Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Fishes, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Trap Happiness and Catch Bias in Sea Lamprey Traps
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 92 | PDF Full-text (1770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sampling fish by trapping can lead to biased conclusions about a population. We used catch data to assess differences between two types of traps for adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), submerged-funnel traps and studded-tile traps, which are angled ramps with trickle [...] Read more.
Sampling fish by trapping can lead to biased conclusions about a population. We used catch data to assess differences between two types of traps for adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), submerged-funnel traps and studded-tile traps, which are angled ramps with trickle flow leading out of the water. The studded-tile trap at one river caught about 50% more females than the funnel trap. It caught males that had a smaller body size and females with a lower gonado-somatic index (GSI). The likelihood of catching lamprey in the studded-tile trap increased after they had been caught once. This was not the case for the funnel traps, which are used for mark–recapture-based population assessment of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. The apparent trap response caused by studded-tile traps may have been caused by a behavioral bias, i.e., the traps consistently attracting a subset of the population. Use of the studded-tile trap for population assessment should only be considered after more is known about its recapture bias. The differences between lamprey caught in the two trap types suggests that a variety of trapping methods needs to be employed in order to get a representative sample from a fish population. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Studying Kenai River Fisheries’ Social-Ecological Drivers Using a Holistic Fisheries Agent-Based Model: Implications for Policy and Adaptive Capacity
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
Viewed by 210 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alaska’s salmon fisheries are one of the more intensely managed natural resources in the world. The state’s salmon fisheries support recreational, subsistence, and commercial harvest with multiple billions of dollars flowing into the economy, and define the cultural identity of many Alaskans. Fishery [...] Read more.
Alaska’s salmon fisheries are one of the more intensely managed natural resources in the world. The state’s salmon fisheries support recreational, subsistence, and commercial harvest with multiple billions of dollars flowing into the economy, and define the cultural identity of many Alaskans. Fishery management practices rely on historic records to set policies with two goals: to meet salmon escapement quota and to maximize salmon harvest. At the same time, rapid social and ecological changes to the sub-Arctic are already impacting salmon runs and fisheries management. Combined with the inability of fishery managers to test the outcome of proposed policy changes, an understanding of the role social and ecological drivers play in harvest and effort is required. To address the two-forked problem of understanding socio-ecological dynamics and potential policy responses to ecological and social changes, we (1) conducted stakeholder workshops to solicit key system drivers, (2) built an integrated agent based model (ABM) of the system’s socio-ecological dynamics, and (3) tested the impacts of alternative future scenarios of ecological, social, and policy changes on the system’s outcomes. We previously constructed and validated a high-fidelity, data-driven, agent-based model of the Kenai River, Alaska that simulates seasonal harvest of sockeye and Chinook salmon, the fishing activities of the personal use fishery, commercial drift, and set gillnet agents. We study the role of key stakeholder and ecological drivers, using the ABM decision support tool, and their implications for fisheries management policies. Analysis of the scenario based studies found resilience in management of commercial fisheries to changing salmon migration dynamics, a lack of adaptive capacity in recreational (personal use) dipnet users to altered sockeye salmon runs, and the possible utility of introducing management measures in the dipnet fishery to manipulate sockeye escapement levels. These findings represent the usefulness of this type of ABM in assisting fishery managers everywhere in investigating possible future outcomes of different management or ecological scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Fish and Fisheries)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Respiratory Physiology of European Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) Exposed to Prymnesium parvum
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
Viewed by 155 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During the last century, the blooms of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum have been responsible for massive fish kills in both aquaculture and wild populations. Despite decades of research, the ichthyotoxic properties of P. parvum, and how this alga affects fish, is still [...] Read more.
During the last century, the blooms of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum have been responsible for massive fish kills in both aquaculture and wild populations. Despite decades of research, the ichthyotoxic properties of P. parvum, and how this alga affects fish, is still debated. Using a novel device to measure the respirometry, ventilation volume, ventilation frequency, oxygen extraction, and oxygen consumption of undisturbed European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) were acquired during exposure to two algal species as well as hypoxia. Fourteen fish (258 ± 44 g) were initially exposed to severe hypoxia and left to recover for at least 48 h. Half of these fish were then exposed to known harmful concentrations of P. parvum (median ± standard deviation (SD); 2.6 × 105 ± 0.6 × 105 cells mL1), while the remaining half were exposed to the non-toxic alga Rhodomonas salina (median ± SD; 3.2 × 105 ± 0.7 × 105 cells mL1). During exposure to severe hypoxia, all of the fish were able to maintain oxygen consumption by increasing the ventilation volume. The results from fish that were exposed to P. parvum showed a significant decrease in oxygen extraction (median ± SD; 52.6 ± 6.9 percentage points) from pre-exposure to the end of the experiment, as opposed to fish exposed to R. salina, which were unaffected. These results indicate that suffocation affects the European plaice when exposed to P. parvum. The observed severe decrease in oxygen extraction can be ascribed to either damage of the gill epithelia or increased mucus secretion on the gills, as both would limit the transfer of oxygen, and both have been observed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Positive Welfare for Fishes: Rationale and Areas for Future Study
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
Viewed by 512 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional animal welfare paradigms have focused on maintaining physical health and mitigating negative impacts to wellbeing. Recently, however, the field has increasingly recognized the importance of positive welfare (i.e., mental and physical states that exceed what is necessary for immediate survival) and accordingly [...] Read more.
Traditional animal welfare paradigms have focused on maintaining physical health and mitigating negative impacts to wellbeing. Recently, however, the field has increasingly recognized the importance of positive welfare (i.e., mental and physical states that exceed what is necessary for immediate survival) and accordingly introduced manipulations and indicators of positive welfare for use in agriculture, laboratories, and zoos/aquaria. The creation and monitoring of positive welfare requires an in-depth knowledge of species-specific behavior and biology, which necessitates species-specific or, at a minimum, taxa-specific standards. Research on positive welfare in fish is lagging in this regard and therefore merits further consideration. In this paper, we aim to merge what is already known about positive welfare with the existing fish behavior literature to develop a plan of action for fish welfare research that will ultimately contribute to the development of positive welfare standards and assessment strategies for fish. We begin by exploring the origins of positive welfare research and then outline the physical, psychological and species-specific areas of inquiry that can be investigated in fish. In addition to presenting current findings on fish motivation, emotion, potential sources of positive welfare such as fulfillment of motivational urges (establishing agency, engaging in exploration and learning), and play behavior, we also identify promising areas for future research aimed at developing accurate and appropriate indicators of positive welfare in fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welfare of Cultured and Experimental Fishes)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Global Assessment of Welfare in Farmed Fishes: The FishEthoBase
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
Viewed by 345 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fish welfare is an essential issue that needs to be tackled by the aquaculture industry. In order to address it, studies have been limited to a small number of species and the information is generally scattered. In order to have a consistent overview [...] Read more.
Fish welfare is an essential issue that needs to be tackled by the aquaculture industry. In order to address it, studies have been limited to a small number of species and the information is generally scattered. In order to have a consistent overview of the welfare of farmed fishes, we present the FishEthoBase, an open-access database that ultimately aims to provide information on the welfare of all fish species currently farmed worldwide. Presently with 41 species, this database is directed to all stakeholders in the field and targets not only to bridge the gaps between them but also to provide scientific information to improve the welfare of fish. The current text explains the database and presents an analysis of the welfare scores of 41 species, suggesting that (i) the general welfare state of farmed fishes is poor, (ii) there is some potential for improvement and (iii) this potential is related to research on species’ needs, but (iv) there are many remaining knowledge gaps and (v) current fish farming technologies do not seem to fully address welfare issues. The existence of a framework, such as the FishEthoBase, is proposed as fundamental to the design of strategies that improve the welfare of farmed fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welfare of Cultured and Experimental Fishes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Behavioural Response of Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Juvenile Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Strobe Light
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
Viewed by 274 | PDF Full-text (1609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The movement of fish can be regulated by behavioural manipulation through non-physical barrier systems. Aquatic invasive species are becoming one of the major management issues in North America, and threaten native aquatic ecosystems, including freshwater fish. Placements of non-physical barriers in waterways can [...] Read more.
The movement of fish can be regulated by behavioural manipulation through non-physical barrier systems. Aquatic invasive species are becoming one of the major management issues in North America, and threaten native aquatic ecosystems, including freshwater fish. Placements of non-physical barriers in waterways can help disrupt the movement of invasive fish. This study examined the effect of a strobe-light stimulus on the avoidance behaviour of two proxy species, juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), in a controlled laboratory environment. For each species, three sequential treatments of pre-stimulus, strobe-light stimulus, and post-stimulus for 30 min periods were recorded on acclimated groups of 5 juvenile common carp and 5 juvenile channel catfish using 15 and 13 replicates, respectively. The distribution of juvenile common carp individuals throughout the tank did not change significantly with treatment, nor did cohesive grouping behaviour. Similarly, there were no significant differences across experimental treatments in average location/distance of juvenile channel catfish relative to the strobe light or degree of cohesion in response to the strobe light. Non-physical barriers have been widely reported to vary between species and environmental conditions. These results suggest that strobe lights evoke no avoidance or attractive responses in juvenile common carp and juvenile channel catfish, and will likely not be an effective barrier to inhibit movements of juvenile invasive fishes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Variation of Captive Meagre Acoustic Signalling: A Manual and Automatic Recognition Approach
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
Viewed by 484 | PDF Full-text (2707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many species rely on acoustic communication to fulfil several functions such as advertisement and mediation of social interactions (e.g., agonistic, mating). Therefore, fish calls can be an important source of information, e.g., to recognize reproductive periods or to assess fish welfare, and should [...] Read more.
Many species rely on acoustic communication to fulfil several functions such as advertisement and mediation of social interactions (e.g., agonistic, mating). Therefore, fish calls can be an important source of information, e.g., to recognize reproductive periods or to assess fish welfare, and should be considered a potential non-intrusive tool in aquaculture management. Assessing fish acoustic activity, however, often requires long sound recordings. To analyse these long recordings automatic methods are invaluable tools to detect and extract the relevant biological information. Here we present a study to characterize meagre (Argyrosomus regius) acoustic activity during social contexts in captivity using an automatic pattern-recognition methodology based on the Hidden Markov Model. Calls produced by meagre during the breading season showed a richer repertoire than previously reported. Besides the dense choruses composed by grunts already known for this species, meagre emitted successive series of isolated pulses, audible as ‘knocks’. Grunts with a variable number of pulses were also registered. The overall acoustic activity was concurrent with the number of spawning events. A diel call rhythms exhibit peak of calling activity from 15:00 to midnight. In addition, grunt acoustic parameters varied significantly along the reproduction season. These results open the possibility to use the meagre vocal activity to predict breeding and approaching spawning periods in aquaculture management. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Blend of F Prostaglandins Functions as an Attractive Sex Pheromone in Silver Carp
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
Viewed by 326 | PDF Full-text (1870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of laboratory experiments tested the hypothesis that the Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), an invasive river carp from China, employs a prostaglandin F-derived sex pheromone that is attractive and species-specific. Using electro-olfactogram recording (EOG), we found that the [...] Read more.
A series of laboratory experiments tested the hypothesis that the Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), an invasive river carp from China, employs a prostaglandin F-derived sex pheromone that is attractive and species-specific. Using electro-olfactogram recording (EOG), we found that the olfactory system of this species is acutely sensitive to three F-series prostaglandins (PGFs) at picomolar concentrations and that this sensitivity is enhanced when juveniles are masculinized using androgens, consistent with expectations of a sex pheromone. Individual PGFs had behavioral activity but it was low, suggesting a mixture might be important. To pursue this possibility, we implanted carps with osmotic pumps containing prostaglandin F (PGF), a treatment previously shown to elicit release of a PGF-based spawning pheromone in the Common Carp. We found that PGF-implanted Silver Carp released a species-specific odor that contained a blend of PGF and two of its metabolites, which masculinized individuals detected and were attracted to with high sensitivity. Finally, we found that a mixture of these PGFs was attractive to masculinized Silver Carp, while a different mixture released by Bighead Carp was not. We conclude that Silver Carp likely use a species-specific PGF-derived sex pheromone that is probably released at spawning and might be useful in its control. Confirmatory studies that explore pheromone function in naturally mature Silver Carp using natural odors in the field should now be conducted to further confirm our proof-of-concept study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Behaviour)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Age on Stress Responses of White Seabream to Amyloodiniosis
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
Viewed by 296 | PDF Full-text (3428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amyloodiniosis is a disease that represents a major bottleneck for semi-intensive aquaculture, especially in Southern Europe. The inefficacy of many of the treatments for this disease on marine fish produced in semi-intensive aquaculture has led to a new welfare approach to amyloodiniosis. There [...] Read more.
Amyloodiniosis is a disease that represents a major bottleneck for semi-intensive aquaculture, especially in Southern Europe. The inefficacy of many of the treatments for this disease on marine fish produced in semi-intensive aquaculture has led to a new welfare approach to amyloodiniosis. There is already some knowledge of several welfare issues that lead to amyloodiniosis as well as the stress, physiological, and immunological responses to the parasite by the host, but no work is available about the influence of fish age on the progression of amyloodiniosis. The objective of this work was to determine if stress, hematological, and histopathological responses are age dependent. For that purpose, we determined the mortality rate, histopathological lesions, hematological indexes, and stress responses (cortisol, glucose, lactate, and total protein) in “Small” (total weight: 50 ± 5.1 g, age: 273 days after eclosion (DAE)) and “Big” (total weight: 101.3 ± 10.4 g, age: 571 DAE) white seabream (Diplodus sargus) subjected to an Amyloodinium ocellatum infestation (8000 dinospores mL−1) during a 24-h period. The results demonstrated a strong stress response to A. ocellatum, with marked differences in histopathological alterations, glucose levels, and some hematological indexes between the fish of the two treatments. This work elucidates the need to take in account the size and age of the fish in the development and establishment of adequate mitigating measures and treatment protocols for amyloodiniosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welfare of Cultured and Experimental Fishes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Metabolites of Fish with Various Rates of Aging
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
Viewed by 339 | PDF Full-text (1356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish species exhibit great diversity rating of aging (from negligible to rapid), which gives a unique possibility for the discovery of the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in the rate of aging. A mass spectrometric metabolic profiling of skeletal muscle of fish [...] Read more.
Fish species exhibit great diversity rating of aging (from negligible to rapid), which gives a unique possibility for the discovery of the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in the rate of aging. A mass spectrometric metabolic profiling of skeletal muscle of fish with various aging rates was carried out by direct injection to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The first group includes long-lived fish species (pike (Esox Lucius) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus); the second group—species with gradual senescence such as that observed in many mammalian species of similar size (zander (Sandra lucioperca) and perch (Perca fluviatilis)) and the third group—species with very short life cycle (chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)). Multivariate analysis of metabolic profiles allowed the detecting of about 80 group-specific features associated with amino acids, lipids, biogenic amines, intermediates of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and citric acid cycle. Possible roles in the aging process are hypothesized for the biochemical pathways of the metabolites that were altered in the different groups. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Preliminary Monitoring of Praziquantel in Water and Sediments at a Japanese Amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) Aquaculture Site
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
Viewed by 280 | PDF Full-text (1531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Praziquantel (PZQ), an active compound against Platyhelminthes, is an essential anthelmintic for the aquaculture industry. However, there are few reports of the environmental risks of PZQ use in aquaculture. In this study, we monitored PZQ in water and sediment at an aquaculture site [...] Read more.
Praziquantel (PZQ), an active compound against Platyhelminthes, is an essential anthelmintic for the aquaculture industry. However, there are few reports of the environmental risks of PZQ use in aquaculture. In this study, we monitored PZQ in water and sediment at an aquaculture site of Japanese amberjack, also called yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Although PZQ was detected in water during treatment and 3 days post-treatment, PZQ levels were below the detectable limit in water 60 m from the net pen during the treatment, and in all sediment samples. In this preliminary study, we could not detect residue of PZQ from sediments in the aquaculture site, and no evidence about environmental effect of PZQ administration was obtained. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Social Behavior and Welfare in Nile Tilapia
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
Viewed by 424 | PDF Full-text (1094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish social behavior can be affected by artificial environments, particularly by factors that act upon species that show aggressive behavior to set social rank hierarchy. Although aggressive interactions are part of the natural behavior in fish, if constant and intense, such interactions can [...] Read more.
Fish social behavior can be affected by artificial environments, particularly by factors that act upon species that show aggressive behavior to set social rank hierarchy. Although aggressive interactions are part of the natural behavior in fish, if constant and intense, such interactions can cause severe body injuries, increase energy expenditure, and lead the animals to suffer from social stress. The immediate consequence of these factors is a reduced welfare in social fish species. In this paper, we consider the factors that impact on the social behavior and welfare of Nile tilapia, an African cichlid fish widely used both in fish farms and in research; this species is frequently used as a model for physiology and behavior research. This is a polygynous species whose males interact aggressively, establishing a territorial based hierarchy, where a dominant male and several subordinate males arise. When social stability is shrunk, the negative effects of prolonged fighting emerge. In this paper, we summarized how some of the common practices in aquaculture, such as classifying individuals by matching their sizes, water renewal, stock density, and environment lighting affect Nile tilapia social aggressive interactions and, in turn, impact on its welfare. We also discuss some ways to decrease the effects of aggressive interactions in Nile tilapia, such as environment color and body tactile stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welfare of Cultured and Experimental Fishes)
Figures

Figure 1

Fishes EISSN 2410-3888 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top