation of printing on a flat substrate, however, revealed that the nozzle must be kept between 50 and 200 µm above the [...] Read more.
Dispenser printing is a versatile way of manufacturing prototype and bespoke e-textiles that uses a robotically actuated nozzle to dispense pastes. Investigation of printing on a flat substrate, however, revealed that the nozzle must be kept between 50 and 200 µm above the material’s surface in order to print effectively. In order to maintain this clearance when printing on uneven materials, the surface topography of the substrate must be measured and compensated for. However, the accuracy of the laser displacement meter used here was reduced when measuring the translucent interface layer necessary when printing on textiles. Adding various concentrations of dye to the interface was explored. A single layer of interface with 20 mg of dye added per gram showed significantly improved results with an average error of 146 µm compared to the 550 µm for the clear interface. Crucially, the standard deviation in the error was only 31 µm, down from 101 µm, meaning that an offset could be applied to get measurements that would keep the nozzle’s clearance within the necessary 150 µm range. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Flexible Supercapacitor Fabricated on a Polyester-Cotton Textile
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068007 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of a flexible supercapacitor on top of a polyester-cotton textile. The textile-based, flexible supercapacitors were implemented with inexpensive screen-printed carbon black electrodes, an integrated polymer separator and a nonhazardous organic electrolyte. The encapsulated devices demonstrated [...] Read more.
This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of a flexible supercapacitor on top of a polyester-cotton textile. The textile-based, flexible supercapacitors were implemented with inexpensive screen-printed carbon black electrodes, an integrated polymer separator and a nonhazardous organic electrolyte. The encapsulated devices demonstrated area capacitance of 0.54 mF·cm−2. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Development of a Printed E-Textile for the Measurement of Muscle Activation via EMG for the Purpose of Gesture Control
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068008 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
This paper details the development of an e-textile gesture controller using screen-printed electrodes to measure Electromyography (EMG); the electrical signals produced in a muscle during its use. The final e-textile consists of 7 fabric electrodes able to take measurements from three muscular groups [...] Read more.
This paper details the development of an e-textile gesture controller using screen-printed electrodes to measure Electromyography (EMG); the electrical signals produced in a muscle during its use. The final e-textile consists of 7 fabric electrodes able to take measurements from three muscular groups in the right forearm. When accompanied with processing circuitry, also produced in this study, a total of five gestures are uniquely identified with an average accuracy of ~93% when operating with a switching delay of 150 ms or greater. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Visible and Ultraviolet Light Emitting Electrochemical Cells Realised on Woven Textiles
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068009 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Spray coated organic light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been fabricated on a standard woven polyester cotton textile for wearable display applications. The textile is first pre-smoothed by screen printing an ultra-violet (UV) curable polyurethane layer, termed an interface layer, before fully spray [...] Read more.
Spray coated organic light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been fabricated on a standard woven polyester cotton textile for wearable display applications. The textile is first pre-smoothed by screen printing an ultra-violet (UV) curable polyurethane layer, termed an interface layer, before fully spray coating the functional device. The spray coating technique was then used to fabricate the flexible OLECs on the textile. The textile devices were then encapsulated prior to testing in an ambient environment. Commercially available yellow emitting polymer and a UV emitting small molecules have been utilised as LEC active layers. Fully functional yellow coloured OLECs have been achieved on the woven textile substrate. Preliminary results with the UV emission molecule have demonstrated its solubility for solution processing and shown UV emission via photoluminescence induced by laser excitation, offering the potential to migrate to textile to realise UV OLECs. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Measuring Pleated Knitted Sensors
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068010 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
This paper presents preliminary results from a study of pleated electronic textile (e-textile) sensors, focusing on prototyping and measuring electrical resistance of three knitted sensors. This work is part of a larger research project, investigating the interaction between body and e-textiles with a [...] Read more.
This paper presents preliminary results from a study of pleated electronic textile (e-textile) sensors, focusing on prototyping and measuring electrical resistance of three knitted sensors. This work is part of a larger research project, investigating the interaction between body and e-textiles with a three-dimensional structure for creative performance applications. First, electrical properties of the pleated textile sensors were determined. Sensors were measured in a purpose-built low-cost recording device, which was set up to record electrical resistance, taken from the fabric while it was folded and unfolded. Different modes of connecting the samples to the microcontroller were also tested. Each sensor was tested three times with three different stretch lengths. The results show that one of the most significant factors to use knitted pleats as an input is the combination of yarns combined with the tension of the knitting machine. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Fully Printed Wearable Electrode Textile for Electrotherapy Application
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068012 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Electrotherapy is a common therapeutic treatment used in pain relief. This paper presents the materials and fabrication methods used to manufacture an electrode textile for electrotherapy application. The Young’s modulus of the electrode is 0.22 MPa. The electrode textile consists of conductive tracks [...] Read more.
Electrotherapy is a common therapeutic treatment used in pain relief. This paper presents the materials and fabrication methods used to manufacture an electrode textile for electrotherapy application. The Young’s modulus of the electrode is 0.22 MPa. The electrode textile consists of conductive tracks sandwiched between an interface layer and an encapsulation layer, and an electrode layer printed directly on top of the conductive grid patterns. The interface, conductive silver, and encapsulation layers were directly printed on fabric using screen printing. The electrode layer was printed using stencil printing. The electrode textile can survive 10,000 bending cycles around a cylinder with a diameter of 30 mm and 20 washes in a commercial washing machine. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Simulation of 2-Coil and 4-Coil Magnetic Resonance Wearable WPT Systems
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068013 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
This paper presents the COMSOL simulations of magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT), using simplified coil models for embroidered planar two-coil and four-coil systems. The power transmission of both systems is studied and compared by varying the separation, rotation angle and misalignment [...] Read more.
This paper presents the COMSOL simulations of magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT), using simplified coil models for embroidered planar two-coil and four-coil systems. The power transmission of both systems is studied and compared by varying the separation, rotation angle and misalignment distance at resonance (5 MHz). The frequency splitting occurs at short separations from both the two-coil and four-coil systems, resulting in lower power transmission. Therefore, the systems are driven from 4 MHz to 6 MHz to analyze the impact of frequency splitting at close separations. The results show that both systems had a peak efficiency over 90% after tuning to the proper frequency to overcome the frequency splitting phenomenon at close separations below 10 cm. The four-coil design achieved higher power efficiency at separations over 10 cm. The power efficiency of both systems decreased linearly when the axial misalignment was over 4 cm or the misalignment angle between receiver and transmitter was over 45 degrees. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Light as a Material of E-Textile Composites
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068014 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
This paper presents initial material studies of the project Personal Wearable Lightspace. The aim of the described work is to explore how light can be considered as an inherent property of a composite material, consisting of textiles, electronics, and light. The properties of [...] Read more.
This paper presents initial material studies of the project Personal Wearable Lightspace. The aim of the described work is to explore how light can be considered as an inherent property of a composite material, consisting of textiles, electronics, and light. The properties of interactive materials are diverse, combining expression in inactive states with changing appearance during active phases. A series of small design explorations into e-textile composites has been done, with the aim to understand better the characteristics we achieve by varying the construction of their components. We present a series of material studies and designs for composites. In the discussion, characteristics and material choices are compared. Finally, the conclusion gives an overview on design parameters for e-textile composites regarding the function and aesthetics, including the textileness of its interaction design or the involvement of bodily data to create a somaesthetic experience. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Identification of the Design Parameters for a Spacer Fabric Pressure-Mapping Sensor
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068015 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
This work presents an empirical study into the design of fabric pressure sensors, taking into account the electro-mechanical variability of spacer fabric. The saturation of the fabric sensor at high force levels is a major factor limiting the range of measurable pressures. In [...] Read more.
This work presents an empirical study into the design of fabric pressure sensors, taking into account the electro-mechanical variability of spacer fabric. The saturation of the fabric sensor at high force levels is a major factor limiting the range of measurable pressures. In order to address this, experiments were carried out to investigate several methods of modifying the sensitivity characteristics through the layering and specifications of the textile sheets. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Powering E-Textiles Using a Single Thread Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Rectenna
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068016 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Radio frequency energy harvesting (RFEH) and wireless power transfer (WPT) are increasingly seen as a method of enabling sustainable computing, as opposed to mechanical or solar EH WPT does not require special materials or resonators and can be implemented using low-cost conductors and [...] Read more.
Radio frequency energy harvesting (RFEH) and wireless power transfer (WPT) are increasingly seen as a method of enabling sustainable computing, as opposed to mechanical or solar EH WPT does not require special materials or resonators and can be implemented using low-cost conductors and standard semiconductor devices. This work revisits the simplest antenna design, the wire monopole to demonstrate the lowest-footprint, lowest-cost rectifying antenna (rectenna) based on a single Schottky diode. The antenna is fabricated using a single Litz-wire silk-coated thread, embroidered into a standard textile substrate. The rectifier is fabricated on a compact low-cost flexible printed circuit board (PCB) using ultra-thin polyimide copper laminates to accommodate low-footprint surface mount components. The antenna maintains its bandwidth across the 868/915 MHz license-free band on- and off-body with only −4.7 dB degradation in total efficiency in human proximity. The rectenna achieves up to 55% RF to DC efficiency with 1.8 V DC output, at 1 mW of RF power, demonstrating its suitability as a power-supply unit for ultra-low power e-textile nodes. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Textile-Based Battery Using a Biodegradable Gel-Electrolyte
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068017 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Lightweight and flexible batteries with natural gel-electrolyte between textile-based electrodes are presented, demonstrating a discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 14 mA g-1 with respect to the anode. Aging processes of the gel-matrix are investigated, showing that the device can be refreshed [...] Read more.
Lightweight and flexible batteries with natural gel-electrolyte between textile-based electrodes are presented, demonstrating a discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 14 mA g-1 with respect to the anode. Aging processes of the gel-matrix are investigated, showing that the device can be refreshed by re-wetting the gel-electrolyte. Due to the textile-based architecture, the batteries can be bent up to 180° with minor influence on the battery voltage. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Reduced Graphene Oxide Fibre Electrodes for Drug Sensing
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068018 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) fibre electrodes and their ability to sense paracetamol (as model drug) were studied. rGO was electrodeposited onto carbon fibre by two different approaches: potentiostatic deposition and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the presence of graphene oxide solution. Carbon fibre electrodes [...] Read more.
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) fibre electrodes and their ability to sense paracetamol (as model drug) were studied. rGO was electrodeposited onto carbon fibre by two different approaches: potentiostatic deposition and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the presence of graphene oxide solution. Carbon fibre electrodes coated with rGO (after five CV cycles) could sense paracetamol with an oxidation peak at 0.62 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The limit of detection of this fibre sensor was found to be 36.3 µM with a linear range of 50–500 µM of paracetamol (R2 = 0.9901). Full article

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessExtended Abstract
Do e-Textiles for Fashion Require Specific Legislation and Developmental Guidelines in Order to Avoid Harmful Waste?
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068003 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This research aims to identify the legislative gap that lies within textiles, electronics and nanomaterials for the safe disposal and recovery of e-textiles. [...] Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Multifunctional Graphene-Based Wearable E-Textiles
Proceedings 2021, 68(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2021068011 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Wearable electronics are becoming increasingly popular. [...] Full article
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