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Infrastructures, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010007
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a
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This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Performances of Bridge Types in the U.S. National Bridge Inventory
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010006
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
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This paper demonstrates a comprehensive national network-level analysis to determine the relative deteriorations and operational structural performances of the various types of bridge structural design and/or construction. The study analyzes the entire database of the U.S. National Bridge Inventory for the year 2013
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This paper demonstrates a comprehensive national network-level analysis to determine the relative deteriorations and operational structural performances of the various types of bridge structural design and/or construction. The study analyzes the entire database of the U.S. National Bridge Inventory for the year 2013 and considers bridge counts along with bridge deck areas that provide more significant results. Analysis of the proportional distribution of structural deficiency reveals issues of deterioration. Considering the structural deficiency, service life cycle and deterioration trends of bridge types over time, the multi-criteria equivalent structural performances incorporate the condition, durability, longevity, rate and pattern performances. The results provide support for more sustainable engineering and management decisions. Stringer/multi beam or girder (type 02) bridges are the most common bridge type, 40.75% by counts and 61.88% by areas. The structural performance of type 02 bridges seems comparable to the average of all bridges, yet they have lower durability and longevity performances, revealing a relative service life cycle vulnerability. The lowest structural performances are orthotropic (type 08) and segmental box girder (type 21) bridges; while their condition performances are rather high, their durability, longevity, rate and pattern performances are essentially low. The slight improvement of structural performance from 2006 to 2013 for most bridge types is not significant over seven years. Also, certain bridge types worsened. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Innovative Method for Automatic Shape Generation and 3D Printing of Reduced-Scale Models of Ultra-Thin Concrete Shells
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010005
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract
A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of
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A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of the selected geometries. First, the shape generation is explained, consisting of a geometrically nonlinear analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) to define the antifunicular of the shell’s deadweight. Next, the scale model production is described, consisting of 3D printing, specifically developed to evaluate the aesthetics and visual impact, as well as to study the aerodynamic behaviour of the concrete shells in a wind tunnel. The goals and constraints of the method are identified and a step-by-step guidelines presented, aiming to be used as a reference in future studies. The printed geometry is validated by high-resolution assessment achieved by photogrammetry. The results are compared with the geometry computed through geometric nonlinear finite-element-based analysis, and no significant differences are recorded. The method is revealed to be an important tool for automatic shape generation and building scale models of shells. The latter enables the performing of wind tunnel tests to obtain pressure coefficients, essential for structural analysis of this type of structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Freeze–Thaw Resistance of Concrete Road Infrastructure by Means of Superabsorbent Polymers
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010004
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
The scope of the paper is to report an investigation on durability of infrastructure concrete for roads and bridges by creating a size and shape-designed pore systems in concrete in order to improve it, especially in terms of freeze–thaw resistance. By means of
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The scope of the paper is to report an investigation on durability of infrastructure concrete for roads and bridges by creating a size and shape-designed pore systems in concrete in order to improve it, especially in terms of freeze–thaw resistance. By means of this experimental laboratory study, an alternative for usage of air entrainment agents (AEA) in concrete infrastructures was found in the way of using superabsorbent polymer materials (SAPs). The effect of the addition of SAPs of different amounts and different types into fresh concrete mix was investigated, including: compressive strength tests, weight loss measurements, visual and microscopic inspections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The detrimental strength reduction effect was not observed. The freeze–thaw procedure was varied, using different types of de-icing salts and heating/cooling regimes. It can be concluded that an improvement of the freeze–thaw resistance of concrete infrastructure depends on the particle size and optimal amount of SAPs added into concrete mix. The addition of 0.26 wt % of dry SAPs into the fresh concrete reference mix led to the significant decrease of scaling up to 43% after 28 freeze–thaw cycles. Both dosage and particle size of the SAPs had a significant impact on the obtained results and the freeze–thaw resistance in this experimental laboratory study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Open AccessReview State-of-the-Art Review of Railway Track Resilience Monitoring
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010003
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, railway systems have played a significant role in transportation systems due to the demand increase in conveying both cargo and passengers. Due to the harsh environments and severe loading conditions, caused by the traffic growth, heavier axles and vehicles and
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In recent years, railway systems have played a significant role in transportation systems due to the demand increase in conveying both cargo and passengers. Due to the harsh environments and severe loading conditions, caused by the traffic growth, heavier axles and vehicles and increase in speed, railway tracks are at risk of degradation and failure. Condition monitoring has been widely used to support the health assessment of civil engineering structures and infrastructures. In this context, it was adopted as a powerful tool for an objective assessment of the railway track behaviour by enabling real-time data collection, inspection and detection of structural degradation. According to relevant literature, a number of sensors can be used to monitor track behaviour during the train passing under harsh environments. This paper presents a review of sensors used for structural monitoring of railway track infrastructure, as well as their application to sense the performance of different track components during extreme events. The insight into track monitoring for railways serving traffic with extreme features will not only improve the track inspection and damage detection but also enable a predictive track maintenance regime in order to assist the decision-making process towards more cost-effective management in the railway industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Railway Infrastructure Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Material Structural Deficiencies of Road Bridges in the U.S.
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010002
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
This study analyzes the National Bridge Inventory in the U.S. to determine the relative structural deficiencies of bridge materials, comparing between the overall national values and each state, geographically. The analysis considers the most common bridge construction materials—concrete, steel, and prestressed/post-tensioned concrete. The
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This study analyzes the National Bridge Inventory in the U.S. to determine the relative structural deficiencies of bridge materials, comparing between the overall national values and each state, geographically. The analysis considers the most common bridge construction materials—concrete, steel, and prestressed/post-tensioned concrete. The results suggest need to reassess the efficacy of best performance practices for steel bridges and for states with structural deficiencies above the national average. Geographic consistency of structurally deficient bridge density with population density shows need to improve intervention strategies for regions with higher levels of service usage. The study also compares the relative operational lifespan of bridge materials in each state. The average structurally deficient bridge ages are lower than the 75-year life-cycle expectancy. Prestressed/post-tensioned concrete bridges reveal relatively lower lifespan. Over time, concrete and steel bridges show some gradual improvement with decreasing percentage of structural deficiency and increasing lifespan. Prestressed/post-tensioned concrete bridges reveal shifting earlier accumulation of structural deficiency for a particular age group. The study also reveals relative climate effects. Climate conditions correlate differently with the structural deficiency and life cycle of bridge materials in each state. Structurally deficient bridge densities show correlation with climate maps, especially under colder and moist conditions. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Infrastructures in 2017
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010001
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Infrastructures maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...] Full article
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