Special Issue "Innovation and Evidence for Achieving TB Elimination in the Asia–Pacific Region"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Philipp DuCros
Website
Guest Editor
International Development, Burnet Institute, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: drug-resistant TB; epidemiology; implementation research
Dr. Hamidah Hussain
Website
Guest Editor
Interactive Research and Development (IRD), Global IRD,583 Orchard Road,#06-01 Forum, 238884 Singapore
Interests: TB active case finding; TB prevention; cost-effectiveness; implementation research
Dr. Kerri Viney
Website
Guest Editor
Centre for TB Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra 2600, Australia
Interests: drug-resistant TB; research; active TB case finding; catastrophic costs; epidemiology of TB; TB elimination

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite being curable, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health emergency and one of the biggest infectious disease killers globally. Out of all TB cases globally, 62% occur in the South East Asia and Western Pacific regions. There is a need for bold action and accelerated change if the sustainable development goal (SDG) targets of 90% reduction in TB deaths and 80% reduction in TB incidence are to be met by 2030. However, barriers to TB elimination are considerable, with 30% of people with TB globally not diagnosed, only one third with multidrug-resistant TB accessing appropriate treatment, and anywhere between 27% and 83% of people with tuberculosis encountering catastrophic costs. Currently, most high-burden countries and the world as a whole are not on course to reach the targets. There is the need for new tools and better evidence on how to achieve TB elimination.

While the challenges for TB elimination remain large, there is much cause for hope with improved all oral MDR-TB treatments, a richer pipeline of new TB diagnostics and vaccines, and shorter latent TB infection treatment regimens. The lancet series “How to Eliminate Tuberculosis” outlined an evidence-based approach to ending TB into 4 key areas: rethinking data management to target hotspots, active case finding and prompt treatment, treating latent TB infection, and employing a biosocial approach throughout. This Special Issue “Innovation and evidence for achieving TB Elimination in the Asia–Pacific Region” invites submissions within these four broad areas with relevance to the Asia–Pacific region. A broad range of research methodologies will be accepted, including qualitative, epidemiology, operational, implementation, and policy research, as well as other relevant approaches.

Dr. Philipp du Cros
Dr Hamidah Hussain
Dr. Kerri Viney
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tuberculosis
  • Elimination
  • Active case finding
  • TB infection/latent TB
  • Epidemiology
  • Drug-resistant TB

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Programmatic Community-Based Chest X-ray Screening for Tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5040185 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Across Asia, a large proportion of people with tuberculosis (TB) do not report symptoms, have mild symptoms or only experience symptoms for a short duration. These individuals may not seek care at health facilities or may be missed by symptom screening, resulting in [...] Read more.
Across Asia, a large proportion of people with tuberculosis (TB) do not report symptoms, have mild symptoms or only experience symptoms for a short duration. These individuals may not seek care at health facilities or may be missed by symptom screening, resulting in sustained TB transmission in the community. We evaluated the yields of TB from 114 days of community-based, mobile chest X-ray (CXR) screening. The yields at each step of the TB screening cascade were tabulated and we compared cohorts of participants who reported having a prolonged cough and those reporting no cough or one of short duration. We estimated the marginal yields of TB using different diagnostic algorithms and calculated the relative diagnostic costs and cost per case for each algorithm. A total of 34,529 participants were screened by CXR, detecting 256 people with Xpert-positive TB. Only 50% of those diagnosed with TB were detected among participants reporting a prolonged cough. The study’s screening algorithm detected almost 4 times as much TB as the National TB Program’s standard diagnostic algorithm. Community-based, mobile chest X-ray screening can be a high yielding strategy which is able to identify people with TB who would likely otherwise have been missed by existing health services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing Active Tuberculosis Case Finding: Evaluating the Impact of Community Referral for Chest X-ray Screening and Xpert Testing on Case Notifications in Two Cities in Viet Nam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5040181 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 501
Abstract
To accelerate the reduction in tuberculosis (TB) incidence, it is necessary to optimize the use of innovative tools and approaches available within a local context. This study evaluated the use of an existing network of community health workers (CHW) for active case finding, [...] Read more.
To accelerate the reduction in tuberculosis (TB) incidence, it is necessary to optimize the use of innovative tools and approaches available within a local context. This study evaluated the use of an existing network of community health workers (CHW) for active case finding, in combination with mobile chest X-ray (CXR) screening events and the expansion of Xpert MTB/RIF testing eligibility, in order to reach people with TB who had been missed by the current system. A controlled intervention study was conducted from January 2018 to March 2019 in five intervention and four control districts of two low to medium TB burden cities in Viet Nam. CHWs screened and referred eligible persons for CXR to TB care facilities or mobile screening events in the community. The initial diagnostic test was Xpert MTB/RIF for persons with parenchymal abnormalities suggestive of TB on CXR or otherwise on smear microscopy. We analyzed the TB care cascade by calculating the yield and number needed to screen (NNS), estimated the impact on TB notifications and conducted a pre-/postintervention comparison of TB notification rates using controlled, interrupted time series (ITS) analyses. We screened 30,336 individuals in both cities to detect and treat 243 individuals with TB, 88.9% of whom completed treatment successfully. All forms of TB notifications rose by +18.3% (95% CI: +15.8%, +20.8%). The ITS detected a significant postintervention step-increase in the intervention area for all-form TB notification rates (IRR(β6) = 1.221 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.475); p = 0.038). The combined use of CHWs for active case findings and mobile CXR screening expanded the access to and uptake of Xpert MTB/RIF testing and resulted in a significant increase in TB notifications. This model could serve as a blueprint for expansion throughout Vietnam. Moreover, the results demonstrate the need to optimize the use of the best available tools and approaches in order to end TB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Islands of Tuberculosis Elimination: An Evaluation of Community-Based Active Case Finding in North Sumatra, Indonesia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5040163 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
Community-based active case finding (ACF) is needed to reach key/vulnerable populations with limited access to tuberculosis (TB) care. Published reports of ACF interventions in Indonesia are scarce. We conducted an evaluation of a multicomponent community-based ACF intervention as it scaled from one district [...] Read more.
Community-based active case finding (ACF) is needed to reach key/vulnerable populations with limited access to tuberculosis (TB) care. Published reports of ACF interventions in Indonesia are scarce. We conducted an evaluation of a multicomponent community-based ACF intervention as it scaled from one district to nine in Nias and mainland North Sumatra. Community and health system support measures including laboratory strengthening, political advocacy, sputum transport, and community awareness were instituted. ACF was conducted in three phases: pilot (18 months, 1 district), intervention (12 months, 4 districts) and scale-up (9 months, 9 districts). The pilot phase identified 215 individuals with bacteriologically positive (B+) TB, representing 42% of B+ TB notifications. The intervention phase yielded 509, representing 54% of B+ notifications and the scale-up phase identified 1345 individuals with B+ TB (56% of notifications). We observed large increases in B+ notifications on Nias, but no overall change on the mainland despite district variation. Overall, community health workers screened 377,304 individuals of whom 1547 tested positive, and 95% were initiated on treatment. Our evaluation shows that multicomponent community-based ACF can reduce the number of people missed by TB programs. Community-based organizations are best placed for accessing and engaging hard to reach populations and providing integrated support which can have a large positive effect on TB notifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Private Sector Engagement for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Reporting through an Intermediary Agency in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030143 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Under-detection and -reporting in the private sector constitute a major barrier in Viet Nam’s fight to end tuberculosis (TB). Effective private-sector engagement requires innovative approaches. We established an intermediary agency that incentivized private providers in two districts of Ho Chi Minh City to [...] Read more.
Under-detection and -reporting in the private sector constitute a major barrier in Viet Nam’s fight to end tuberculosis (TB). Effective private-sector engagement requires innovative approaches. We established an intermediary agency that incentivized private providers in two districts of Ho Chi Minh City to refer persons with presumptive TB and share data of unreported TB treatment from July 2017 to March 2019. We subsidized chest x-ray screening and Xpert MTB/RIF testing, and supported test logistics, recording, and reporting. Among 393 participating private providers, 32.1% (126/393) referred at least one symptomatic person, and 3.6% (14/393) reported TB patients treated in their practice. In total, the study identified 1203 people with TB through private provider engagement. Of these, 7.6% (91/1203) were referred for treatment in government facilities. The referrals led to a post-intervention increase of +8.5% in All Forms TB notifications in the intervention districts. The remaining 92.4% (1112/1203) of identified people with TB elected private-sector treatment and were not notified to the NTP. Had this private TB treatment been included in official notifications, the increase in All Forms TB notifications would have been +68.3%. Our evaluation showed that an intermediary agency model can potentially engage private providers in Viet Nam to notify many people with TB who are not being captured by the current system. This could have a substantial impact on transparency into disease burden and contribute significantly to the progress towards ending TB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does Drug-Resistant Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Hinder TB Elimination Plans? A Case from Delhi, India
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030109 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Extrapulmonary drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-EPTB) poses a formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.Besides associated with high morbidity, it is a major financial burden for the patient and the health system. In spite of this, it has often been neglected as it does not “pose” a [...] Read more.
Extrapulmonary drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-EPTB) poses a formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.Besides associated with high morbidity, it is a major financial burden for the patient and the health system. In spite of this, it has often been neglected as it does not “pose” a visible public health threat. We study clinical profiles, treatment outcomes, and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes among DR-EPTB patients under programmatic settings in New Delhi, India, and evaluate how this could impact TB elimination. A retrospective analysis of all DR-EPTB patients registered at three nodal DR-TB centres in Delhi in 2016 was carried out. Of the 1261 DR-TB patients registered, 203 (16%) were DR-EPTB, with lymph nodes (118, 58%) being the most common site, followed by bone (69, 34%). Nearly 29% (n = 58) experienced adverse drug reactions with severe vomiting (26, 13 %), joint pain (21, 10%) and behavioral disorder (15, 7%). History of previous TB treatment was observed in a majority of the cases (87.7%). Nearly one-third of DR-EPTB cases (33%) had unfavourable treatment outcomes, with loss-to-follow-up (n = 40, 58%) or death (n = 14, 20%) being the most common unfavourable outcomes. In the adjusted analysis, weight band 31–50 kilograms (aRR = 1.8, 1.2–3.4) and h/o previous TB (aRR = 2.1, 1.1–4.8) were mainly associated with unfavourable outcomes. TB elimination efforts need to focus on all forms of TB, including DR-EPTB, leaving no one behind, in order to realise the dream of ending TB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus Screening and Assessment of Glycaemic Control among Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Yangon, Myanmar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5030107 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts of index TB patients in Yangon, Myanmar. Method: Household contacts were approached at their home. Chest X-ray and capillary blood glucose tests were offered based [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts of index TB patients in Yangon, Myanmar. Method: Household contacts were approached at their home. Chest X-ray and capillary blood glucose tests were offered based on World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association guidelines. Crude prevalence and odds ratios of DM and TB among household contacts of TB patients with and without DM were calculated. Results: The overall prevalence of DM and TB among household contacts were (14.0%, 95% CI: 10.6–18.4) and (5%, 95% CI: 3.2–7.6), respectively. More than 25% of DM cases and almost 95% of TB cases among household contacts were newly diagnosed. Almost 64% of known DM cases among household contacts had poor glycaemic control. The risk of getting DM among household contacts of TB patients with DM was significantly higher (OR—2.13, 95% CI: 1.10–4.12) than those of TB patients without DM. There was no difference in prevalence of TB among household contacts of TB patients with and without DM. Conclusion: Significant proportions of the undetected and uncontrolled DM among household contacts of index TB patients indicate a strong need for DM screening and intervention in this TB–DM dual high-risk population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Yield of Systematic Longitudinal Screening of Household Contacts of Pre-Extensively Drug Resistant (PreXDR) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020083 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
While risk of tuberculosis (TB) is high among household contacts (HHCs) of pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR-TB, data on yield of systematic longitudinal screening are lacking. We aim to describe the yield of systematic longitudinal TB contact tracing among HHCs of [...] Read more.
While risk of tuberculosis (TB) is high among household contacts (HHCs) of pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR-TB, data on yield of systematic longitudinal screening are lacking. We aim to describe the yield of systematic longitudinal TB contact tracing among HHCs of patients with pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB. At the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) clinic, Mumbai, India a cohort comprising 518 HHCs of 109 pre-XDR and XDR index cases was enrolled between January 2016 and June 2018. Regular HHC follow-ups were done till one year post treatment of index cases. Of 518 HHCs, 23 had TB (21 on TB treatment and two newly diagnosed) at the time of first visit. Of the rest, 19% HHCs had no follow-ups. Fourteen (3.5%) TB cases were identified among 400 HHCs; incidence rate: 2072/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 1227–3499). The overall yield of household contact tracing was 3% (16/518). Of 14 who were diagnosed with TB during follow-up, six had drug susceptible TB (DSTB); six had pre-XDR-TB and one had XDR-TB. Five of fourteen cases had resistance patterns concordant with their index case. In view of the high incidence of TB among HHCs of pre-XDR and XDR-TB cases, follow-up of HHCs for at least the duration of index cases’ treatment should be considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Levels of Treatment Success and Zero Relapse in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients Receiving a Levofloxacin-Based Shorter Treatment Regimen in Vietnam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010043 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Vietnam has been using a levofloxacin-based shorter treatment regimen (STR) for rifampicin resistant/multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB) patients since 2016 on a pilot basis. This regimen lasts for 9–11 months and is provided to RR/MDR-TB patients without second-line drug resistance. We report the treatment outcomes [...] Read more.
Vietnam has been using a levofloxacin-based shorter treatment regimen (STR) for rifampicin resistant/multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB) patients since 2016 on a pilot basis. This regimen lasts for 9–11 months and is provided to RR/MDR-TB patients without second-line drug resistance. We report the treatment outcomes and factors associated with unsuccessful outcomes. We conducted a cohort study involving secondary analysis of data extracted from electronic patient records maintained by the national TB program (NTP). Of the 302 patients enrolled from April 2016 to June 2018, 259 (85.8%) patients were successfully treated (246 cured and 13 ‘treatment completed’). Unsuccessful outcomes included: treatment failure (16, 5.3%), loss to follow-up (14, 4.6%) and death (13, 4.3%). HIV-positive TB patients, those aged ≥65 years and patients culture-positive at baseline had a higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes. In a sub-group of patients enrolled in 2016 (n = 99) and assessed at 12 months after treatment completion, no cases of relapse were identified. These findings vindicate the decision of the Vietnam NTP to use a levofloxacin-based STR in RR/MDR-TB patients without second-line drug resistance. This regimen may be considered for nationwide scale-up after a detailed assessment of adverse drug events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can the High Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra Be Harnessed to Save Cartridge Costs? Results from a Pooled Sputum Evaluation in Cambodia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010027 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Despite the World Health Organization recommending the use of rapid molecular tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB), uptake has been limited, partially due to high cartridge costs. Other infectious disease programs pool specimens to save on diagnostic test costs. We tested a sputum pooling [...] Read more.
Despite the World Health Organization recommending the use of rapid molecular tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB), uptake has been limited, partially due to high cartridge costs. Other infectious disease programs pool specimens to save on diagnostic test costs. We tested a sputum pooling strategy as part of a TB case finding program using Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra). All persons were tested with Ultra individually, and their remaining specimens were also grouped with 3–4 samples for testing in a pooled sample. Individual and pooled testing results were compared to see if people with TB would have been missed when using pooling. We assessed the potential cost and time savings which different pooling strategies could achieve. We tested 584 individual samples and also grouped them in 153 pools for testing separately. Individual testing identified 91 (15.6%) people with positive Ultra results. One hundred percent of individual positive results were also found to be positive by the pooling strategy. Pooling would have saved 27% of cartridge and processing time. Our results are the first to use Ultra in a pooled approach for TB, and demonstrate feasibility in field conditions. Pooling did not miss any TB cases and can save time and money. The impact of pooling is only realized when yield is low. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Public–Private Mix Model for Improving Tuberculosis Care in Vietnam: How Well Are We Doing?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010026 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
To improve tuberculosis (TB) care among individuals attending a private tertiary care hospital in Vietnam, an innovative private sector engagement model was implemented from June to December 2018. This included: (i) Active facility-based screening of all adults for TB symptoms (and chest x-ray [...] Read more.
To improve tuberculosis (TB) care among individuals attending a private tertiary care hospital in Vietnam, an innovative private sector engagement model was implemented from June to December 2018. This included: (i) Active facility-based screening of all adults for TB symptoms (and chest x-ray (CXR) for those with symptoms) by trained and incentivized providers, with on-site diagnostic testing or transport of sputum samples, (ii) a mobile application to reduce dropout in the care cascade and (iii) enhanced follow-up care by community health workers. We conducted a cohort study using project and routine surveillance data for evaluation. Among 52,078 attendees, 368 (0.7%) had symptoms suggestive of TB and abnormalities on CXR. Among them, 299 (81%) were tested and 103 (34.4%) were diagnosed with TB. In addition, 195 individuals with normal CXR were indicated for TB testing by attending clinicians, of whom, seven were diagnosed with TB. Of the 110 TB patients diagnosed, 104 (95%) were initiated on treatment and 97 (93%) had a successful treatment outcome. Given the success of this model, the National TB Programme is considering to scale it up nationwide after undertaking a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contact Investigation of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Mixed-Methods Study from Myanmar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010003 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
There is no published evidence on contact investigation among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients from Myanmar. We describe the cascade of contact investigation conducted in 27 townships of Myanmar from January 2018 to June 2019 and its implementation challenges. This was a mixed-methods study [...] Read more.
There is no published evidence on contact investigation among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients from Myanmar. We describe the cascade of contact investigation conducted in 27 townships of Myanmar from January 2018 to June 2019 and its implementation challenges. This was a mixed-methods study involving quantitative (cohort analysis of programme data) and qualitative components (thematic analysis of interviews of 8 contacts and 13 health care providers). There were 556 MDR-TB patients and 1908 contacts, of whom 1134 (59%) reached the health centres for screening (chest radiography and symptoms). Of the latter, 344 (30%) had presumptive TB and of them, 186 (54%) were investigated (sputum microscopy or Xpert MTB/RIF®). A total of 27 TB patients were diagnosed (six bacteriologically-confirmed including five with rifampicin resistance). The key reasons for not reaching township TB centres included lack of knowledge and lack of risk perception owing to wrong beliefs among contacts, financial constraints related to loss of wages and transportation charges, and inconvenient clinic hours. The reasons for not being investigated included inability to produce sputum, health care providers being unaware of or not agreeing to the investigation protocol, fixed clinic days and times, and charges for investigation. The National Tuberculosis Programme needs to note these findings and take necessary action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Outcomes of Community-Based Systematic Screening of Household Contacts of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Myanmar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010002 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Screening of household contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a crucial active TB case-finding intervention. Before 2016, this intervention had not been implemented in Myanmar, a country with a high MDR-TB burden. In 2016, a community-based screening of household contacts of [...] Read more.
Screening of household contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a crucial active TB case-finding intervention. Before 2016, this intervention had not been implemented in Myanmar, a country with a high MDR-TB burden. In 2016, a community-based screening of household contacts of MDR-TB patients using a systematic TB-screening algorithm (symptom screening and chest radiography followed by sputum smear microscopy and Xpert-MTB/RIF assays) was implemented in 33 townships in Myanmar. We assessed the implementation of this intervention, how well the screening algorithm was followed, and the yield of active TB. Data collected between April 2016 and March 2017 were analyzed using logistic and log-binomial regression. Of 620 household contacts of 210 MDR-TB patients enrolled for screening, 620 (100%) underwent TB symptom screening and 505 (81%) underwent chest radiography. Of 240 (39%) symptomatic household contacts, 71 (30%) were not further screened according to the algorithm. Children aged <15 years were less likely to follow the algorithm. Twenty-four contacts were diagnosed with active TB, including two rifampicin- resistant cases (yield of active TB = 3.9%, 95% CI: 2.3%–6.5%). The highest yield was found among children aged <5 years (10.0%, 95% CI: 3.6%–24.7%). Household contact screening should be strengthened, continued, and scaled up for all MDR-TB patients in Myanmar. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GeneXpert and Community Health Workers Supported Patient Tracing for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Conflict-Affected Border Areas in India
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010001 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing diagnosis and treatment for patients with tuberculosis (TB) via mobile clinics in conflict-affected border areas of Chhattisgarh, India since 2009. The study objectives were to determine the proportion of patients diagnosed with TB and those who [...] Read more.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing diagnosis and treatment for patients with tuberculosis (TB) via mobile clinics in conflict-affected border areas of Chhattisgarh, India since 2009. The study objectives were to determine the proportion of patients diagnosed with TB and those who were lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) prior to treatment initiation among patients with presumptive TB between April 2015 and August 2018. The study also compared bacteriological confirmation and pretreatment LTFU during two time periods: a) April 2015–August 2016 and b) April 2017–August 2018 (before and after the introduction of GeneXpert as a first diagnostic test). Community health workers (CHW) supported patient tracing. This study was a retrospective analysis of routine program data. Among 1042 patients with presumptive TB, 376 (36%) were diagnosed with TB. Of presumptive TB patients, the pretreatment LTFU was 7%. Upon comparing the two time-periods, bacteriological confirmation increased from 20% to 33%, while pretreatment LTFU decreased from 11% to 4%. TB diagnosis with GeneXpert as the first diagnostic test and CHW-supported patient tracing in a mobile-clinic model of care shows feasibility for replication in similar conflict-affected, hard to reach areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Funding on Childhood TB Case Detection in Pakistan
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040146 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
This study is a review of routine programmatically collected data to describe the 5-year trend in childhood case notification in Jamshoro district, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2018 and review of financial data for the two active case finding projects implemented during [...] Read more.
This study is a review of routine programmatically collected data to describe the 5-year trend in childhood case notification in Jamshoro district, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2018 and review of financial data for the two active case finding projects implemented during this period. The average case notification in the district was 86 per quarter before the start of active case finding project in October 2014. The average case notification rose to 322 per quarter during the implementation period (October 2014 to March 2016) and plateaued at 245 per quarter during the post-implementation period (April 2016 to June 2018). In a specialized chest center located in the district, where active case finding was re-introduced during the post implementation period (October 2016), the average case notification was 218 per quarter in the implementation period and 172 per quarter in the post implementation period. In the rest of the district, the average case notification was 160 per quarter in the implementation period and 78 during the post implementation period. The cost per additional child with TB found ranged from USD 28 to USD 42 during the interventions. A continuous stream of resources is necessary to sustain high notifications of childhood TB. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
The TB REACH Initiative: Supporting TB Elimination Efforts in the Asia-Pacific
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5040164 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
After many years of TB ‘control’ and incremental progress, the TB community is talking about ending the disease, yet this will only be possible with a shift in the way we approach the TB response. While the Asia-Pacific region has the highest TB [...] Read more.
After many years of TB ‘control’ and incremental progress, the TB community is talking about ending the disease, yet this will only be possible with a shift in the way we approach the TB response. While the Asia-Pacific region has the highest TB burden worldwide, it also has the opportunity to lead the quest to end TB by embracing the four areas laid out in this series: using data to target hotspots, initiating active case finding, provisioning preventive TB treatment, and employing a biosocial approach. The Stop TB Partnership’s TB REACH initiative provides a platform to support partners in the development, evaluation and scale-up of new and innovative technologies and approaches to advance TB programs. We present several approaches TB REACH is taking to support its partners in the Asia-Pacific and globally to advance our collective response to end TB. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
An Opportunity to END TB: Using the Sustainable Development Goals for Action on Socio-Economic Determinants of TB in High Burden Countries in WHO South-East Asia and the Western Pacific Regions
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020101 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
The progress towards ending tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 is less than expected in 11 high TB burden countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. Along with enhancing measures aimed at achieving universal access to quality-assured diagnosis, treatment and [...] Read more.
The progress towards ending tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 is less than expected in 11 high TB burden countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. Along with enhancing measures aimed at achieving universal access to quality-assured diagnosis, treatment and prevention services, massive efforts are needed to mitigate the prevalence of health-related risk factors, preferably through broader actions on the determinants of the “exposure-infection-disease-adverse outcome” spectrum. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the major socio-economic determinants of TB and to discuss how there are opportunities to address these determinants in an englobing manner under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) framework. The national TB programs must identify stakeholders working on the other SDGs, develop mechanisms to collaborate with them and facilitate action on social-economic determinants in high TB burden geographical areas. Research (to determine the optimal mechanisms and impact of such collaborations) must be an integral part of this effort. We call upon stakeholders involved in achieving the SDGs and End TB targets to recognize that all goals are highly interlinked, and they need to combine and complement each other’s efforts to end TB and the determinants behind this disease. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
The Growing Importance of Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy and How Research and Innovation Can Enhance Its Implementation on the Ground
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020061 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Ending the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2030 requires two key actions: rapid diagnosis and effective treatment of active TB and identification and treatment of latent TB infection to prevent progression to active disease. We introduce this perspective by documenting the growing importance of [...] Read more.
Ending the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2030 requires two key actions: rapid diagnosis and effective treatment of active TB and identification and treatment of latent TB infection to prevent progression to active disease. We introduce this perspective by documenting the growing importance of TB preventive therapy on the international agenda coupled with global data showing poor implementation of preventive activities in programmatic settings. We follow this with two principal objectives. The first is to examine implementation challenges around diagnosis and treatment of active TB. Within this, we include recent evidence about the continued morbidity and heightened mortality that persists after TB treatment is successfully completed, thus elevating the importance of TB preventive therapy. The second objective is to outline how current TB preventive therapy activities have been shaped and are managed and propose how these can be improved through research and innovation. This includes expanding and giving higher priority to certain high-risk groups including those with fibrotic lung lesions on chest X-ray, showcasing the need to develop and deploy new biomarkers to more accurately predict risk of disease and making shorter treatment regimens, especially with rifapentine-isoniazid, more user-friendly and widely available. Ending the TB epidemic requires not only cure of the disease but preventing it before it even begins. Full article
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