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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 44 articles

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Article
Detection of Pathogenic Leptospires in Water and Soil in Areas Endemic to Leptospirosis in Nicaragua
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030149 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
In Nicaragua, there are ideal environmental conditions for leptospirosis. The objective of this investigation was to detect pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires in water and soil samples from leptospirosis-endemic areas in Nicaragua. Seventy-eight water and 42 soil samples were collected from houses and rivers [...] Read more.
In Nicaragua, there are ideal environmental conditions for leptospirosis. The objective of this investigation was to detect pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires in water and soil samples from leptospirosis-endemic areas in Nicaragua. Seventy-eight water and 42 soil samples were collected from houses and rivers close to confirmed human cases. Leptospira spp was isolated in Ellinghausen–McCullough–Johnson–Harris (EMJH) culture medium with 5-fluororacil and positive samples were analyzed through PCR for the LipL32 gene, specific for pathogenic leptospires (P1 clade). There were 73 positive cultures from 120 samples, however only six of these (5% of all collected samples) were confirmed to be pathogenic, based on the presence of the LipL32 gene (P1 clade). Of these six pathogenic isolates, four were from Leon and two from Chinandega. Four pathogenic isolates were obtained from water and two from soil. This study proved the contamination of water and soil with pathogenic leptospires, which represents a potential risk for public health. Full article
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Article
Impact of Three-Year Intermittent Preventive Treatment Using Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies on Malaria Morbidity in Malian Schoolchildren
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030148 - 17 Sep 2020
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that a single season of intermittent preventive treatment in schoolchildren (IPTsc) targeting the transmission season has reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia, and anemia. Efficacy over the course of multiple years of IPTsc has [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that a single season of intermittent preventive treatment in schoolchildren (IPTsc) targeting the transmission season has reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia, and anemia. Efficacy over the course of multiple years of IPTsc has been scantly investigated. Methods: An open, randomized-controlled trial among schoolchildren aged 6–13 years was conducted from September 2007 to January 2010 in Kolle, Mali. Students were included in three arms: sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine+artesunate (SP+AS), amodiaquine+artesunate (AQ+AS), and control (C). All students received two full doses, given 2 months apart, and were compared with respect to the incidence of clinical malaria, all-cause clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia, and anemia. Results: A total of 296 students were randomized. All-cause clinic visits were in the SP+AS versus control (29 (20.1%) vs. 68 (47.2%); 20 (21.7%) vs. 41 (44.6%); and 14 (21.2%) vs. 30 (44.6%); p < 0.02) in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was lower in the SP+AS compared to control (38 (7.5%) vs. 143 (28.7%); and 47 (12.7%) vs. 75 (21.2%); p < 0.002) in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in children receiving SP+AS (11.96, 12.06, and 12.62 g/dL) than in control children (11.60, 11.64, and 12.15 g/dL; p < 0.001) in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. No impact on clinical malaria was observed. Conclusion: IPTsc with SP+AS reduced the rates of all-cause clinic visits and anemia during a three-year implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malaria Chemoprevention Strategies)
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Brief Report
COVID-19-Induced Thrombosis in Patients without Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Elevated Fecal Calprotectin: Hypothesis Regarding Mechanism of Intestinal Damage Associated with COVID-19
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030147 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Background: Patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) and gastrointestinal symptoms showed increased values of fecal calprotectin (FC). Additionally, bowel abnormalities were a common finding during abdominal imaging of individuals with COVID-19 despite being asymptomatic. The current pilot study aims at evaluating FC [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) and gastrointestinal symptoms showed increased values of fecal calprotectin (FC). Additionally, bowel abnormalities were a common finding during abdominal imaging of individuals with COVID-19 despite being asymptomatic. The current pilot study aims at evaluating FC concentrations in patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: we enrolled 25 consecutive inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were admitted without gastrointestinal symptoms and a previous history of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: At admission, 21 patients showed increased FC with median values of 116 (87.5; 243.5) mg/kg despite absent gastrointestinal symptoms. We found a strong positive correlation between FC and D-Dimer (r = 0.745, p < 0.0001). Two patients developed bowel perforation. Conclusion: our findings may change the current understanding of COVID-19 intestinal-related disease pathogenesis, shedding new light on the potential role of thrombosis and the consequent hypoxic intestinal damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives)
Article
Relationship between Physicochemical Characteristics and Pathogenic Leptospira in Urban Slum Waters
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030146 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Leptospirosis, a zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira, primarily affects tropical, developing regions, especially communities without adequate sanitation. Outbreaks of leptospirosis have been linked with the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in water. In this study, we measured the physicochemical characteristics (temperature, pH, salinity, [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis, a zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira, primarily affects tropical, developing regions, especially communities without adequate sanitation. Outbreaks of leptospirosis have been linked with the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in water. In this study, we measured the physicochemical characteristics (temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS)) of surface waters from an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil, and analyzed their associations with the presence and concentration of pathogenic Leptospira reported previously. We built logistic and linear regression models to determine the strength of association between physicochemical parameters and the presence and concentration of Leptospira. We found that salinity, TDS, pH, and type of water were strongly associated with the presence of Leptospira. In contrast, only pH was associated with the concentration of the pathogen in water. The study of physico-chemical markers can contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of Leptospira in water and to the identification of sources of risk in urban slum environments. Full article
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Article
Serosurvey of IgG Antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia typhi in the Population of Attica, Greece
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030145 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella henselae are the causative agents of murine typhus and cat-scratch disease, respectively. A small-scale survey (N = 202) was conducted in the Attica region, Greece, for determining the prevalence rates of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and R. typhi [...] Read more.
Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella henselae are the causative agents of murine typhus and cat-scratch disease, respectively. A small-scale survey (N = 202) was conducted in the Attica region, Greece, for determining the prevalence rates of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and R. typhi by indirect fluorescence antibody test. IgG against B. henselae and R. typhi were present in 17.8% (36/202) and 4.5% (9/202) of the participants, respectively; co-occurring IgG against both B. henselae and R. typhi were detected in 3.5% (7/202), whereas only anti-B. henselae IgG in 14.3% (29/202), and only anti-R. typhi IgG in 1.0% (2/202). Titres 1/64, 1/128, 1/256, and 1/512, of anti-B. henselae IgG were identified in 6.4%, 4.5%, 4.5%, and 2.4%, whereas titres 1/40 and 1/80 of anti-R. typhi IgG were detected in 4.0%, and 0.5%, respectively. A positive association of anti-B. henselae IgG prevalence with a coastal area featuring a major seaport (p = 0.009) and with younger age (p = 0.046) was identified. The findings of this survey raise concern for exposure of the population of Attica to B. henselae and R. typhi, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis when compatible symptoms are present. Our results also suggest that seaports may represent high-risk areas for exposure to Bartonella spp. Full article
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Case Report
Clinical, Virological, and Immunological Findings in Patients with Toscana Neuroinvasive Disease in Croatia: Report of Three Cases
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030144 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus, transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, neuroinvasive disease may occur. We report three cases of neuroinvasive TOSV infection detected in Croatia. Two patients aged 21 and 54 years presented [...] Read more.
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus, transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, neuroinvasive disease may occur. We report three cases of neuroinvasive TOSV infection detected in Croatia. Two patients aged 21 and 54 years presented with meningitis, while a 22-year old patient presented with meningoencephalitis and right-sided brachial plexitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine samples were collected and tested for neuroinvasive arboviruses: tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, TOSV, Tahyna, and Bhanja virus. In addition, CSF and serum samples were tested for the anti-viral cytokine response. High titers of TOSV IgM (1000–3200) and IgG (3200−10,000) antibodies in serum samples confirmed TOSV infection. Antibodies to other phleboviruses (sandfly fever Sicilian/Naples/Cyprus virus) were negative. CSF samples showed high concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6; range 162.32−2683.90 pg/mL), interferon gamma (IFN-γ; range 110.12−1568.07 pg/mL), and IL-10 (range 28.08−858.91 pg/mL), while significantly lower cytokine production was observed in serum. Two patients recovered fully. The patient with a brachial plexitis improved significantly at discharge. The presented cases highlight the need of increasing awareness of a TOSV as a possible cause of aseptic meningitis/meningoencephalitis during summer months. Association of TOSV and brachial plexitis with long-term sequelae detected in one patient indicates the possibility of more severe disease, even in young patients. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Private Sector Engagement for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Reporting through an Intermediary Agency in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030143 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Under-detection and -reporting in the private sector constitute a major barrier in Viet Nam’s fight to end tuberculosis (TB). Effective private-sector engagement requires innovative approaches. We established an intermediary agency that incentivized private providers in two districts of Ho Chi Minh City to [...] Read more.
Under-detection and -reporting in the private sector constitute a major barrier in Viet Nam’s fight to end tuberculosis (TB). Effective private-sector engagement requires innovative approaches. We established an intermediary agency that incentivized private providers in two districts of Ho Chi Minh City to refer persons with presumptive TB and share data of unreported TB treatment from July 2017 to March 2019. We subsidized chest x-ray screening and Xpert MTB/RIF testing, and supported test logistics, recording, and reporting. Among 393 participating private providers, 32.1% (126/393) referred at least one symptomatic person, and 3.6% (14/393) reported TB patients treated in their practice. In total, the study identified 1203 people with TB through private provider engagement. Of these, 7.6% (91/1203) were referred for treatment in government facilities. The referrals led to a post-intervention increase of +8.5% in All Forms TB notifications in the intervention districts. The remaining 92.4% (1112/1203) of identified people with TB elected private-sector treatment and were not notified to the NTP. Had this private TB treatment been included in official notifications, the increase in All Forms TB notifications would have been +68.3%. Our evaluation showed that an intermediary agency model can potentially engage private providers in Viet Nam to notify many people with TB who are not being captured by the current system. This could have a substantial impact on transparency into disease burden and contribute significantly to the progress towards ending TB. Full article
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Editorial
Global Perspectives on Arbovirus Outbreaks: A 2020 Snapshot
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030142 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 777
Abstract
When this special Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod-Borne Viruses: The Outbreak Edition)
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Viewpoint
Malaria and COVID-19: Common and Different Findings
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030141 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3243
Abstract
Malaria and COVID-19 may have similar aspects and seem to have a strong potential for mutual influence. They have already caused millions of deaths, and the regions where malaria is endemic are at risk of further suffering from the consequences of COVID-19 due [...] Read more.
Malaria and COVID-19 may have similar aspects and seem to have a strong potential for mutual influence. They have already caused millions of deaths, and the regions where malaria is endemic are at risk of further suffering from the consequences of COVID-19 due to mutual side effects, such as less access to treatment for patients with malaria due to the fear of access to healthcare centers leading to diagnostic delays and worse outcomes. Moreover, the similar and generic symptoms make it harder to achieve an immediate diagnosis. Healthcare systems and professionals will face a great challenge in the case of a COVID-19 and malaria syndemic. Here, we present an overview of common and different findings for both diseases with possible mutual influences of one on the other, especially in countries with limited resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives)
Article
Performance and Outcomes of Routine Viral Load Testing in People Living with HIV Newly Initiating ART in the Integrated HIV Care Program in Myanmar between January 2016 and December 2017
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030140 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Myanmar has introduced routine viral load (VL) testing for people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). The first VL test was initially scheduled at 12-months and one year later this changed to 6-months. Using routinely collected secondary data, we assessed [...] Read more.
Myanmar has introduced routine viral load (VL) testing for people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). The first VL test was initially scheduled at 12-months and one year later this changed to 6-months. Using routinely collected secondary data, we assessed program performance of routine VL testing at 12-months and 6-months in PLHIV starting ART in the Integrated HIV-Care Program, Myanmar, from January 2016 to December 2017. There were 7153 PLHIV scheduled for VL testing at 12-months and 1976 scheduled for VL testing at 6-months. Among those eligible for testing, the first VL test was performed in 3476 (51%) of the 12-month cohort and 952 (50%) of the 6-month cohort. In the 12-month cohort, 10% had VL > 1000 copies/mL, 79% had repeat VL tests, 42% had repeat VL > 1000 copies/mL (virologic failure) and 85% were switched to second-line ART. In the 6-month cohort, 11% had VL > 1000 copies/mL, 83% had repeat VL tests, 26% had repeat VL > 1000 copies/mL (virologic failure) and 39% were switched to second-line ART. In conclusion, half of PLHIV initiated on ART had VL testing as scheduled at 12-months or 6-months, but fewer PLHIV in the 6-month cohort were diagnosed with virologic failure and switched to second-line ART. Programmatic implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and Co-Infections: Old and New Challenges)
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Article
Clinical, Cardiological and Serologic Follow-Up of Chagas Disease in Children and Adolescents from the Amazon Region, Brazil: Longitudinal Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030139 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Background: Outbreaks of Chagas disease (CD) by foodborne transmission is a problem related to deforestation, exposing people to triatomines infected by T. cruzi, in the Amazon region. Once involving long-time follow-up, the treatment efficacy of the CD during its acute phase is [...] Read more.
Background: Outbreaks of Chagas disease (CD) by foodborne transmission is a problem related to deforestation, exposing people to triatomines infected by T. cruzi, in the Amazon region. Once involving long-time follow-up, the treatment efficacy of the CD during its acute phase is still unknown. The authors aim to describe the clinical and epidemiologic profile of children and adolescents with CD, as well as treatment and cardiac involvement during the follow-up. Methods: A descriptive cohort study was conducted from 1998 to 2013 among children and adolescents up to 18 years-old with confirmed diagnosis of CD. All participants met the criteria of CD in the acute phase. Results: A total of 126 outpatients were included and received treatment and follow-up examinations during a medium period of 10.9 years/person. Most of them (68.3%) had their diagnosis established during oral transmission outbreaks. The diagnostic method with the most positive results rate (80.9%) was the IgM class anti-T. cruzi antibody test as an acute phase marker, followed by the thick blood smears (60.8%). Acute myopericarditis was demonstrated in 18.2% of the patients, most of them with favorable evolution, though 2.4% (3/126) persisted with cardiac injury observed at the end point of the follow-up. Conclusions: Antibodies against T. cruzi persisted in 54.8% of sera from the patients without prognostic correlation with cardiac involvement. Precocious treatment can decrease potential cardiac complications and assure good treatment response, especially for inhabitants living in areas with difficult accessibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chagas Disease)
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Case Report
Neuroinvasive West Nile Infection with an Unusual Clinical Presentation: A Single-Center Case Series
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030138 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
The 2018 West Nile Virus (WNV) season in Europe was characterized by an extremely high infection rate and an exceptionally higher burden when compared to previous seasons. Overall, there was a 10.9-fold increase in incidence in Italy, with 577 human cases, 230 WNV [...] Read more.
The 2018 West Nile Virus (WNV) season in Europe was characterized by an extremely high infection rate and an exceptionally higher burden when compared to previous seasons. Overall, there was a 10.9-fold increase in incidence in Italy, with 577 human cases, 230 WNV neuroinvasive diseases (WNNV) and 42 WNV-attributed deaths. Methods: in this paper we retrospectively reported the neurological presentation of 7 patients admitted to University Hospital of Udine with a diagnosis of WNNV, especially focusing on two patients who presented with atypical severe brain stem involvement. Conclusions: the atypical features of some of these forms highlight the necessity to stay vigilant and suspect the diagnosis when confronted with neurological symptoms. We strongly encourage clinicians to consider WNNV in patients presenting with unexplained neurological symptoms in mild climate-areas at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod-Borne Viruses: The Outbreak Edition)
Review
Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Giardiasis Co-Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Can a One Health Approach Improve Control of Each Waterborne Parasite Simultaneously?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030137 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Both intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis are co-endemic throughout many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, significantly impacting the health of millions of children in endemic areas. While giardiasis is not considered a neglected tropical disease (NTD), intestinal schistosomiasis is formally grouped under the NTD umbrella [...] Read more.
Both intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis are co-endemic throughout many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, significantly impacting the health of millions of children in endemic areas. While giardiasis is not considered a neglected tropical disease (NTD), intestinal schistosomiasis is formally grouped under the NTD umbrella and receives significant advocacy and financial support for large-scale control. Although there are differences in the epidemiology between these two diseases, there are also key similarities that might be exploited within potential integrated control strategies permitting tandem interventions. In this review, we highlight these similarities and discuss opportunities for integrated control of giardiasis in low and middle-income countries where intestinal schistosomiasis is co-endemic. By applying new, advanced methods of disease surveillance, and by improving the provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) initiatives, (co)infection with intestinal schistosomiasis and/or giardiasis could not only be more effectively controlled but also better understood. In this light, we appraise the suitability of a One Health approach targeting both intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis, for if adopted more broadly, transmission of both diseases could be reduced to gain improvements in health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Neglected Tropical Diseases)
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Article
HSV-2 Infection as a Potential Cofactor for HIV Disease Progression and Selection of Drug Resistance Mutations in Adults under WHO-Recommended First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy: A Multicentric, Cross-Sectional Study in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030136 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Although herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is a known cofactor for HIV transmission in Central Africa, its role in HIV disease progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the potential link between HSV-2 infection and HIV disease progression, in [...] Read more.
Although herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is a known cofactor for HIV transmission in Central Africa, its role in HIV disease progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the potential link between HSV-2 infection and HIV disease progression, in addition to identifying the presence of genes conferring HIV antiretroviral resistance mutations. This was a cross-sectional study involving 302 HIV-infected adults in Central Africa with virological failure (viral load >1000 copies/mL) on first-line antiretroviral therapy from four different countries. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 was 32% (96/302). Amongst the HIV-infected individuals who were HSV-2 seropositive, the mean HIV viral load and CD4 count were 4.82 ± 0.83 log copies/mL and 243 ± 144 cells/microliter, respectively. Among the HIV-infected individuals who were HSV-2-seronegative, the mean HIV viral load and CD4 count were 3.48 ± 0.44 log copies/mL and 646 ± 212 cells/microliter, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.001) between HSV-2 seropositivity and the presence of resistance mutations to antiretrovirals (ARV), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) with odds ratios of 9.7, 10, and 11.9, respectively. There was no link between HSV-2 serostatus and protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations. There was a substantial accumulation of resistance mutations in HSV-2-seropositive compared to -seronegative patients. These findings support the link between HIV disease progression and HSV-2 infection. An association was observed between the presence of NNRTI and NRTI resistance mutations and HSV-2 seropositivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and Co-Infections: Old and New Challenges)
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Article
An Integrated Study of Toxocara Infection in Honduran Children: Human Seroepidemiology and Environmental Contamination in a Coastal Community
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030135 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
(1) Background: Infections caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati are considered zoonoses of global importance. Reports from North and South America indicate that human infections are widespread in both continents, but epidemiological information from Central America is still lacking. (2) Methodology: In [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Infections caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati are considered zoonoses of global importance. Reports from North and South America indicate that human infections are widespread in both continents, but epidemiological information from Central America is still lacking. (2) Methodology: In the present cross-sectional multi-year study, we aimed to undertake the first seroepidemiological and environmental study on toxocariasis in Honduras. This included the determination of seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in children using a Toxocara spp. purified excretory-secretory antigens enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TES-ELISA) and a confirmatory Western blot. As well, through statistical analysis including logistic regression we aimed at identifying relevant biological and epidemiological factors associated with seropositivity. The study also entailed detection of parasites’ eggs in the soil samples both through Sheather’s concentration method and a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. (3) Results: The study was undertaken in a coastal community of Honduras in 2 different years, 2015 and 2017. A total of 88 healthy schoolchildren completed the study, with participation of 79% (73/92) and 65% (46/71) of the student body in 2015 and 2017, respectively. Thirty-one children participated in both years (i.e., dual participants). Through both serological tests, seropositivity was confirmed in 88.6% (78/88) of children. Due to the high number of seropositives, logistic regression analysis was not possible for most socio-economic and epidemiological variables. Eosinophilia, on the other hand, was associated with seropositivity, independently of other intestinal helminthic infections. Continued seropositivity was observed in most of the dual participants, while seroconversion was determined in 8 of these children. Microscopic examination of soil samples did not yield any positive results. Through nested PCR-RFLP, 3 of the 50 samples (6%) were positive for Toxocara spp.; two were identified as T. canis and one as T. cati. (4) Conclusions: This work documents for the first time, high levels of human exposure to Toxocara spp. in Honduras. These findings, along with the country’s favorable epidemiological conditions for this zoonosis, emphasize the need for more research to determine whether this infection is underreported in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Review
Impact of Health Systems on the Implementation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Narrative Synthesis
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030134 - 22 Aug 2020
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Malaria in pregnancy is a public health challenge with serious negative maternal and newborn consequences. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is recommended for the control of malaria during pregnancy within endemic areas, but coverage for the recommended ≥3 doses IPTp regimen has [...] Read more.
Malaria in pregnancy is a public health challenge with serious negative maternal and newborn consequences. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is recommended for the control of malaria during pregnancy within endemic areas, but coverage for the recommended ≥3 doses IPTp regimen has remained suboptimal. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, and HINARI database from 1 January 2010 to 23 May 2020, for studies investigating the effect of the health system on IPTp implementation. Data extraction was independently performed by two investigators and evaluated for quality and content. Health system barriers and facilitators were explored using thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. Thirty-four out of 1032 screened articles were included. Key health system issues affecting the provision and uptake of IPTp were the ambiguity of policy and guidelines for IPTp administration, human resource shortages, drug stock-outs, conflicting policy implementation on free IPTp provision, hidden costs, unclear data recording and reporting guidelines, and poor quality of care. Factors affecting the supply and demand for IPTp services involve all pillars of the health system across different countries. The success of health programs such as IPTp will thus depend on how well the different pillars of the health system are articulated towards the success of each program. Full article
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Case Report
A Case of Japanese Encephalitis with a Fatal Outcome in an Australian Who Traveled from Bali in 2019
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030133 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
A severe case of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, resulting in fatality, occurred in an unvaccinated Australian male traveler from Bali, Indonesia, in 2019. During hospitalisation in Australia, patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded JEV-specific IgM antibodies and RNA, and an isolate of the [...] Read more.
A severe case of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, resulting in fatality, occurred in an unvaccinated Australian male traveler from Bali, Indonesia, in 2019. During hospitalisation in Australia, patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded JEV-specific IgM antibodies and RNA, and an isolate of the virus. Ongoing transmission of JEV in Bali underscores this pathogen as a public health risk and the importance of appropriate health, vaccination and mosquito avoidance advice to prospective travelers to the region. Full article
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Article
Benznidazole as Prophylaxis for Chagas Disease Infection Reactivation in Heart Transplant Patients: A Case Series in Brazil
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030132 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Background—Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) have high mortality, and CC is a common indication for heart transplantation (HTx) in endemic countries. Chagas disease reactivation (CDR) is common after transplantation and is likely to cause adverse outcomes unless detected and treated appropriately. This study [...] Read more.
Background—Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) have high mortality, and CC is a common indication for heart transplantation (HTx) in endemic countries. Chagas disease reactivation (CDR) is common after transplantation and is likely to cause adverse outcomes unless detected and treated appropriately. This study reviews our experiences with HTx among patients with CC, and the use of benznidazole (BZ) before transplantation. Methods—During the 18-year period from 1996 through 2014, 70 of 353 patients who underwent HTx (19.8%) had CC, and 53 patients met the inclusion criteria. The effectiveness of prophylactic treatment with BZ (dose of 5 mg/kg/day, two times per day, for at least four weeks and for a maximum of eight weeks) was determined based on the observed reduction in the incidence of CDR during the post-HTx period. Results—Prophylactic therapy was administered to 18/53 patients (34.0%). During the follow-up period, the incidence rate of CDR in our study was 34.0% (18/53). Based on logistic regression analysis, only prophylaxis (OR = 0.12; CI 0.02–0.76; p = 0.025) was considered to protect against CDR. Conclusion—Our study suggests that the use of BZ may reduce the incidence of CDR in patients undergoing HTx and warrants further investigation in a prospective, randomized trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chagas Disease)
Article
Trust as a Determinant Factor for Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Bali, Indonesia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030131 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Female sex workers (FSWs) decision to use or not to use condoms depends on several issues, including the decision to trust their client or not, a matter given little attention in previous research. This paper explores the role of trust in consistent condom [...] Read more.
Female sex workers (FSWs) decision to use or not to use condoms depends on several issues, including the decision to trust their client or not, a matter given little attention in previous research. This paper explores the role of trust in consistent condom use among FSWs. We used a cross-sectional survey among FSWs in Bali, Indonesia. The outcome variable for this study was condom use, and independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social capital dimensions and HIV prevention practices. In total, 406 FSWs participated in the study. Of these, 48% of FSWs used condoms consistently with paying clients over the last month. The following FSWs were less likely to consistently use condoms with clients: FSWs who did not trust that their peer FSWs will use condoms (AOR = 9.3, 95% CI, 3.3–26.2), FSWs who did not feel valued by the people at their location (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.4–11.6), FSWs who did not graduate from primary or never went to school (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.03–5.6), and FSWs who have worked more than five years as FSWs (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI, 1.2–29.2). Our results highlight higher rates of inconsistent condom use related to lower trust and feelings of being valued between FSWs, identifying areas for policy and practice attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and Co-Infections: Old and New Challenges)
Article
Controlling Human Rabies: The Development of an Effective, Inexpensive and Locally Made Passive Cooling Device for Storing Thermotolerant Animal Rabies Vaccines
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030130 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Thermotolerant vaccines greatly improved the reach and impact of large-scale vaccination programs to eliminate diseases such as smallpox, polio and rinderpest. A recent study demonstrated that the potency of the Nobivac® Canine Rabies vaccine was not impacted following experimental storage at 30 [...] Read more.
Thermotolerant vaccines greatly improved the reach and impact of large-scale vaccination programs to eliminate diseases such as smallpox, polio and rinderpest. A recent study demonstrated that the potency of the Nobivac® Canine Rabies vaccine was not impacted following experimental storage at 30 °C for three months. We conducted a study to develop a passive cooling device (PCD) that could store thermotolerant vaccines under fluctuating subambient temperatures. Through a participatory process with local communities in Northern Tanzania, we developed innovative PCD designs for local manufacture. A series of field experiments were then carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of five PCDs for vaccine storage under varying climatic conditions. Following iterative improvement, a final prototype “Zeepot Clay” was developed at the cost of US$11 per unit. During a further field-testing phase over a 12-month period, the internal temperature of the device remained below 26 °C, despite ambient temperatures exceeding 42 °C. Our study thus demonstrated that locally designed PCDs have utility for storing thermotolerant rabies vaccines at subambient temperatures. These results have application for the scaling up of mass dog vaccination programs in low-and-middle income countries, particularly for hard-to-reach populations with limited access to power and cold-chain vaccine storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lyssaviruses and Rabies: Prevention, Control and Elimination)
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Review
Trypanosoma cruzi Genome 15 Years Later: What Has Been Accomplished?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030129 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
On 15 July 2020 was the 15th anniversary of the Science Magazine issue that reported three trypanosomatid genomes, namely Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi. That publication was a milestone for the research community working with trypanosomatids, even more [...] Read more.
On 15 July 2020 was the 15th anniversary of the Science Magazine issue that reported three trypanosomatid genomes, namely Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi. That publication was a milestone for the research community working with trypanosomatids, even more so, when considering that the first draft of the human genome was published only four years earlier after 15 years of research. Although nowadays, genome sequencing has become commonplace, the work done by researchers before that publication represented a huge challenge and a good example of international cooperation. Research in neglected diseases often faces obstacles, not only because of the unique characteristics of each biological model but also due to the lower funds the research projects receive. In the case of Trypanosoma cruzi the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, the first genome draft published in 2005 was not complete, and even after the implementation of more advanced sequencing strategies, to this date no final chromosomal map is available. However, the first genome draft enabled researchers to pick genes a la carte, produce proteins in vitro for immunological studies, and predict drug targets for the treatment of the disease or to be used in PCR diagnostic protocols. Besides, the analysis of the T. cruzi genome is revealing unique features about its organization and dynamics. In this work, I briefly summarize the actions of Latin American researchers that contributed to the first publication of the T. cruzi genome and discuss some features of the genome that may help to understand the parasite’s robustness and adaptive capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chagas Disease)
Article
Detection of a Locally-Acquired Zika Virus Outbreak in Hidalgo County, Texas through Increased Antenatal Testing in a High-Risk Area
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030128 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Hidalgo County (HC), located along the Texas–Mexico border, was listed as a high-risk county for Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2017 by the Texas Department of State Health Services, based on its historical presence of Dengue. Due to its subtropical climate, active binational travel, [...] Read more.
Hidalgo County (HC), located along the Texas–Mexico border, was listed as a high-risk county for Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2017 by the Texas Department of State Health Services, based on its historical presence of Dengue. Due to its subtropical climate, active binational travel, and population of low socioeconomic status, Hidalgo County focused on disease detection activities for the prevention of further transmission. Therefore, Hidalgo County Health and Human Services enacted public health surveillance, reviewed laboratory results, and conducted epidemiological investigations from 2016 to 2018. In 2017, Hidalgo County experienced a locally-acquired outbreak of Zika virus disease, resulting in the highest local mosquito-borne acquisition case count for the year within the United States. This resulted in Hidalgo County reviewing epidemiological data for disease detection and risk areas. With the data review, key outcomes of testing were identified. This included the importance of both RT-PCR and IgM-ELISA/PRNT testing methods. In addition, increased antenatal testing and surveillance also recognized the need of improved disease identification and testing among the general population, especially during localized outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod-Borne Viruses: The Outbreak Edition)
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Article
Sickle Cell Disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Assessing Physicians’ Knowledge and Practices
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030127 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Background: Sickle cell disease is a major public health issue in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it is still poorly understood by health professionals. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of Congolese physicians treating sickle [...] Read more.
Background: Sickle cell disease is a major public health issue in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it is still poorly understood by health professionals. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of Congolese physicians treating sickle cell disease (SCD), in order to identify the areas for improvement in clinical care. Methods: This was a descriptive observational study conducted among Congolese physicians using a questionnaire. Participants were evaluated using a pre-established answer grid. Results: A total of 460 physicians participated, including 81 women (18%), with an average age of 35 years (range 25–60 years). Most physicians were general practitioners. Although self-assessment of their level of knowledge on SCD was estimated as average to good, less than half of the participants (n = 460; 46%) reported adequate management of vaso-occlusive crises, and only 1% of them had received specific training on SCD. Most physicians reported difficulties both in terms of diagnostic (65%) and management (79%) options of SCD patients. This study also showed that 85% of these physicians did not have access to the diagnostic tools for SCD. Conclusions: Insufficient knowledge on SCD and poor diagnostic and treatment options might contribute to increased morbidity and mortality of patients living in the DRC. Interventions aiming to improve physicians’ knowledge, patient follow-up, and treatment access are needed. Specific training alongside existing programs (HIV, malaria), early diagnosis of the disease, and the creation of patient advocacy groups should be implemented to improve SCD patient care. Full article
Case Report
Parinaud’s Oculoglandular Syndrome: A Case in an Adult with Flea-Borne Typhus and a Review
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030126 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Parinaud’s oculoglandular syndrome (POGS) is defined as unilateral granulomatous conjunctivitis and facial lymphadenopathy. The aims of the current study are to describe a case of POGS with uveitis due to flea-borne typhus (FBT) and to present a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to POGS. [...] Read more.
Parinaud’s oculoglandular syndrome (POGS) is defined as unilateral granulomatous conjunctivitis and facial lymphadenopathy. The aims of the current study are to describe a case of POGS with uveitis due to flea-borne typhus (FBT) and to present a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to POGS. The patient, a 38-year old man, presented with persistent unilateral eye pain, fever, rash, preauricular and submandibular lymphadenopathy, and laboratory findings of FBT: hyponatremia, elevated transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, thrombocytopenia, and hypoalbuminemia. His condition rapidly improved after starting doxycycline. Soon after hospitalization, he was diagnosed with uveitis, which responded to topical prednisolone. To derive a diagnostic and empiric therapeutic approach to POGS, we reviewed the cases of POGS from its various causes since 1976 to discern epidemiologic clues and determine successful diagnostic techniques and therapies; we found multiple cases due to cat scratch disease (CSD; due to Bartonella henselae) (twelve), tularemia (ten), sporotrichosis (three), Rickettsia conorii (three), R. typhi/felis (two), and herpes simplex virus (two) and single cases due to tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pasteurella multocida, Chlamydia trachomatis, Epstein–Barr virus, and Nocardia brasiliensis. Preauricular lymphadenopathy is a common clinical clue for POGS and is unusual in viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. For POGS, the major etiological consideration is B. henselae, which is usually diagnosed by the indirect immunofluorescence serologic technique. Although CSD POGS is usually self-limited, oral azithromycin may hasten resolution. However, other possible etiologies of POGS may also arise from cat or cat flea contact: sporotrichosis, tularemia, Pasteurella multocida, or FBT. If there is no cat contact, other epidemiologic and clinical findings should be sought, because several of these conditions, such as tularemia, paracoccidioidomycosis, and tuberculosis, may have grave systemic complications. Although there are usually no long-term ocular sequelae if POGS is properly diagnosed, it still may cause prolonged ocular discomfort and require multiple physician contacts. Full article
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Article
Ensuring the Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccination in Travelers—The Experience at a Large U.S. Academic Medical Center in Colorado
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030125 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Background: Yellow fever (YF) virus has the potential to cause fatal outcomes among at-risk individuals visiting endemic areas. Vaccinating travelers who are at risk is necessary to prevent virus-related life-threatening complications. We lack data on the clinical features of persons seeking YF vaccination. [...] Read more.
Background: Yellow fever (YF) virus has the potential to cause fatal outcomes among at-risk individuals visiting endemic areas. Vaccinating travelers who are at risk is necessary to prevent virus-related life-threatening complications. We lack data on the clinical features of persons seeking YF vaccination. We aim to describe the characteristics of a cohort of persons receiving the YF vaccine before travel. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 964 travelers receiving the YF vaccine (Stamaril®) from Oct 2016 to Jul 2019 was performed at the University of Colorado Hospital, U.S. Percentages, means, and standard deviations were calculated. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to evaluate the association between receiving YF vaccination less than 10 days before departure and visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Results: The average age of the subjects was 39 ± 18 years with a range of nine months to 83 years. Persons who were 60 years of age and older represented 17%. Women consisted of 52%, and most of the travelers were Caucasians (64%). Travelers reported traveling to Africa (57%) or South America (40%). The primary destinations for travelers overall were Kenya (19%), Uganda (11%), and Tanzania (11%) in Africa; and Peru (14%) and Brazil (13%) in South America. The most common reasons for travel included leisure (44%), VFR (18%), and mission trips (10%). Comorbidities included a history of hematologic disorders (4%), HIV infection (2%), and diabetes mellitus (3%). The average duration between vaccine administration and travel was 43 days. Those VFR were two times more likely to receive the YF vaccination <10 days before departure. Conclusions: Identifying the type of travel, itinerary, and underlying medical conditions allows providers to administer the YF vaccine to travelers safely. There is a need to identify strategies to improve the timing of YF vaccination among VFR travelers. Full article
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Article
Factors Affecting Continued Participation in Tuberculosis Contact Investigation in a Low-Income, High-Burden Setting
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030124 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Setting: Outpatient clinics, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia; January–April 2018. Objectives: To identify barriers to full participation in tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of knowledge, perceptions, and behaviours among TB contacts. This study was conducted among contacts who attended an initial clinic visit [...] Read more.
Setting: Outpatient clinics, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia; January–April 2018. Objectives: To identify barriers to full participation in tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of knowledge, perceptions, and behaviours among TB contacts. This study was conducted among contacts who attended an initial clinic visit to explore retention in care. During this first visit, contacts were approached for participation in a questionnaire at a follow-up visit. Contacts who consented but did not subsequently attend were interviewed at home. Associations between questionnaire findings and attendance were tested using logistic regression. Results: Of the total 1436 identified contacts, 800 (56%) attended an initial clinic visit. Of 237 consenting TB contacts, 207 (87%) attended their follow-up appointment. In univariable analyses, the odds of attendance were highest for people notified to attend the TB clinic directly by a health inspector; close relatives of TB patients; non-students; people with higher incomes and smaller households; older individuals; males; and people not perceiving TB as stigmatising. In multivariable analysis, mode of notification to attend and having a close relative with TB remained significant. Conclusions: Health inspectors provide an effective role in TB contact investigation through direct personal communication to encourage the completion of the TB screening process, but this requires further integration with clinical processes, and with workplace and school-based investigations. Full article
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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Tuberculosis Control: An Overview
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030123 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Throughout history, pandemics of viral infections such as HIV, Ebola and Influenza have disrupted health care systems, including the prevention and control of endemic diseases. Such disruption has resulted in an increased burden of endemic diseases in post-pandemic periods. The current coronavirus disease [...] Read more.
Throughout history, pandemics of viral infections such as HIV, Ebola and Influenza have disrupted health care systems, including the prevention and control of endemic diseases. Such disruption has resulted in an increased burden of endemic diseases in post-pandemic periods. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could cause severe dysfunction in the prevention and control of tuberculosis (TB), the infectious disease that causes more deaths than any other, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the burden of TB is high. The economic and health crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the public health measures currently taken to stop the spread of the virus may have an impact on household TB transmission, treatment and diagnostic services, and TB prevention and control programs. Here, we provide an overview of the potential impact of COVID-19 on TB programs and disease burden, as well as possible strategies that could help to mitigate the impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives)
Article
Mapping the Geographic Distribution of Tungiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030122 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
The geographic distribution of tungiasis is poorly understood, despite the frequent occurrence of the disease in marginalized populations of low socioeconomic status. To date, little work is available to define the geography of this neglected tropical disease (NTD). This exploratory study incorporated geostatistical [...] Read more.
The geographic distribution of tungiasis is poorly understood, despite the frequent occurrence of the disease in marginalized populations of low socioeconomic status. To date, little work is available to define the geography of this neglected tropical disease (NTD). This exploratory study incorporated geostatistical modeling to map the suitability for tungiasis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In SSA, environmental suitability is predicted in 44 countries, including Angola, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Cote de Ivoire, Mali, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Gabon, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and South Africa. In total, an estimated 668 million people live in suitable areas, 46% (304 million) of which reside in East Africa. These evidence-based maps provide vital evidence of the potential geographic extent in SSA. They will help to guide disease control programs, inform policymakers, and raise awareness at the global level. Likewise, these results will hopefully provide decisionmakers with the pertinent information necessary to lessen morbidity and mortality in communities located in environmentally suitable areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases)
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Review
Melioidosis and the Heart: A Systematic Review
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030121 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Melioidosis is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation can vary from pneumonia, sepsis and multi-focal abscess formation. The aim of this study was to systemically review the cardiac manifestations of melioidosis in the literature and describe their epidemiology, microbiological diagnosis [...] Read more.
Melioidosis is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation can vary from pneumonia, sepsis and multi-focal abscess formation. The aim of this study was to systemically review the cardiac manifestations of melioidosis in the literature and describe their epidemiology, microbiological diagnosis and outcomes. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar for human melioidosis cases with cardiac involvement. Quantitative data for cases of melioidosis were obtained, including age, sex, microbiological diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. 980 articles were screened, of which 31 articles were eligible. The most common cardiac site of infection was pericarditis, followed by endocarditis and myocarditis. Over 95% of cardiac involvement occurred in males, and mortality was the lowest in pericarditis and highest in myocarditis. Valvular vegetations were all small, left-sided, and did not require surgery. Antibiotic treatment included a bactericidal induction therapy with ceftazidime or a carbapenem ± TMP-SMX, followed by eradication therapy with TMP–SMX in most patients as previously established. In conclusion, melioidosis varies in clinical presentation and is also known as a great imitator. Although cardiac involvement is rare, this is the first systematic review to summarise all cases reported in the literature to date. Full article
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Review
High Seroprevalence of Dengue Virus Infection in Sudan: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030120 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
The goal of this study was to systematically review the published data on dengue virus (DENV) seroprevalence in Sudan and to estimate disease burden through meta-analysis. We searched, reviewed, and extracted online available reports on DENV in Sudan. Among 168 identified records, 19 [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to systematically review the published data on dengue virus (DENV) seroprevalence in Sudan and to estimate disease burden through meta-analysis. We searched, reviewed, and extracted online available reports on DENV in Sudan. Among 168 identified records, 19 were selected. Dengue infections were documented in 11/18 states. The overall seroprevalence of DENV in Sudan was estimated to be 27%, while the prevalence of dengue IgM was 22% and IgG was 38%. The prevalence of dengue estimated from community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies were 26% and 30% respectively. Additionally, one cohort study and a single PCR-based study reported a prevalence of 1% and 4%, respectively. Regional analysis revealed that the variation in seroprevalence in East, North, West, and Central Sudan was 23%, 24%, 36% and 43%, respectively. Interestingly, we found that DENV is circulating countrywide with a significant spatiotemporal variation in the disease seroprevalence. Furthermore, publications on dengue prevalence are temporally and geographically fragmented, perhaps due to limited resources. However, this gap in data and knowledge highlights the urgent need for a country-wide surveillance system and continued study of dengue burden in Sudan to accurately estimate the disease prevalence and determine the associated risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Dengue: Past, Present and Future (Volume II))
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