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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2016) , Pages 269-342

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Open AccessArticle
Peripheral Electrical and Magnetic Stimulation to Augment Resistance Training
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 328-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030328 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Electrical stimulation (ES) and magnetic stimulation (MS), applied peripherally, may be used to elicit muscle contractions to increase muscle hypertrophy, increase muscle strength and reduce knee laxity in rehabilitation following injury. We aimed to examine the effect of a three-week exercise programme designed [...] Read more.
Electrical stimulation (ES) and magnetic stimulation (MS), applied peripherally, may be used to elicit muscle contractions to increase muscle hypertrophy, increase muscle strength and reduce knee laxity in rehabilitation following injury. We aimed to examine the effect of a three-week exercise programme designed to induce muscle hypertrophy augmented by peripheral ES and MS. We hypothesised that the use of peripheral stimulation to augment voluntary drive during a resistance-training protocol would induce more repetitions thus leading to increased thigh circumference, muscle layer thickness, and quadriceps strength whilst decreasing knee laxity. Thirty healthy participants were divided randomly into either ES, MS or Control groups. Five resistance training sessions were carried out, consisting of four sets of quadriceps extensions. During the first three sets the participants performed eight repetitions at 85% of their 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). On the last set, the participants were instructed to perform the exercise until failure. The augmentation of peripheral stimuli allowed the MS and ES groups to continue to exercise producing, on average, 4 ± 2 and 7 ± 6 additional repetitions with ES and MS, respectively. Following the training, significant increases were observed for both 1-RM (p = 0.005) and muscle layer thickness (p = 0.031) whilst no change was observed in thigh circumference (p = 0.365). Knee laxity decreased (p = 0.005). However, there were no significant differences in the stimulation groups compared with control for any of these measurements. The additional repetitions elicited by stimulation after the point of failure suggests that peripheral electrical and/or magnetic stimulation may be useful as an adjunct for resistance training. However, this effect of resistance training augmented by peripheral stimulation on hypertrophy, strength and knee laxity may be small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessCommunication
Mental Health and Quality of Life Perception of Surviving Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 322-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030322 - 01 Sep 2016
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Quality of life (QoL) is one of the most important factors for cancer patients related to survival. Literature supports the role of physical exercise as therapy for improving QoL in this category. This study aims to verify the impact of an unsupervised physical [...] Read more.
Quality of life (QoL) is one of the most important factors for cancer patients related to survival. Literature supports the role of physical exercise as therapy for improving QoL in this category. This study aims to verify the impact of an unsupervised physical activity program at moderate intensity in this field. Fourteen breast and colon cancer patients, aged 63 ± 15, were prescribed a program of unsupervised exercise for at least six months. They were administered the SF36 questionnaire at the beginning of the program and after six months, to evaluate QoL parameters. Significant improvements in PF (physical functioning) and RP (role physical) (T0: 78.9; T6: 79.2; T0: 53.6; T6: 73.3), mental health role (T0: 54.6 ± 19.53; T6: 55.7) and RE (role emotional) (T0: 54.7; T6: 73.8), with a decrease particularly in pain perception (T0: 21.8; T6: 17.1), were found. A significant decrease in the intake of calories was also evident. In this study unsupervised exercise programs were seen to significantly improve QoL perception in a short time, considerably decreasing metabolic risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Plantar Pressure While Running with a Jogging Stroller
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 314-321; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030314 - 10 Aug 2016
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Despite the common use of jogging strollers, only a few studies cover their influence on running patterns. Kinematic studies have shown differences in the upper body movement, while potential changes in plantar pressure remain unclear. Therefore, 30 healthy sport students were asked to [...] Read more.
Despite the common use of jogging strollers, only a few studies cover their influence on running patterns. Kinematic studies have shown differences in the upper body movement, while potential changes in plantar pressure remain unclear. Therefore, 30 healthy sport students were asked to run at a self-selected speed with and without a jogging stroller on a treadmill. Via bilateral insole pressure measurements, the plantar pressure distribution and the stride length were quantified. A significantly decreased pressure for running with a jogging stroller was found in the forefoot, metatarsus, inner edge, outer edge and for the total pressure of the left foot. The right foot showed similar significances for all foot areas except the metatarsus. Stride length was significantly shorter when running with a jogging stroller. As stride length and plantar pressure are known to correlate, the reduced stride length in running with a jogging stroller can partially explain the measured decrease in plantar pressure. Further, the partial weight-bearing, which is needed to keep the jogging stroller in line, can also contribute to the decrease in plantar pressure. Moreover, the unilateral weight-bearing enlarges the base of support and could also be a reason for the decrease in plantar pressure. In conclusion, our results show statistically significant changes in plantar pressure, but these are not of clinical importance as the effect sizes are very low. Therefore, no specific training recommendations for running with a stroller have to be made. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report
Olympic Champion Sara Simeoni Talks about Gender Barriers in Sport and Medicine: Culture, Opportunities and Resources
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 303-313; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030303 - 09 Aug 2016
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
An overview of the relationship between elite athletes’ sport activity and medicine was presented during a conference with guest speaker Mrs. Sara Simeoni, Italian Olympic Games high jump champion (one gold medal, in Moscow, and silver medals in Montreal and Los Angeles). She [...] Read more.
An overview of the relationship between elite athletes’ sport activity and medicine was presented during a conference with guest speaker Mrs. Sara Simeoni, Italian Olympic Games high jump champion (one gold medal, in Moscow, and silver medals in Montreal and Los Angeles). She has had a particularly prolonged career for this type of sport activity, and her endorsement and support, since she is a recognized icon of sport excellence, is very important. This is particularly true in relevant and sensitive topics such as gender inequalities, physical exercise and sport ethics. During the conference, the relationship between nutrition, physical activity and health, in both medicine and social life, were also covered. In reality, we still find that the cultural, economic, societal and political barriers are present and, currently, in some regards, they are even stronger than in the past. The interplay between evidence-based medicine, elite athletes’ training, physical fitness practice and physical exercise intervention in health and disease is still being developed. Defining methods and clarifying multidimensional outcomes should, as much as possible, be pursued, and sustainable strategies and tools should be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Morphological and Functional Aspects of Human Skeletal Muscle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 289-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030289 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Skeletal muscle has multiple functions and is a key component of the locomotor system. It consists of carbohydrates and amino acids for different tissues such as skin, heart and brain. It contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose levels during periods of starvation. [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle has multiple functions and is a key component of the locomotor system. It consists of carbohydrates and amino acids for different tissues such as skin, heart and brain. It contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose levels during periods of starvation. Skeletal muscle health is particularly important for the prevention of various diseases. This review discusses various aspects of skeletal muscle tissue including its development, structure, function and morphology, including the guidelines for histology methods. We have also discussed, sarcopenia, age-related muscle diseases and exercise. We hope this review will benefit readers of a clinical and non-clinical background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Arm Position on Lower Extremity Kinematics during a Single Limb Drop Landing: A Preliminary Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 282-288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030282 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur most commonly during non-contact situations, such as landing from a jump. Arm position has been shown to affect the loading of the lower extremity and therefore alter the potential injury risk. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur most commonly during non-contact situations, such as landing from a jump. Arm position has been shown to affect the loading of the lower extremity and therefore alter the potential injury risk. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arm position on lower extremity kinematics during single limb drop landings. Eight recreational American football players performed single limb drop landings on their preferential limb in four different conditions; (1) control (arms free); (2) arms to landing limb side; (3) arms in front of body; and (4) arms away from landing limb side. Kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle were recorded in both the sagittal and frontal planes at initial ground contact and maximum. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in maximum hip flexion and a significant increase in peak dorsiflexion when landing with arms away from the landing-side limb. Since decreased hip flexion and increased ankle dorsiflexion have been proposed to increase the likelihood of ACL injury, it would appear that landing with arms away from the landing-side limb may increase the risk of ACL injury, and therefore athletes should avoid this position when landing from a jump. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Joint Biomechanics of Running
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 276-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030276 - 28 Jun 2016
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the second Journal Club. On the occasion of the recent Global Running Day, the first of June 2016, the second edition is focused on several relevant studies published recently in the field of Joint Biomechanics of Running, chosen [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the second Journal Club. On the occasion of the recent Global Running Day, the first of June 2016, the second edition is focused on several relevant studies published recently in the field of Joint Biomechanics of Running, chosen by our Scientific Board members. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Physical Activity for Health—An Overview and an Update of the Physical Activity Guidelines of the Italian Ministry of Health
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(3), 269-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1030269 - 23 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Physical activity for health is the topic chosen for the third editorial of this newly launched journal. The aim of this editorial is to illustrate and comment on the physical activity guidelines of the Italian Ministry of Health. Full article
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