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Inventions, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems should be designed so that the spread of disease can be avoided. Most viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, are combined with water and other components as droplets and aerosol particles with a size of 0.25–0.5 µm. HEPA filters can remove up to 90–99% of the particle at 0.3 µm in size but have a big pressure drop. The UV disinfection can have a good efficiency and low energy consumption but needs a large space for installation. Systems with 100% fresh air and heat recovery devices should be considered mandatory for new systems. View this paper
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Article
Insights of Sea Buckthorn Extract’s Encapsulation by Coacervation Technique
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030059 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) represents a valuable source of biologically active compounds such as carotenoids and polyphenols. High amounts of these substances are found in its fruits, bark, and leaves. However, their bioavailability is limited and must be increased in order [...] Read more.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) represents a valuable source of biologically active compounds such as carotenoids and polyphenols. High amounts of these substances are found in its fruits, bark, and leaves. However, their bioavailability is limited and must be increased in order to benefit from the properties they exert. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to increase the stability and bioavailability of sea buckthorn fruit’s bioactives. The sea buckthorn’s bioactive compounds were extracted with a solvent combination between glacial acetic acid, acetone, and water on one side and water only on the other side. Afterward, the phytochemicals from the extracts were encapsulated using the coacervation technique, followed by freeze-drying in order to obtain stable powders. The powders were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, color, structure, and morphology. The phytochemical stability of the powders and their antioxidant activity was assessed during 270 days of storage at 4 °C. Moreover, the bioavailability of phytochemicals was measured during in vitro simulated digestibility. Our findings provide insights to promote carotenoids and polyphenols from sea buckthorn as bioactive ingredients with multiple purposes. Full article
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Article
Smart Cane Developed with DFSS, QFD, and SDE for the Visually Impaired
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030058 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
This study shows an application of the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology in the field of medical engineering. This research aims to demonstrate the application of a systematic design approach in the development of the “Ocane”, an innovative concept of smart cane [...] Read more.
This study shows an application of the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology in the field of medical engineering. This research aims to demonstrate the application of a systematic design approach in the development of the “Ocane”, an innovative concept of smart cane for visually impaired patients which was thought of in answer to the end user’s needs, deploying an easy to transport, locate, and adjust element with ultrasonic sensors and tactile feedback. DFSS is an analytical design methodology meant to organize project workflow in a sequence of specific steps. Other standardized design procedures such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) have been used to support DFSS in terms of targeting customer requirements and focusing on aesthetics for ergonomics analysis, respectively. First, the QFD process is introduced and applied to gather the final customer needs, completing the analysis with benchmarking and similar-thought products on the market. Afterwards, a description of the DFSS methodology and application to the case study was deployed. Thereafter, the SDE procedure is exposed by identifying the “Ocane” concept and development, and moving towards the completion of an inventive product with a creative design and careful attention to visually impaired clients’ requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Determination of Atorvastatin with Voltammetric Sensors Based on Nanomaterials
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030057 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
This paper presents an accurate and fast electrochemical method for atorvastatin determination in pharmaceutical products. Two screen-printed sensors, one—carbon based (SPCE) and one based on carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles (AuNP-CNT/SPCE) were used during the electrochemical analyses. At all experimental stages, cyclic voltammetry [...] Read more.
This paper presents an accurate and fast electrochemical method for atorvastatin determination in pharmaceutical products. Two screen-printed sensors, one—carbon based (SPCE) and one based on carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles (AuNP-CNT/SPCE) were used during the electrochemical analyses. At all experimental stages, cyclic voltammetry was employed, both for the characterization of the sensors and their electrochemical behavior, and for quantitative determinations. AuNP-CNT/SPCE has showed an extended active area, higher intensity peaks, better reversibility and lower background current than the unmodified sensor. For atorvastatin quantification, a calibration curve has been developed within the 1.2–606.25 µM concentration range. A linearity relation between the current of the anodic peak and concentration has been obtained in the range 1.2–53.33 µMfor both sensors. With the AuNP-CNT/SPCE sensor, low values of limit of detection, LOD (1.92 × 10−7 M) and limit of quantification, LOQ (6.39 × 10−7 M) have been obtained, which demonstrates the feasibility of the method of determining atorvastatin from real samples. Atorvastatin amount has been successfully determined from pharmaceutical products using AuNP-CNT/SPCE. The results were similar to the manufacturer’s specifications regarding the dosage per tablet and to the concentrations obtained by applying the FTIR spectrometric method. Full article
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Article
Development of a Novel Sensor Based on Polypyrrole Doped with Potassium Hexacyanoferrate (II) for Detection of L-Tryptophan in Pharmaceutics
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030056 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
This study describes the development of a new sensor with applicability in the determination and quantification of yjr essential amino acid (AA) L-tryptophan (L-TRP) from pharmaceutical products. The proposed sensor is based on a carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) modified with the conductor polymer [...] Read more.
This study describes the development of a new sensor with applicability in the determination and quantification of yjr essential amino acid (AA) L-tryptophan (L-TRP) from pharmaceutical products. The proposed sensor is based on a carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) modified with the conductor polymer polypyrrole (PPy) doped with potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) (FeCN). For the modification of the SPCE with the PPy doped with FeCN, the chronoamperometry (CA) method was used. For the study of the electrochemical behavior and the sensitive properties of the sensor when detecting L-TRP, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) method was used. This developed electrode has shown a high sensibility, a low detection limit (LOD) of up to 1.05 × 10−7 M, a quantification limit (LOQ) equal to 3.51 × 10−7 M and a wide linearity range between 3.3 × 10−7 M and 1.06 × 10−5 M. The analytical performances of the device were studied for the detection of AA L-TRP from pharmaceutical products, obtaining excellent results. The validation of the electroanalytical method was performed by using the standard method with good results. Full article
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Review
An Overview of the Ship Ventilation Systems and Measures to Avoid the Spread of Diseases
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030055 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
This article presents a review of the main aspects regarding the current rules of classification societies, standards, and practice regarding the design and construction of ventilation and air conditioning systems for different compartments in different types of ships. In the context of the [...] Read more.
This article presents a review of the main aspects regarding the current rules of classification societies, standards, and practice regarding the design and construction of ventilation and air conditioning systems for different compartments in different types of ships. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper also presents the usual practice of the actual heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used on large ships, which recirculate the air between living compartments, in comparison with the new requirements to avoid the risk of spreading diseases. According to the rules, the technical compartments are provided with independent ventilation systems that ensure high air flow rates; therefore, the spread of diseases through this system is not an issue. The living spaces are provided with common ventilation and air conditioning systems that recirculate the air in all compartments served. The current practice of air recirculation in various living rooms leads to the spread of diseases, which should therefore be analyzed and improved by adding high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and UV disinfection or be replaced with individual systems that provide local heating or cooling without air recirculation between different rooms and fresh air supply with complete evacuation. For existing ships, different solutions should be analyzed such as reducing or cancelling recirculation and increasing filtration. Full article
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Article
Application of Composite Materials in an Upgraded Engine Low-Pressure Compressor for a Regional Passenger Aircraft
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030054 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Computational and experimental studies have been carried out to evaluate the robustness and durability of components produced of polymer composite materials (PCM), as a part of the modernization of the low-pressure compressor (LPC) of the engine for the regional aircraft. For a preliminary [...] Read more.
Computational and experimental studies have been carried out to evaluate the robustness and durability of components produced of polymer composite materials (PCM), as a part of the modernization of the low-pressure compressor (LPC) of the engine for the regional aircraft. For a preliminary assessment of the static and dynamic strength of the parts, a series of three-dimensional finite element calculations and tests of laboratory specimens, structural elements cut from finished parts, have been performed. Testing the laboratory samples made it possible to compare the obtained mechanical properties with the properties declared by PCM suppliers and to conduct a mor e correct assessment of the safety margins of the parts. To decide whether to install parts on the engine, fatigue and erosion tests of the structural elements cut from the finished parts were carried out. The final decision on the performance of the PCM parts was made after testing them as part of the upgraded LPC on the engine. The criterion for evaluating the erosion resistance of PCM parts has been introduced, which makes it possible to assess their performance during operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Implementation Aspects Regarding Closed-Loop Control Systems Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030053 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
When an optimal control problem requires an important computational effort, a metaheuristic algorithm (MA) can be a useful approach. An MA is conceived to solve a specific optimal control problem having a characteristic objective function. This algorithm solely yields only an optimal offline [...] Read more.
When an optimal control problem requires an important computational effort, a metaheuristic algorithm (MA) can be a useful approach. An MA is conceived to solve a specific optimal control problem having a characteristic objective function. This algorithm solely yields only an optimal offline solution. The desideratum to have a closed-loop implementation can be fulfilled through a supplementary “tool”, the Receding Horizon Control (RHC) structure. This paper addresses a particular case and integrates Evolutionary Algorithms into the RHC structure. The main objective is to propose a general harmonization between the Controller of the closed loop and the Evolutionary Algorithm. Some details concerning the implementation of the closed loop and Controller are described. The impact of the RHC’s prediction technique upon the control sequences’ encoding is also analyzed. Two general structure Controllers are proposed, one of them conceived to cope with restrictive time constraints. Practical ideas have been illustrated through a case study: the well-known optimal control of a fed-batch reactor for ethanol production. This time, our implementation achieves a closed-loop solution. The results from the programs and simulation series validate the Controllers, EAs, and the closed-loop structure. Generally speaking, the association between RHC and EA can be a realistic solution to optimal process control. Full article
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Article
Fused Graphical Lasso Recovers Flowering Time Mutation Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030052 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Conventional breeding approaches that focus on yield under highly favorable nutrient conditions have resulted in reduced genetic and trait diversity in crops. Under the growing threat from climate change, the mining of novel genes in more resilient varieties can help dramatically improve trait [...] Read more.
Conventional breeding approaches that focus on yield under highly favorable nutrient conditions have resulted in reduced genetic and trait diversity in crops. Under the growing threat from climate change, the mining of novel genes in more resilient varieties can help dramatically improve trait improvement efforts. In this work, we propose the use of the joint graphical lasso for discovering genes responsible for desired phenotypic traits. We prove its efficiency by using gene expression data for wild type and delayed flowering mutants for the model plant. Arabidopsis thaliana shows that it recovers the mutation causing genes LNK1 and LNK2. Some novel interactions of these genes were also predicted. Observing the network level changes between two phenotypes can also help develop meaningful biological hypotheses regarding the novel functions of these genes. Now that this data analysis strategy has been validated in a model plant, it can be extended to crop plants to help identify the key genes for beneficial traits for crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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Article
Portable Molecular Diagnostics Device for Identification of Asini Corii Colla by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030051 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Asini Corii Colla (ACC; donkey-hide glue) is one of the most valuable tonic traditional Chinese medicines. Because of the large demand for gelatinous Chinese medicines, bovine or swine skin was sometimes used to make adulterated gelatine in recent decades. Food chemicals can greatly [...] Read more.
Asini Corii Colla (ACC; donkey-hide glue) is one of the most valuable tonic traditional Chinese medicines. Because of the large demand for gelatinous Chinese medicines, bovine or swine skin was sometimes used to make adulterated gelatine in recent decades. Food chemicals can greatly harm people’s health, and detecting chemicals in foods is extremely important. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) device with smartphone detection is demonstrated in this study for detecting the DNA of Asini Corii Colla. The complete system is composed of a hand-held box equipped with a smartphone, a cartridge heater, an ultraviolet LED, a disposable reaction tube, and a homemade thermal module. All the processes are powered by a set of rechargeable batteries. Comprehensive experiments of measuring temperature profiles are presented, which showed the accuracy of temperature under thermal control is less than 0.5 °C. By implementing one heating module with an ATmega328p-au microcontroller in the device, the DNA mixture is heated directly up to the reaction temperature within 5 min. Next, a DNA segment of Asini Corii Colla is utilized to evaluate the sensitivity of the DNA amplification in the portable device. A limit of detection to a concentration of 10−4 ng/μL is achieved. Real-time detection of Asini Corii Colla by a smartphone camera can be achieved using this portable device. The unique architecture utilized in this device is ideal for a low-cost DNA analysis system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability)
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Article
Optimization of Betalain Pigments Extraction Using Beetroot by-Products as a Valuable Source
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030050 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
(1) Background: This study is designed to extract the bioactive compounds from beetroot peel for future use in the food industry. (2) Methods: Spectrophotometry techniques analyzed the effect of conventional solvent extraction on betalains and polyphenolic compounds from beetroot peels. Several treatments by [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study is designed to extract the bioactive compounds from beetroot peel for future use in the food industry. (2) Methods: Spectrophotometry techniques analyzed the effect of conventional solvent extraction on betalains and polyphenolic compounds from beetroot peels. Several treatments by varying for factors (ethanol and citric acid concentration, temperature, and time) were applied to the beetroot peel samples. A Central Composite Design (CCD) has been used to investigate the effect of the extraction parameters on the extraction steps and optimize the betalains and total polyphenols extraction from beetroot. A quadratic model was suggested for all the parameters analyzed and used. (3) Results: The maximum and minimum variables investigated in the experimental plan in the coded form are citric acid concentration (0.10–1.5%), ethanol concentration (10–50%), operating temperature (20–60 °C), and extraction time (15–50 min). The experimental design revealed variation in betalain content ranging from 0.29 to 1.44 mg/g DW, and the yield of polyphenolic varied from 1.64 to 2.74 mg/g DW. The optimized conditions for the maximum recovery of betalains and phenols were citric acid concentration 1.5%, ethanol concentration 50%, temperature 52.52 °C, and extraction time 49.9 min. (4) Conclusions: Overall, it can be noted that the extraction process can be improved by adjusting operating variables in order to maximize the model responses. Full article
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Article
A New No Equilibrium Fractional Order Chaotic System, Dynamical Investigation, Synchronization, and Its Digital Implementation
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030049 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
In this paper, a new fractional order chaotic system without equilibrium is proposed, analytically and numerically investigated, and numerically and experimentally tested. The analytical and numerical investigations were used to describe the system’s dynamical behaviors including the system equilibria, the chaotic attractors, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new fractional order chaotic system without equilibrium is proposed, analytically and numerically investigated, and numerically and experimentally tested. The analytical and numerical investigations were used to describe the system’s dynamical behaviors including the system equilibria, the chaotic attractors, the bifurcation diagrams, and the Lyapunov exponents. Based on the obtained dynamical behaviors, the system can excite hidden chaotic attractors since it has no equilibrium. Then, a synchronization mechanism based on the adaptive control theory was developed between two identical new systems (master and slave). The adaptive control laws are derived based on synchronization error dynamics of the state variables for the master and slave. Consequently, the update laws of the slave parameters are obtained, where the slave parameters are assumed to be uncertain and are estimated corresponding to the master parameters by the synchronization process. Furthermore, Arduino Due boards were used to implement the proposed system in order to demonstrate its practicality in real-world applications. The simulation experimental results were obtained by MATLAB and the Arduino Due boards, respectively, with a good consistency between the simulation results and the experimental results, indicating that the new fractional order chaotic system is capable of being employed in real-world applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents)
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Article
Development of the Digital Site for Chemical Processes in the Manufacturing of Printed Circuit Boards
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030048 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The article defines digital methods for controlling the quality of chemical processes. An architecture of a digital production line, which ensures the distribution of the computational load between the system components, is proposed. We considered the process of developing a prototype of a [...] Read more.
The article defines digital methods for controlling the quality of chemical processes. An architecture of a digital production line, which ensures the distribution of the computational load between the system components, is proposed. We considered the process of developing a prototype of a digital production site for servicing the etching operation during which controllable process parameters are determined; both hardware and software structures of the digital site are proposed. Studying the site operability, we determined the relationships between the process parameters, which made it possible to determine the boundaries of the designed system. Full article
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Article
Impact of Wall Materials on Physico-Chemical Properties and Stability of Eggplant Peels Anthocyanin Hydrogels
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030047 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
In this study, eggplant peel extract was used to obtain hydrogels. Two experimental variants were realized by varying the wall materials. Whey proteins isolate (WPI), citrus pectin (P), and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa) were used as wall materials. The microcapsules were obtained by the [...] Read more.
In this study, eggplant peel extract was used to obtain hydrogels. Two experimental variants were realized by varying the wall materials. Whey proteins isolate (WPI), citrus pectin (P), and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa) were used as wall materials. The microcapsules were obtained by the gelation technique, followed by freeze-drying in order to obtain powders. Both experimental variants were analyzed in terms of phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, storage stability, and in vitro digestibility. Additionally, confocal microscopy was used to observe the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds from the eggplant peel extract into the selected matrices. The encapsulation efficiency of the powders varied from 64.67 ± 0.68% for variant 1 (V1) to 96.44 ± 3.43% for variant 2 (V2). Both powders presented high bioactive compound content with high antioxidant activity. V2 showed the highest stability within 28 days of storage, but also in the simulated digestive system. Full article
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Article
Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Mass Tourism Management Model Related to the Impact on the Local Community in Constanta City (Romania)
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030046 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Traditionally and socially, the tourism in Constanta is considered to be important to the local economy. Sun and beach locations are both a draw for locals and tourists to the city, on the Black Sea. However, vacation-oriented activities in the city only have [...] Read more.
Traditionally and socially, the tourism in Constanta is considered to be important to the local economy. Sun and beach locations are both a draw for locals and tourists to the city, on the Black Sea. However, vacation-oriented activities in the city only have a seasonal cycle. In this paper, we proposed to analyze the mass tourist activity in Constanta, taking into account economic, social, and environmental conditions. Additionally, we attempted to build a model based on the data available. The model was developed using a PESTEL analysis to determine the supportability factor of the indicators identified. We also set out to create a projection of the activities proposed for analysis by 2050. To create a model for coastal areas, the data used in this research must be accurate and consistent. Furthermore, correctly identifying indicators and their relationships is a critical step in conducting a thorough study. Last but not least, finding the calculation coefficient for the activity in question is critical, as collecting data from various activities might be challenging when trying to find a feasible model. Full article
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Review
A Comprehensive Survey on Data Utility and Privacy: Taking Indian Healthcare System as a Potential Case Study
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030045 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Background: According to the renowned and Oscar award-winning American actor and film director Marlon Brando, “privacy is not something that I am merely entitled to, it is an absolute prerequisite.” Privacy threats and data breaches occur daily, and countries are mitigating the consequences [...] Read more.
Background: According to the renowned and Oscar award-winning American actor and film director Marlon Brando, “privacy is not something that I am merely entitled to, it is an absolute prerequisite.” Privacy threats and data breaches occur daily, and countries are mitigating the consequences caused by privacy and data breaches. The Indian healthcare industry is one of the largest and rapidly developing industry. Overall, healthcare management is changing from disease-centric into patient-centric systems. Healthcare data analysis also plays a crucial role in healthcare management, and the privacy of patient records must receive equal attention. Purpose: This paper mainly presents the utility and privacy factors of the Indian healthcare data and discusses the utility aspect and privacy problems concerning Indian healthcare systems. It defines policies that reform Indian healthcare systems. The case study of the NITI Aayog report is presented to explain how reformation occurs in Indian healthcare systems. Findings: It is found that there have been numerous research studies conducted on Indian healthcare data across all dimensions; however, privacy problems in healthcare, specifically in India, are caused by prevalent complacency, culture, politics, budget limitations, large population, and existing infrastructures. This paper reviews the Indian healthcare system and the applications that drive it. Additionally, the paper also maps that how privacy issues are happening in every healthcare sector in India. Originality/Value: To understand these factors and gain insights, understanding Indian healthcare systems first is crucial. To the best of our knowledge, we found no recent papers that thoroughly reviewed the Indian healthcare system and its privacy issues. The paper is original in terms of its overview of the healthcare system and privacy issues. Social Implications: Privacy has been the most ignored part of the Indian healthcare system. With India being a country with a population of 130 billion, much healthcare data are generated every day. The chances of data breaches and other privacy violations on such sensitive data cannot be avoided as they cause severe concerns for individuals. This paper segregates the healthcare system’s advances and lists the privacy that needs to be addressed first. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Privacy-Preserving Computing for Analytics and Mining)
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Article
A Local Perspective on Wind Energy Potential in Six Reference Sites on the Western Coast of the Black Sea Considering Five Different Types of Wind Turbines
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030044 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 458
Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the energy potential of six sites located in the Black Sea, all of them near the Romanian shore. To conduct this study, a climate scenario was chosen which considers that the emissions of carbon dioxide will increase until [...] Read more.
This paper aims to evaluate the energy potential of six sites located in the Black Sea, all of them near the Romanian shore. To conduct this study, a climate scenario was chosen which considers that the emissions of carbon dioxide will increase until 2040 when they reach a peak, decreasing afterward. This scenario is also known as RCP 4.5. The wind dynamics is considered for two periods of time. The first is for the near future with a duration of 30 years from 2021 to 2050, the second period is for the far-distant future with a span of 30 years from 2071 to 2100. In this study, parameters such as minimum, maximum, mean wind speed, interpolated at 90 m height were analyzed to create an overview of the wind quality in these areas, followed by an analysis of the power density parameters such as seasonal and monthly wind power. In the end, the annual electricity production and capacity factor were analyzed using five high-power wind turbines, ranging from 6 to 9.5 MW. For the purpose of this paper, the data on the wind speed at 10 m height in the RCP 4.5 scenario was obtained from the database provided by the Swedish Meteorology and Hydrology Institute (SMHI). Full article
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