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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2016) , Pages 154-268

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Open AccessReview
Stress for Vertebral Bodies and Intervertebral Discs with Respect to Squatting Depth
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 254-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020254
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1794 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the development of speed strength in professional sports, “specific” strength training in the half or the quarter squat have been recommended. Due to the better lever ratios, higher loads have to be used to induce the necessary training stimuli compared to the [...] Read more.
For the development of speed strength in professional sports, “specific” strength training in the half or the quarter squat have been recommended. Due to the better lever ratios, higher loads have to be used to induce the necessary training stimuli compared to the deep squat. Therefore, intradiscal pressure and compressive forces on vertebral bodies increase. Calculated compressive forces for the L3/L4 vertebral segment were revealed to be 6–10-fold bodyweight when the half or the quarter squat was performed with 0.8–1.6-fold bodyweight. After 10 weeks of training, physical education students have even been able to lift 3.89-fold bodyweight in the one repetition maximum (1-RM) of the quarter squat. The presented dependence of squatting depth, load and their influence on the spinal column have not been discussed before. A search for relevant scientific literature was conducted using PubMed. Concerns about increased risk of injuries in the deep squat have been disproven by plenty of cross-sectional studies with professional athletes. On the contrary, the comparably supramaximal weight loads in the half and the quarter squat should be regarded as increasing injury risks caused by the higher shear and compressive forces in the vertebral column. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that the half and the quarter squat should not further be recommended. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
A Newborn with Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome: The Importance of Timely Diagnostic Work-Up in Patients Presenting with Cutis Laxa
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 249-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020249
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1507 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by severe and widespread arterial tortuosity of the aorta and of middle-sized arteries with an increased risk of aneurysm, dissection, and stenosis involving either the aorta or the pulmonary [...] Read more.
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by severe and widespread arterial tortuosity of the aorta and of middle-sized arteries with an increased risk of aneurysm, dissection, and stenosis involving either the aorta or the pulmonary arteries or both. In this article, we report the clinical findings and molecular characterization of a newborn with ATS presenting with cutis laxa, respiratory distress, and dislocation of the nasogastric tube due to a gastric volvulus and an open pleuroperitoneal channel. Based on this case report, we emphasize early diagnostic work-up in all patients presenting with cutis laxa in order to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. Data suggests that early diagnosis is life-saving in these patients. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Effects of Electrical Pulse and 6-DMAP on Cleavage of Golden Hamster Oocytes—Morphological and Phisiological Observations
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 240-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020240
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 25 May 2016 / Published: 30 May 2016
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Abstract
The golden hamster is a well-established model system for studies of morphology, reproductive physiology, oncology, genetics and virology. The aim of this study was to establish experimental protocols necessary for cloning the golden hamster; we examined and optimized conditions for parthenogenesis and cleavage [...] Read more.
The golden hamster is a well-established model system for studies of morphology, reproductive physiology, oncology, genetics and virology. The aim of this study was to establish experimental protocols necessary for cloning the golden hamster; we examined and optimized conditions for parthenogenesis and cleavage of its oocytes. We tested oocytes of different ages, including 15 h after Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), with two treatments: (1) an electrical pulse ranging from 10 to 600 V/mm and (2) incubation for 2 to 6 h in 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). These two conditions were tested both separately and in combination. We found that (i) in oocytes of different ages, cleavage exhibits a strength-dependent increase; (ii) 6-DMAP stimulates oocyte cleavage, but the cleavage rates are significantly low; and (iii) a combined treatment is more effective than a treatment with 6-DMAP alone, and is comparable to those achieved with high pulse stimuli. These results elucidate certain parameters important for the cloning of the golden hamster species. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Compensatory Adaptations and Individual Variability in Exercise Prescription
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 230-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020230
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1666 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for public health. Due to the decline in physical demands of daily living exercise becomes an increasingly important contributor to an active lifestyle. The evidence on health benefits of exercise, particularly regarding weight loss, however, remains [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for public health. Due to the decline in physical demands of daily living exercise becomes an increasingly important contributor to an active lifestyle. The evidence on health benefits of exercise, particularly regarding weight loss, however, remains equivocal. In addition to lack of adherence to an exercise program, participants display behavioral and physiological adaptations that potentially mitigate exercise-induced health benefits. Specifically, a reduction in non-exercise physical activity (PA) and/or an increase in energy intake along with metabolic adaptations have been suggested to affect exercise-induced health benefits. There is also a large inter-individual variability, which makes some participants more receptive to exercise-induced weight loss than others. Even in the absence of weight loss exercise, however, provides various health benefits such as an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness, beneficial changes in blood lipids and blood pressure. In fact, some of these benefits have been more pronounced in participants who did not experience weight loss. In order to enhance the understanding of the role of exercise in health promotion a better understanding of compensatory adaptations is needed along with an identification of characteristics that contribute to inter-individual variability in response to exercise interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
An Extensive Evaluation of Different Knee Stability Assessment Measures: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 209-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020209
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1417 | PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Re-injury to a recently rehabilitated or operated knee is a common occurrence that can result in significant loss of function. Knee stability measures have been used to diagnose and assess knee stability before and after rehabilitation interventions. Here, we systematically review the literature [...] Read more.
Re-injury to a recently rehabilitated or operated knee is a common occurrence that can result in significant loss of function. Knee stability measures have been used to diagnose and assess knee stability before and after rehabilitation interventions. Here, we systematically review the literature and evaluate the different anterior-posterior and rotational knee stability measures currently in use. A computer-assisted literature search of the Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane databases was conducted using keywords related to knee stability measures. In a second step, we conducted a manual search of the references cited in these articles to capture any studies that may have been missed in the searched databases. The literature search strategy identified a total of 574 potential studies. After revisiting the titles and abstracts, 34 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Most articles compared knee stability measures, whilst other studies assessed their sensitivity and specificity. Several techniques and devices used to measure knee stability are reported in the literature. However, there are only a limited number of quality studies where these techniques and/or devices have been evaluated. Further development and investigation with high quality study designs is necessary to robustly evaluate the existing devices/techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Jet Lag on Postural Stability
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 200-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020200
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract
Crossing time zones can disrupt our body clock and lead to jet lag. Some studies reported that jet lag affects human physical and cognitive functions. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, none of these studies examined the effects of jet lag on [...] Read more.
Crossing time zones can disrupt our body clock and lead to jet lag. Some studies reported that jet lag affects human physical and cognitive functions. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, none of these studies examined the effects of jet lag on postural stability. Twenty-two healthy young adult males between 23 and 36 years of age who had a round trip flight planned between the United States and Saudi Arabia were recruited. Participants attended one preflight assessment and three post-flight assessments (within 24, 48, and 72 h). Participants were put into two groups, those who did not sleep and those that slept prior to 1st post-test assessment. Participant’s postural stability was assessed using NeuroCom® VSR™ Sport computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). Significant improvements in postural stability were observed in Group 2 during the 2nd post-flight assessments p < 0.05). There was no significant impact on participant’s postural stability while flying westward crossing more than ten time zones. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Myoelectric Manifestations of Fatigue after ACL Reconstruction: A Cross-Sectional Study after Postoperative Rehabilitation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 193-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020193
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1131 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increased fatigability associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may persist several months after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) as a descriptor of myoelectric fatigue, at different stages after rehabilitation, [...] Read more.
An increased fatigability associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may persist several months after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) as a descriptor of myoelectric fatigue, at different stages after rehabilitation, post-ACL reconstruction. Nineteen subjects acted as control group (CG), 10 patients had undergone surgery within 12 months (R12), and 23 patients were more than 24 months post-surgery (R24+). Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were detected from the quadriceps femoris using bidimensional arrays during isometric contractions at 20% and 60% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). We observed a lower fatigability in the R24+ group during the 60% MVC contraction, with respect to the other groups. Lower fatigability of quadriceps muscle after ACL reconstruction in the long term may be linked to a recovery from a transitory altered motor unit recruitment strategy due to surgery, observed in the R12 group. Therefore, the findings of this study do not suggest an impaired fatigability of the quadriceps muscle during sustained isometric contractions in active patients in the long term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tailored Exercise with an Innovative Mechanical Device: Effects on Cervical-Dorsal Rachis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 183-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020183
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
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Abstract
Trapezius muscle has a fundamental role in cervico-dorsal pain and posture. Often, in movements involving trapezius, the predominant activity is carried out by the upper trapezius, and many times this may be a risk factor for the integrity of the cervico-dorsal structures. To [...] Read more.
Trapezius muscle has a fundamental role in cervico-dorsal pain and posture. Often, in movements involving trapezius, the predominant activity is carried out by the upper trapezius, and many times this may be a risk factor for the integrity of the cervico-dorsal structures. To investigate the effects of physical exercise with the new device called the “Angel’s Wings” on a sample of different professionals. We enrolled 15 volunteers for electromyography (EMG) data, which was collected during the physical performance; 3 volunteers for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, collected before and after a training period; and 73 workers of Ferrari S.p.A. and the Scuderia Ferrari racing team division for a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, collected before and after one session of training. EMG shows a decoupling of upper and lower trapezius activity; MRI shows a realignment of cervical-dorsal rachis after one month of training; VAS pain score significantly decreased after the physical exercise with the “Angel’s Wings”. Results show that the use of the “Angel’s Wings” is applicable to counteract and decrease the neck pain by a decontraction of the upper trapezius and correct postural defects of the cervico-dorsal column. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Palmaris Longus Muscle on Function in Sports: An Explorative Study in Elite Tennis Players and Recreational Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 167-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020167
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1792 | PDF Full-text (2364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Palmaris longus muscle can be absent unilateral or bilateral in about 22.4% of human beings. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the presence of the Palmaris longus muscle is associated with an advantage to handgrip in elite tennis players [...] Read more.
The Palmaris longus muscle can be absent unilateral or bilateral in about 22.4% of human beings. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the presence of the Palmaris longus muscle is associated with an advantage to handgrip in elite tennis players compared to recreational athletes. Sixty people participated in this study, thirty elite tennis players and thirty recreational athletes. The presence of the Palmaris longus muscle was first assessed using different tests. Grip strength and fatigue resistance were measured by an electronic hand dynamometer. Proprioception was registered by the Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system. Three tests were set up for measuring proprioception: joint position sense, kinesthesia, and joint motion sense. Several hand movements were conducted with the aim to correctly reposition the joint angle. Results demonstrate a higher presence of the Palmaris longus muscle in elite tennis players, but this was not significant. Maximal grip strength was correlated with gender and only on the dominant side; it was also correlated with age. Fatigue resistance showed only on the non-dominant side; a significant difference in elite and recreational athletes. In proprioception there was no correlation with elite and recreational athletes or the presence of the Palmaris longus muscle. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering and Mechanical Stimulation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 162-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020162
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
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Abstract
We are pleased to introduce the first of our Journal Club Series with the aim to review and discuss the highlights of recent papers in the field of the musculoskeletal system and associated disorders, the leitmotiv of the Journal of Functional Morphology and [...] Read more.
We are pleased to introduce the first of our Journal Club Series with the aim to review and discuss the highlights of recent papers in the field of the musculoskeletal system and associated disorders, the leitmotiv of the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. The first edition is focused on some interesting papers published in 2015 and 2016 in the field of Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering and Mechanical Stimulation, chosen by our Editorial Board members. We hope that this topic might tease your curiosity also in fields possibly different to your own research area, but still intrinsically connected with it. We wish you stimulating and inspiring reading. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
The Effect of Mechanical Loading on Articular Cartilage
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 154-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1020154
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1586 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of mechanical loading on articular cartilage is the topic chosen for the second editorial of this newly launched journal. The aim of this interesting editorial is to illustrate the cell signaling correlated to the mechanical loading, some aspects of the mechanobiology [...] Read more.
The effect of mechanical loading on articular cartilage is the topic chosen for the second editorial of this newly launched journal. The aim of this interesting editorial is to illustrate the cell signaling correlated to the mechanical loading, some aspects of the mechanobiology and the positive and negative effects of the mechanical loading on articular cartilage. The benefits of the mechanical loading on articular cartilage have been shown to have a short- and long-term effectiveness. In this article, the role of mechanical signaling in the maintenance of articular cartilage and how the alterations in normal signaling can lead to joint pathology have been discussed. Full article
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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