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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2016) , Pages 1-153

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Open AccessReview
The Genetics of Osteoarthritis: A Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 140-153; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010140
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2488 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. There is thought to be an important genetic component to the development of OA. In this review article, the methods used to study the [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. There is thought to be an important genetic component to the development of OA. In this review article, the methods used to study the genetics of OA are discussed, along with the main findings from these analyses, with a particular focus on the results of genome-wide association scans (GWAS). Functional validation of the results from genetic studies of OA is also described to put the genetic results into a biological context and show their relevance to the mechanisms involved in the development and progression of OA. The clinical relevance of the genetic findings to date is also discussed, as well as the research, which is still needed in this field to further improve the understanding of OA pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variability of Upper Cervical Anatomy: A Reflection on Its Clinical Relevance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 126-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010126
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
The upper cervical complex is a distinctive spinal area with a great need for mobility as well as stability. The specific anatomical morphology of the atlanto-occipital and of the atlanto-axial joints seems to support these complex functional demands. The present study reports on [...] Read more.
The upper cervical complex is a distinctive spinal area with a great need for mobility as well as stability. The specific anatomical morphology of the atlanto-occipital and of the atlanto-axial joints seems to support these complex functional demands. The present study reports on some systematic and non-systematic observations of specific morphological variations and variants of the upper cervical joint anatomy. They are reported with respect to morphological features of the transverse atlantal and alar ligaments, morphological features of the lateral atlanto-axial and atlanto-occipital joints, additional joint configurations of the atlanto-occipital junction, muscular attachments to the joint capsule of the lateral atlanto occipital joint, and the Processus styloideus in its relationship with movements of the upper cervical joints. The observations mainly confirm general anatomical descriptions from textbooks, although some confront with these basic anatomical configurations mainly due to large morphological variation. Additionally, specific anatomical variants may raise questions on the generally accepted functional anatomical features. Some of these specific morphological configurations may have major implications for the kinematics of the occipito-atlanto-axial complex. This paper intends to reflect on the functional impact of the observed upper cervical morphological variability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition in the Sarcopenia of Cirrhosis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 118-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010118
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1989 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this review is to understand how physical activity and nutrition are involved in the improvement of sarcopenia in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia in cirrhosis involves three major factors: inadequate dietary intake, metabolic disturbances, and malabsorption. [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to understand how physical activity and nutrition are involved in the improvement of sarcopenia in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia in cirrhosis involves three major factors: inadequate dietary intake, metabolic disturbances, and malabsorption. Although in the early stages muscles appear to be spared, sarcopenia progressively leads to mobility limitations and its consequences, such as propensity to falls and drastically reducing life quality. Several studies confirm the important role played by physical activity and balanced nutrition in this chronic condition. Exercise and nutritional intervention should be recommended in these patients in order to improve quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Transplant Recipients: Feasibility and Clinical Role of 2D Speckle Tracking to Assess Myocardial Function
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 109-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010109
Received: 13 January 2016 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1246 | PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Left ventricular (LV) function is normally improved after renal transplant; however, cardiovascular mortality remains elevated. Moderate physical activity has a positive impact on myocardial function; however, few data are available about the role of 2D echocardiography (2DE) and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) [...] Read more.
Left ventricular (LV) function is normally improved after renal transplant; however, cardiovascular mortality remains elevated. Moderate physical activity has a positive impact on myocardial function; however, few data are available about the role of 2D echocardiography (2DE) and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) on renal transplant recipients (RTR). From a large cohort of RTR submitted to a supervised exercise as the prescription program, 10 subjects who were regularly trained were studied for sixth months. They underwent periodically an echo evaluation (ESAOTE MyLab 50), cardiopulmonary test (CPT) and strength test for the lower and upper limbs. The LV function study was completed with the speckle tracking longitudinal strain (Lo Strain) measure calculated by dedicated software (XStrain–Esaote) at the end of the protocol. All of the cardiovascular parameters were normal: the ejection fraction (EF) increased significantly (from 62.7 ± 4 to 67.2 ± 2.3 with p < 0.05), as well as the anaerobic threshold (15.3 ± 6.8 to 20.5 ± 10.1 with p < 0.05). Particularly, the global longitudinal strain (GLS) values were within the normal range (−19.2% ± 5.1), maintaining the physiological gradient from the basal (−13.2 ± 4.1; −16.5 ± 5.21) to the apex level (−21 ± 2.3; −25.7 ± −7.0). 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) can be effectively used to confirm the presence of preserved physiological myocardial function in post-renal transplantation subjects submitted to a physical training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Arthrodesis and Hemiarthroplasty: Different Techniques in the Treatment of Hallux Rigidus—Surgery and Postoperative Rehabilitation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 102-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010102
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
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Abstract
Hallux rigidus (HR) is a progressive degenerative pathology affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The aim of the present study is to report our experience on the treatment of HR patients with two different surgical methods: arthrodesis and hemiarthroplasty. Twelve patients (14 HR) underwent [...] Read more.
Hallux rigidus (HR) is a progressive degenerative pathology affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The aim of the present study is to report our experience on the treatment of HR patients with two different surgical methods: arthrodesis and hemiarthroplasty. Twelve patients (14 HR) underwent surgery for HR from July 2004 to October 2009. Median age was 58 years (Interquartile Range (IQR) 52.75–65.0). At time of surgery, patients had different grades of HR, according to the Regnauld modified classification. The outcome was assessed using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal (HMI) scale. Controls were performed at one month and then at mid-term follow-up (median 48 months; IQR 29.3–58.0). In the arthrodesis group (n = 6 HR) we observed a median improvement of 35.5 points (IQR 34.75–36.0; p = 0.036) at the early follow-up. In the hemiarthroplasty (n = 8 HR) group the median of differences at the one-month follow-up was 33 (IQR 30.5–33.0; p = 0.022). At mid-term follow-up the arthrodesis group showed the median difference score of 35 (IQR 33.0–35.25) in comparison with the hemiarthroplasty group which showed a median score of 30.5 (IQR 28.0–32.5). Our results are consistent with the current understanding of two surgical techniques for the treatment of HR: nowadays, arthrodesis is considered the treatment of choice in grade III and IV. Hemiarthroplasty seems to be a promising option. Management of pain and joint flexibility are fundamental to prevent relapses and restore the Range Of Motion (ROM) in dorsal flexion. This article is a retrospective case series with a level of evidence 4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Myotilin and Fylamin C in Various Muscle Diseases: A Microarray Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 90-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010090
Received: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1425 | PDF Full-text (2318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cytoskeletal protein plays a significant role in the stability of thin filaments during muscle contraction. Mutations in these genes have been associated with various muscles diseases. Myotilin (MYOT) and Fylamin C (FLNC) belong to the cytoskeleton protein family and are associated with [...] Read more.
The cytoskeletal protein plays a significant role in the stability of thin filaments during muscle contraction. Mutations in these genes have been associated with various muscles diseases. Myotilin (MYOT) and Fylamin C (FLNC) belong to the cytoskeleton protein family and are associated with different myopathies. We analyzed two microarray datasets obtained from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus databank (accession number GDS2855 and GDS1956) in order to verify the modulation of MYOT and FLNC in eight human skeletal muscle diseases. For these studies we also used: the open source tools the Human Protein Atlas to confirm by Immunohistochemistry (IH) the MYOT and FLNC tissue expression; Genome-scale Integrated Analysis of gene Networks in Tissues (GIANT) to identify the genes network; COMPARTMENT to identify the localization in cells. We showed that both MYOT and FLNC were significantly modulated in various muscle diseases. In particular, MYOT and FLNC mRNA were significantly downregulated in Acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) compared to normal human skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the GIANT analysis showed a relationship confidence of 0.23 to MYOT and FLNC, confirming their strong correlation. These data provide to support our hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between MYOT and FLNC. Larger studies are needed to evaluate if MYOT and FLNC may be a promising clinical biomarker in subjects with diseases of the muscle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Synthetic Anti-Inflammatory Sterol in CB3V-Induced Myocarditis: A Morphological Study on Heart Muscle Tissue
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 69-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010069
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 19 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1873 | PDF Full-text (4823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell-mediated immune events play a role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis provoked by Group B coxsackievirus (CVB). Studies indicated the synthetic derivative of androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol, HE3286 (17α-ethynyl-5-androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol), may ameliorate the course of immunoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases in rodents. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Cell-mediated immune events play a role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis provoked by Group B coxsackievirus (CVB). Studies indicated the synthetic derivative of androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol, HE3286 (17α-ethynyl-5-androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol), may ameliorate the course of immunoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases in rodents. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of HE3286 on histological signs of CVB-induced myocarditis. BALB/c mice were infected with coxsackie B3 virus (CB3V) and treated by intraperitoneal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) or by oral gavage with HE3286 or with its vehicle, HERF405, for 18 days. Mice were sacrificed and hearts were explanted for histological and immunohistochemical analysis (TNF-α, IL-6, MMP9, ADAM10 and HSP-70). Heart tissues of Dex-treated mice showed a better histological structure compared with mice treated with HERF405. An almost complete resolution of myocarditis was observed in HE3286-treated mice as evidenced by lack of inflammatory infiltration. Immunohistochemical findings confirmed HE3286 had a more pronounced effect than Dex in reducing inflammatory response associated with in situ modulation of cytokine expression and tissue remodeling. Our data demonstrate HE3286 has better results in inhibiting establishment and progression of murine CVB-induced myocarditis than Dex, suggesting this drug may also have a therapeutic role in treatment of CVB-induced myocarditis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Which is the Best Physical Treatment for Osteoarthritis?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 54-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010054
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 28 January 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2496 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage, and it represents one of the most common causes of disability in the world. It leads to social, psychological and economic costs with financial consequences. Different OA treatments are usually considered in relation [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage, and it represents one of the most common causes of disability in the world. It leads to social, psychological and economic costs with financial consequences. Different OA treatments are usually considered in relation to the stage of the disease, such as surgical management, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. In relation to mild OA, non-pharmacologic and behavioral treatments are recommended because they are less invasive and better tolerated by patients. All of these treatments used to manage OA are problematic, but solutions to these problems are on the horizon. For this reason, we decided to realize this report because until today, there has been very little information regarding the physical treatment of this important disease to help medical doctors and patients in the choice of the best adapted training to manage pain and disability limitations in patients with OA. The aim of this review is to find some answer in the management of OA through physical therapy treatment. In the present review, we analyze data from the most recent literature in relation to the effects of physical exercise on mild OA. All data suggest that training exercise is considered an effective instruments for the treatment of mild OA. The literature search was conducted on PubMed, using appropriate keywords in relation to exercise and osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
Open AccessArticle
Lifestyle Intervention in Surviving Cancer Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 48-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010048
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 9 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
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Abstract
Supervised physical exercise and diet are normally suggested for preventing eventual weight gain, especially in cancer patients. However, little data is available on the effects of “unsupervised” mixed exercises associated with simple correct nutritional advice. This study aims to assess the impact of [...] Read more.
Supervised physical exercise and diet are normally suggested for preventing eventual weight gain, especially in cancer patients. However, little data is available on the effects of “unsupervised” mixed exercises associated with simple correct nutritional advice. This study aims to assess the impact of these two aspects in reducing major risk factors. 37 surviving cancer patients including breast (20 females) and colon cancer patients (10 males and seven females), aged 55.51 ± 10.94, were enrolled in this study on the correction of lifestyle habits. After six months from the onset of the study, the anthropometric parameters of Body Mass Index (BMI), circumference of waist/hip and also cardiovascular parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate during the 6 Minute Walking Test (6MWT) were measured. The resistance program was established using the Sit and Reach, Hand Grip and Chair Test. The anthropometric data showed significant modifications of the main parameters (body density T0: 1013.54 ± 10.48 g/cm3, T6: 1015 ± 10.45 g/cm3, p < 0.03; Fat Mass (FM%) T0: 38.44% ± 5.04%, T6: 37.65% ± 5.00%, p < 0.03; FFM% (Free Fat Mass) T0: 61.56% ± 5.04%, T6: 62.35% ± 5.00%, p < 0.03; TBW% (Total Body Water) T0: 49.26% ± 7.22%, T6: 47.94% ± 5.97%, p < 0.05). The respiratory rate decreased significantly (T0: 31.15 ± 4.61 bpm, T6: 29.42 ± 3.34 bpm, p < 0.04). The functional parameters, evaluated by the number of repetitions of the Chair Test, showed significant improvement (Chair Test T0: 13.20 ± 4.84 at rest, T6: 15.31 ± 3.54 at rest, p < 0.01). Moderate aerobic resistance unsupervised exercises, associated with correct nutritional habits, allow a significant improvement of the principal cardiovascular risk factors in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Surgical Treatment of Displaced Supracondylar Pediatric Humerus Fractures: Comparison of Two Pinning Techniques
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 39-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010039
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 8 January 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to report the results of the treatment of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures comparing two different techniques, crossed and lateral pins. We retrospectively reviewed 35 children hospitalized between May 2005 and December 2012. Patients were treated with two [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to report the results of the treatment of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures comparing two different techniques, crossed and lateral pins. We retrospectively reviewed 35 children hospitalized between May 2005 and December 2012. Patients were treated with two different pin configurations, crossed (Group 1) and lateral (Group 2). After surgery, clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed. Postoperatively, the clinical assessment showed recovery of joint function of the elbow. Radiographically, Group 1 showed a difference in the Baumann angle between the value of the injured limb and the normal angle of 5.3° ± 2.12°; in Group 2 the difference was 4.9° ± 2.82°. Complications: group 1, two cases of short paresthesia, one case of slight varus, mild asymmetry, and deficit to extension of the humerus and group 2, two cases of local infection and one of a slight hyperextension were reported. Both groups achieved a satisfying outcome with similar results in joint function recovery and complications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Foot Shape after Long-Distance Running
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 30-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010030
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1501 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after [...] Read more.
Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after a single long-distance run. Data from the right feet of 21 subjects were obtained using a foot scanner before and after running 35 km on an asphalt road. After the run, the dorsal height, navicular height, and arch height ratio were significantly decreased. Midfoot cross-sectional shape after the run was deformed laterally compared to before running. Lateral deformity of the lateral dorsum was seen in 76.2% of the feet. For the medial side, 47.6% of feet deformed medially and 38.1% of feet did not change. The findings of the present study suggest that foot shape is altered during a single long-distance run. These results suggest that footwear fit and comfort could be affected during long distance running because athletes tie their shoelaces based on their pre-running foot shape. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Kinesiology and Posturology Applied to a Group of Italian Students. A Morphological Observational Study.
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 16-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010016
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
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Abstract
The percentage of children who develop postural deviations during their teens is constantly growing. Many hours of study in a sitting position, poor physical activity, and inadequate information become crucial factors leading to a wrong posture. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
The percentage of children who develop postural deviations during their teens is constantly growing. Many hours of study in a sitting position, poor physical activity, and inadequate information become crucial factors leading to a wrong posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of untreated structural alterations, ascribed to incorrect posture (paramorphisms or dysmorphisms), in the adolescent growth phase of students at high school. The anthropometric and postural analyses of a sample of adolescents allowed the correct evaluation of their structural situation in order to establish the presence of conditions different from an ideal posture. The presence of scoliotic deviations was ascertained in 36% of students. Almost half of the students showed a non-physiological curve of the cervical and lumbar spine. A consistent part of examined students showed a non-physiological condition of shoulders (28%), scapulas (>50%), pelvis (≈50%), and hips (36.25%). A prominent malleolus was observed in 17.5% of students; 6.25% had an asymmetry between the ankles; and 18.75% had a foot deformity. If we consider that 65% of students showed a non-physiological musculoskeletal condition, we can consequently hypothesize that during the primary and middle school no one bothered to correct these children under the postural profile. The lack of postural education in the Italian school system should be addressed, in order to prevent postural defects that, if detected in time, can still be re-educated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Sagittal Plane Kinematics and Kinetics after Distal Release of Medial Hamstrings in Cerebral Palsy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 6-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010006
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of distal release of the medial hamstrings on the gait of patients who had spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-two patients had preoperative and postoperative gait analysis. Standard parameters, such as cadence, velocity, and stride [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of distal release of the medial hamstrings on the gait of patients who had spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-two patients had preoperative and postoperative gait analysis. Standard parameters, such as cadence, velocity, and stride length, were evaluated, as were sagittal plane motion graphs of the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle, in addition to sagittal plane kinetic analysis. Extension of the knee in stance phase significantly improved postoperatively (p < 0.002), and the improvement was accompanied by a proportional decrease in knee flexion during swing with minimal net gain in the arc of knee motion. Knee range of motion could be improved more by concomitant rectus transfer in selected patients. The statistically significant increase in anterior pelvic tilt (p < 0.002) has been a main concern. There was no significant change in the hip extensor moments or power generation during stance. Increased knee extension during stance after distal release of medial hamstrings is the kinematic gain that improved the gait pattern in cerebral palsy patients. The authors recommend a concomitant rectus transfer to help improve the knee range of motion in patients with rectus over-firing during swing, hence avoiding a stiff knee gait. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Welcome to the New Open Access Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk1010001
Received: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
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Abstract
With sincere satisfaction and pride, I present to you the new Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology for which I am pleased to serve as Editor-in-Chief. [...] Full article
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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